Memory You are what you remember! (or at least what people take pictures of! Memorys Extremes
The Memory Process #1 Encoding #2 Storage #3 Retrieval Step 1- Encoding Getting information into the system Like listening to your
teacher s boring lecture Like getting someones name at a party Step 2- Storage The retention of information over time
Like rehearsing or studying the information Trying to remember his/her name when you leave the party Step 3- Retrieval
Getting the information out of storage Remembering the answer to the question on the test Calling out, David! when you see him the next day
Recall v. Recognition Did you do better on the first or second dwarf memory exercise? With recall- you must retrieve the information from your memory (fill-in-the blank tests). With recognition- you must identify the target from possible targets (multiple-choice tests). Which is easier?
Flashbulb Memory A clear moment of an emotionally significant moment or event. Where were you when? 1. You heard about 9/11 2. Saw Beibs Calvin Klein Ad
3. Challenger explosion, JFK assassination? The 3 stage Process of Memory Sensory Memory The immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system. This stuff is stored just for an instant-- most goes unprocessed .
Examples: You lose concentration in class during a lecture Suddenly you hear
a significant word and return your focus to the lecture. You should be able to remember what was said just before the key word since it is in your sensory register. Your ability to see motion can be attributed to sensory memory. An image previously seen must be stored long enough to compare to the new image. Visual processing in the brain works like watching a cartoon -- you see one frame at a time. If someone is reading to you, you must be able to remember the words at the beginning of a sentence in order to understand the
sentence as a whole. These words are held in a relatively unprocessed sensory memory. Short-Term Memory Memory that holds a few items briefly. Seven digits (plus or minus two). The info will be stored
into long-term or forgotten. Long-Term Memory The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. #1 Encoding
Getting information in our heads! How are we gonna get all of this AP Psych stuff in our heads? 2 ways to Encode information Automatic Processing takes little effort Effortful Processing takes a bit of focus and effort
Automatic Processing Unconscious encoding of incidental information that may become automatic with practice. We encode space, time & word meaning
without effort. Like how you know where youre friends will be after your 2AB class Effortful Processing Encoding that requires Like anything that takes
attention and conscious effort to remember effort. Rehearsal is the most common effortful processing technique. Lets Stand up in a circle
Things to remember about Encoding Next-In-Line Effect: we seldom remember what the person has just said or done if we are next. Information minutes before sleep is seldom remembered; in the hour before sleep, well remembered. Taped info played while asleep is registered by
ears, but we do not remember it. Spacing Effect We encode better when we study or practice over periods of time. DO NOT CRAM!!!!!
List the U.S. Presidents, please The Presidents Washington Taylor Harrison
Eisenhower J.Adams Fillmore Cleveland
Kennedy Jefferson Pierce McKinley L. Johnson
Madison Buchanan T. Roosevelt Nixon
Monroe Lincoln Taft Ford JQ Adams
A. Johnson Wilson Carter Jackson
Grant Harding Reagan Van Buren Hayes
Coolidge Bush Harrison Garfield
Hoover Clinton Tyler Arthur F.D. Roosevelt Bush Jr.
Polk Cleveland Truman Obama
Serial Positioning Effect Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list. If we graph an average person remembers presidential list- it would probably look something like this. Be Sure to read about Ebbinghaus
He studied memory the memorization of useless nonsense syllables The amount remembered depends on the time spent learning Those who learn quickly also forget quickly! Ebbinghaus lets try!
FUB YOX SUJ XIR DAX LEQ
KEL WAV TUV ZOF GEK HIW How much do we encode?
Sometimes it helps if someone paraphrases or introduces things you are about to read. Any novel is easier to read when you know a little background on the story.
Types of Encoding Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning, like the meaning of words Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words. Visual Encoding: the encoding of picture images. Listen to this story
If the glove doesnt fit you must Self-Reference Effect We remember things (like adjectives) when they are used to describe ourselves.
So, when studying try to relate things to yourself. Tricks to Encode Use imagery: mental pictures Mnemonic Devices Mary Very Easily Makes Jam Saturday Unless No Plums-is this even still relevant?
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto Give me some more examples. Imagery Chunking
Organizing items into familiar, manageable units. Often it will occur automatically. Do these numbers mean anything to you? 1-4-9-2-1-7-7-6-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1 Chunking 1492
1776 1812 1941 How about now? #2 Storage How we retain what weve learned!!!!
You better do some serious studying if youre gonna remember all of this AP Psych stuff! Or have good mnemonic devices! Review the 3 stage process of memory Storage and Short-Term Memory
Lasts usually between 3 to 12 seconds. Can store 7 (plus or minus two) chunks of information. We recall digits better than letters. Iconic Memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second Study this screen for 20 seconds Answer these questions What tool was the little boy at the bottom
holding? What kind of food is being served? In the lower right-hand corner, does the womans umbrella handle hook to the left or the right? Were there animals in the picture if so, which kind? Want another look at the picture? Study this screen for 20
seconds Iconic Memory 7 1 V F X L 5 3 B 4 W 7 Iconic Memory 7 1 V F
X L 5 3 B 4 W 7 Now, tell me the characters in the ___ row. Iconic Memory 2 7 D N M K 4 6 Y 4 A 9
Iconic Memory 2 7 D N M K 4 6 Y 4 A 9 Now, tell me the characters in the ___ row. Isnt that photographic memory? No!!!!
