NANO WHISKERS General Definition WHISKERS- One of the long stiff tactile bristles or hairs that grow near the mouth and elsewhere on the head of most mammals METALLURGY Metal whiskering is a crystalline metallurgical phenomenon involving the spontaneous growth of

tiny, filiform hairs from a metallic surface. Types of metal whiskers

Zinc Whiskers Silver Whiskers Gold Whiskers Cadmium Whiskers Aluminum Whiskers Lead (Pb) Whiskers Indium Whiskers Tin whiskers Pictures of Metal whiskers Properties of whiskers

Shapes: Whiskers may be straight, kinked, hooked or forked Growth Rate: Growth rates from 0.03 to 9 mm/yr Whisker Diameter: 10 um and rarely less than 100 nm Temperature: room temperatures (22C to 25C) ; whiskers grow faster Moisture: high humidity (85% RH) Whiskers vs. Dendrites Whiskers

Hair like shape Grow perpendicular to the surface (90o) Doesnt require dissolution of metal/ presence of electromagnetic field Dendrites Fern shaped Grow across the surface Growth requires

dissolution of metals in electromagnetic field Mechanism of Growth A Single accepted explanation of the mechanism has not been established. Theories suggest that metal whiskers may grow in response to a mechanism of stress relief (especially "compressive" stress) . Video Demonstration of Tin whiskers Growth

Commonly Accepted Factors Residual stresses within the metal plating Intermetallic Formation Externally Applied Compressive Stresses

Bending or Stretching Scratches or nicks Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Mismatches Recent Attention to Metal Whiskers? To reduce the use of potentially hazardous materials such as lead (Pb), so the alternatives to the widely used tin-lead alloys used for plating. Restriction of certain Hazardous Substances (RoHS) and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE)

Failures by Whiskers Galaxy IV satellite in 1998- Tin whiskers F-15 Radar- Tin whiskers Heart Pacemaker Recall- Tin whiskers

computer server rooms Zinc whiskers Paper mills- Silver whiskers Satmexs Solidaridad HS 601 - Zinc whisker Nano Whiskers The single crystalline metallic hair-like structure in the nanometer scale Also called as nanowires or nanorods. Fullerene, C60 Nano Whiskers History C60 Nanowhiskers were

discovered in 2001 in Japan by Kunichi Miyazawa during the preparation of a lead zirconate titanate sol gel. Thin fibrous structures that grow in the solution were named C60 Nanowhiskers. The C60 Nanowhiskers are prepared by the liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation method.

Preparation of C 60 Nanowhiskers: Add 5ml of organic solvent to 20ml glass vial Measure out enough C60 to form saturated solution in organic solvent (using C60 solubility table) Sonicate solution of solvent and C60 until thoroughly dissolved

Layer with 5ml of polar solvent Place in 2C refrigerator for several days until whisker formation is observed, black dusty material on the bottom of the vial Pipette small sample of solution and whiskers onto glass slide and allow solvent to dry Properties of C60 Nano whiskers The Nanowhiskers were found to be C60 fullerene molecules arranged into a hollow tube by face-centered

cubic packing. Nanowhiskers measure from a couple hundred nanometers to one micrometer in diameter and several millimeters in length Various experiments have been

carried out testing different solvent solutions and the effects of environment on Nanowhiskers growth. Solvent Solutions Tested Organic layer Polar layer Toluene

Iso propyl alcohol Carbon disulfide Iso propyl alcohol Cholro benzene Iso propyl alcohol Pyridine

Iso propyl alcohol Toluene Acetone Toluene Water Carbon: C60 Organic: Toluene

Polar: Water Stored in: Solution Magnification: 60x Transmission Electron Microscope 8000x Silicon Nanowhiskers Molecular Beam Epitaxy Silicon wafers were used as substrates Desorption of the oxide layer by a thermal annealing at 850 C. Afterward, a thin Au film was deposited at a

substrate temperature of 525 C with thicknesses between 1.5 nm and 2 nm. The size of the thereby generated droplets could be chosen between 70 and 200 nm. SEM cross section images of Silicon whiskers grown on a Silicon substrate for a) 60 min b) 120 min growth time at TS 525 C. TEM cross section image of a Silicon whisker with a length of about 300 nm and a diameter of 95 nm on a Silicon substrate. Crossed Nanowhiskers Bi-2212 superconducting single crystal Nano

whiskers have been fabricated by annealing a melt quenched glass Bi3Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox precursor. A couple of Nano Whiskers obtained were placed crosswise on a YSZ single crystal substrate and then heat treated at 830o C for 25 minute to form Nano-scale junction Glass-ceramic method were used for preparation of the whiskers Bi2O3; SrCO3; CaCO3 and CuO were mixed to give a composition of Bi3Sr2Ca3Cu3O10+x. The mixture was melted in an alumina crucible at

11000C for 2 h. The melt was then rapidly quenched between two cold copper plates After the heat treatment cycle, whiskers were grown on the surface of the glass sheets Then a couple of whiskers were placed crosswise on a Yittria stabilized Zirconia, (YSZ:(ZrO2)1-m(Y2O3)m)) substrate and heat treated at 8300C for 25 min. to form Nano-scale junction. Cellulose Nanowhiskers Properties

Physical structure Chemical structure Interactions Tensile modulus Tensile strength Electrical resistivity Thermal conductivity Density Coef. Thermal expan Cellulose Nanowhiskers Needle- whiskers

cellulose Hydrogen bond ~130 GPa 10 GPa 1010 - 1016 ohms cm Insulator 1.2 g/cm3 8 -16X 10-6 Preparation of Cellulose Nanowhiskers Cellulose Nanowhiskers

regenerated from aqueous sodium hydroxide urea solvent system on the basis of their temperaturedependent solubility. AFM topography image of cellulose Nanowhiskers after drying on a mica surface Nanowhiskers in use Water Repellant In Nature, many small

tubes or whiskers keep water and solid at minimal contact for super hydrophobia (extreme water repellency) water droplet Stain Resistance

Billions of Nanowhiskers(10 nm long) create a thin cushion of air above the cotton fabric, smoothing out wrinkles and allowing liquids to bead up and roll off without a trace. Water droplets form spherical globules Rough nanoscale surface picks up dirt Water and dirt roll off Biomimicry

Bioceramics The calcium phosphate Nanowhiskers produced by microwave assisted method can be used as Bioceramics to human bone Gas sensor SnO2 Nanowhiskers showed a high sensitivity of 2350 ppm ethanol gas at 300C, which is much higher than that of regular SnO2 films.

FE-SEM image of SnO2 Nanowhiskers synthesized by thermal evaporation Electronics Nio2 Nanowhiskers having long life-cycle, High specific capacitance, high power, high stability, and low cost of the electrode materials are favorable factors for commercial applications Anisotropic Etching of SiC Whiskers were used as building blocks in the fabrication of sensors, cellular probes, electronic, optoelectronic,

electromechanical, and other devices. Be the Best and Betray the Worst.

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