N536 Planning the Research Process

N536 Planning the Research Process

Unless otherwise noted, the content of this course material is licensed under a Creative Commons 3.0 License. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ Copyright 2008, Huey-Ming Tzeng, Sonia A. Duffy, Lisa Kane Low. The following information is intended to inform and educate and is not a tool for self-diagnosis or a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional. You should speak to your physician or make an appointment to be seen if you have questions or concerns about this information or your medical condition. You assume all responsibility for use and potential liability associated with any use of the material. Material contains copyrighted content, used in accordance with U.S. law. Copyright holders of content included in this material should contact [email protected] with any questions, corrections, or clarifications regarding the use of content. The Regents of the University of Michigan do not license the use of third party content posted to this site unless such a license is specifically granted in connection with particular content objects. Users of content are responsible for their compliance with applicable law. Mention of specific products in this recording solely represents the opinion of the speaker and does not represent an endorsement by the University of Michigan. Conduct Literature Search and Review Contributors

Sonia A. Duffy, PhD, RN Lisa Kane Low, PhD, CNM, FACNM Huey-Ming Tzeng, PhD, RN What is a Literature Review? An extensive examination of research sources to generate a picture of What is known and not known about a clinical problem to determine if the knowledge is ready for use in practice Literature Review 3

Purpose of the Literature Review (1) Clarify the research problem Verify the significance of the research problem Specify the purpose of the study Identify relevant studies and theories Develop a research framework Clarify objectives, research questions, or research hypotheses Literature Review 4 Purposes of the Literature Review (2)

Develop definitions of major variables Identify limitations and assumptions Select a research design Identify methods of measurement Direct data collection and analysis Interpret findings Literature Review 5 Critiquing the Literature Review Are relevant studies identified and described? Are the studies critiqued by the researcher?

Are the references current? Is a summary of current knowledge provided? Also see the assignment guideline, entitled Major content sections of a research report and related critiquing guidelines Literature Review 6 Information Required within Seconds Systematic reviews, periodically updated, of randomized trials of the effects of health care

Literature Review From all sources, in all languages The Cochrane Collaboration: www.cochrane.org 7 Review the Following Terms What is conceptual literature? What is data based/empirical literature? What are the differences between primary and secondary literature? What are the advantages of each of these

four types of literature? Literature Review 8 Conceptual Literature Literature that deals with ideas and topics from a theoretical or personal point of view Not include research studies or other data based literature The advantages of conceptual literature include:

Literature Review A perspective that may be personal or subjective to an expert or one that provides an overview of a large amount of knowledge Sometimes this may be all we know, i.e., there is no empirical literature on a topic 9 Data Based/Empirical Literature In this type of writing, we see work that has gone through a formal process of research or scientific analysis There is DATA that is used to demonstrate a

point An advantage would be that there is an OBJECTIVITY not found in conceptual literature One must be careful, after all, researchers are human and are certainly capable of skewing data! Literature Review 10 Primary Literature This is literature where the author is the actual developer of the material

Example: Jean Watsons writing about how the theory of caring can be applied to CHF clients Example: Jones reporting on the results of her study on outcomes In this case the work is FRESH from the horses mouth, so to speak. The primary advantage of primary literature! Literature Review 11 Secondary Literature

The author presents the work of another, such as a theory or a study Literature Review Example: The writer writes an article about how he or she used Jean Watsons theory of caring or how his or her students like that work Example: The writer summarizes the literature in a particular area from, such as, a review of the literature on pain treatment

12 Summary of Review the Important Terms A good literature review for a research study takes all these types into consideration There should be a preponderance of primary data based literature Secondary and conceptual literature may round out the review but should NOT be the dominant forms The only exception would be if there is NO data based literature Literature Review

13 Apply What You Know... The next slide has a variety of citations from the literature Review these one by one, and write down on a piece of paper whether they are Primary versus secondary sources Conceptual versus data based On the following slide you will find the

answers Literature Review 14 Primary or Secondary? Conceptual or Data Based? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Andrews, H. A., & Roy, S. C. (1986). Essentials of the Roy adaptation model. Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Barnett, K. (1972). A survey of current utilization of touch by health team personnel with hospitalized patients. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 9, 195-209. Simes, S. (1987). Relaxation training as a technique for helping patients cope with the experience of cancer. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 12, 583-591. Dixon, N. (1997). The quality of mercy: Reflections on provider-assisted suicide. The Journal of Clinical Ethics, 8, 290-302. Jones, M. T. (1991). This I believe about touch. American Journal of Nursing, 22(4), 657-660. Rawsky, E. (1998). Review of the literature on falls among the elderly. Image, 30(1), 47-52. Hendrich, A. (1988). An effective unit based fall prevention plan. Journal of Nursing Quality Assurance, 3, 28-36. Literature Review

15 Check Your Answers Here... # 1 is primary, conceptual # 2 is primary, data based # 3 is primary, data based # 4 is primary, conceptual # 5 is primary, conceptual # 6 is secondary and probably considered as data based, although it includes both conceptual literature and empirical data # 7 is primary, data based Literature Review

16 Notes Unless the author indicates its someone elses work in the title, you may not be aware of secondary literature until you read the article It is important to get the primary study whenever possible Literature Review 17

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