National Empowerment A Stronger Nation (Unit 6) Identify and describe events in the early 20th century that led Canada toward independence Examine Canadas and Newfoundlands participation in the First World War Explain the effects of the First World War on Canada and Newfoundland Events Leading Toward Independence Self-governing dominions 1910 England still controlled foreign policies South African War 1901 first step in creating a Canadian military
Alaskan Boundary Dispute 1903 Canadians angry with Britain & saw U.S. as threat Naval Service Bill 1910 creation of Canadian navy Nationalist views Pushed for greater independence More Events Leading Toward Independence -p.263 Canada got its own flag 1965 National Anthem 1980 O Canada (c.1901) popular in Quebec 1880 Red Ensign Diamond Jubilee - Colonial Conference -wanted strong ties with Britain -closer ties with Britain
-wanted greater indepence for Canada Britain Chamberlain Anglophone Francophone Imperialists Nationalists QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. 1. 2. Sunnyways approach Praised Britain. Politely but firmly refused closer ties with Britain. Visited France and praised France South African (Boer) War -Wanted quick and positive response to Britains request
-Colonies should help British empire -Send Canadian troops -Send troops -Felt a far away war was of no concern or threat to Canada -Canada should stay out Britain Chamberlain Anglophone Francophone Imperialists Nationalists Sam Hughes QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Bourassa
Sunnyways approach 1. Laurier said Canada was not required to send troops to a British war that did not directly involve Canada. 2. But volunteers that wanted to go and help Britain were organized, equipped and transported by the Canadian government. 3. Laurier said Canada did not have to help in future British wars Alaskan Boundary Dispute Issue: disagreement about the border between Canada & the U.S. where B.C. and Alaska meet Economic benefit from Klondike Gold Rush depended on owning good harbours in the north. 6-member commission Results: -British official sided with American (3 Americans, 2 Canadians, Reasons: 1 British) to decide the issue. -Britain wanted
U.S. support if Germany started a war. Note: -Canada did not control its own foreign affairs. Laurier worked to get Canada more control of foreign affairs. -First Nations were not consulted. thecanadianencyclopedia.com Naval Service Bill -send immediate aid (money) to Britain -worried about strength of German navy -asked Canada for money to build warships
Anglophone -against sending money to Britain -focus on building our own military forces Britain Francophone Nationalists Imperialists Bourassa QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Sunnyways approach 1. Naval Service Bill: Canada would create its own navy. 2. Canadian navy would defend Canada and could be lent to Britain in times of war. 3. Navy: 2 old ships (Niobe & Rainbow) purchased from Britain. 4. 400 crew and officers to run the ships. Reactions: Imperialists embarrassed by small navy (Tin-Pot Navy). Nationalists thought it would be useless in defending Canada and did not want to offer to lend it to Britain. First World War (Great War) Canadian Participation Chain of Events
Arms Race Balkans Black Hand Assassination Declare War Canada Joins 30 000 army 8000 horses 1000 Nfld. 600 000 end Who Enlisted (CEF)? p.279-281 First Nations, Inuit, and Mtis 33% British-Canadian 31%
VAD ambulance French-Canadian 15% (discrimination) African-Canadian #2 Construction, 960 Racism Newfoundland 35% F. Pegahmagabow Major Vanier Number 2 Construction Battalion Over There p.282-286 Trench Warfare
6035 Cda. died in 2 days Held the line for 16 days Over the top War in the Air 2nd Battle of Ypres Battle of the Somme Cda. 25% of RAF Newfoundland Regiment Billy Bishop (72) of 801 only 68 survived Roy Brown (Red Baron) 8000 Cda. killed (141 d.) Black Flight War at Sea Shipbuilding Supply Britain Canadians
capture Vimy Ridge Vimy Ridge French & British failed Cda. practiced Surprise attack in storm and bombardment 3598 killed; 6000 wounded Effect of World War I Life on the Home Front Conscientious objectors White feather symbol Victory Bonds Women Take Charge Young People
Halifax Explosion Feeding the Allies Munitions Industry War Measures Act Income Tax Enemy Aliens Life on the Home Front Conscription Armistice Long-Term Effects Debt French vs. English National respect Newfoundlands foreign affairs Aboriginal people discriminated against African-Canadians faced mixed reaction
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