Photographic memory is Eidetic memory Researchers estimate that about 8% of preadolescent children are eidetickers, but virtually no adults. No satisfactory theory has been proposed for why eidetic imagery fades over time. Focus and remember
8173494285 After 10 seconds write them down Focus and Remember J M R S O F L P T Z B After 10 seconds, write them down
Echoic Memory a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds. Now listen to this sequences of numbers Write them down
Now listen to this sequence of letters Write them down Read these sentences aloud He had patronized her when she was a schoolgirl and teased her when she was a student.
He had an elongated skull which sat on his shoulders like a pear on a dish. The taxi turned up Michigan Avenue where they had a clear view of the lake. When at last his eyes opened, there was no gleam of triumph, no shade of anger. What were the last words of each sentence?
How does our brain store long-term memories? Memories do NOT reside in single specific spots of our brain. They are not electrical (if the electrical activity were to shut down in your brain, then restart- you would NOT start with a blank slate).
Stress and Memory Stress can lead to the release of hormones that have been shown to assist in long term memory. Why? Similar to the idea of Flashbulb Memory.
Everyday Stress and Memory Types of Long Term Memory Declarative Memory (Explicit)
The recollection of facts and events 1492 Columbus Gutenberg developed the Henry VIII had wives Procedural Memory The way you remember how to get things done. First you must check for a dial tone. Then you must dial a 7. Next you must dial a 5. Next you
must dial a 7. Then you must dial an 8. And so on Because we do this so often, we produce it as one unit a swift sequence of actions. The process is called knowledge compilation. The more you practice, the longer the sequence you can carry out. The Hippocampus
Damage to the hippocampus disrupts our memory. Left = Verbal Right = Visual and Locations The hippocampus is the like the librarian for the library which
is our brain. Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) The strengthening of the connection between two nerve cells which lasts for an extended period of time So, if you are trying to remember a
phone number, the neurons are firing neurotransmitter through the synapse. The neuron gets used to firing in that pattern and essentially learns to fire in that distinct way. It is a form of rehearsal (but for our neurons).
#3 Retrieval Getting information back out of our heads!!!! How are we gonna get all of this AP Psych stuff back out for the AP Exam? Recall versus Recognition
I probably cannot recall the Smurfs, but can I recognize them? Lazy Smurf or Lethargic Smurf Papa Smurf or Daddy Smurf Handy Smurf or Practical Smurf Brainy Smurf or Intellectual Smurf Clumsy Smurf or Inept Smurf .
Retrieval Cues Things that help us remember. We often use a process called priming (the activation of associations in our memory) to help us retrieve information
PRIMING EFFECT Priming effect occurs when people respond faster or better to an item if a similar item preceded it. The priming effect is considered involuntary and is most likely an unconscious
phenomenon. Repetition Priming Repetition priming refers to the fact that it is easier (quicker) to recognize a face or word if you have recently seen that
same face or word. Anyone know who the leading actress was in the movie Mamma Mia? Semantic Priming Semantic priming
refers to the fact that it is easier (quicker) to recognize someone or word if you have just seen someone or a word closely associated. Context Effects
It helps to put yourself back in the same context you experienced (encoded) something. If you study on your favorite chair at home, you will probably score higher
if you also took the test on the chair. Dj Vu Translates into already seen That eerie sense that you have experienced something before.
What is occurring is that the current situation cues past experiences that are very similar to the present one- your mind gets confused. Mood-Congruent Memory
The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood. If you are depressed, you will more likely recall sad memories from you past. Moods also effect that way you interpret other peoples behavior Forgetting
Encoding Failure We fail to encode the information. It never has a chance to enter our Long Term Memory. Test Your Memory Storage Decay Even if we encode
something well, we can forget it. Without rehearsal, we forget thing over time. Ebbinghauss forgetting curve. Ebbinghauss Forgetting Curve
Retrieval Failure The memory was encoded and stored, but sometimes you just cannot access the memory. Retrieval Failure-Proactive Interference The disruptive effect of prior learning on
the recall of new information. Cant remember the new only the old (like the old Pros number) Retrieval Failure- Retroactive Interference
The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information. When you finally remember this years locker combination, you forget last years. Motivated Forgetting
We sometimes revise our own histories. Like how much money we lost gambling Motivated Forgetting Why does is exist? One explanation is REPRESSION:
the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings and memories from consciousness. Forgetting Memory Construction
We sometimes alter our memories as we encode or retrieve them. Your expectations, schemas, environment may alter your memories. You had a great high school career, but your failure in college
alters your memory that you were a bad high school student as well. Misinformation Effect Incorporating misleading information into ones memory of an event. Misinformation Effect About how fast were the cars going when they
smashed into each other? The fiction of memory Source Amnesia (Source Attribution) Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced,
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