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Introducing Atoms and Nuclear Reactions Nuclear Science Teacher Workshop May 19, 2018 Atlanta, Georgia Learn about atomic structure and nuclear reactions including fission, fusion, and radioactive decay. Atoms are the building blocks of matter and consist of neutrons, protons, and electrons. Learn about isotopes and

why some isotopes are not stable. Instruction will be provided for activities that allow students to explore these concepts. Never trust an atom: they make up everything 2 Protons, neutrons, and electrons Mass of Subatomic Particles Proton: 1 amu

Neutron: 1 amu Electron: .000549 amu What is an AMU??? 3.67 *10-27 pounds (thats 0.00000000000000000000000000367 pounds) 3 Isotopes Explore the chart of the nuclides 4

Isotopes Sodium 23 11 protons, 12 neutrons Very plentiful, in salt that you eat (NaCl) Sodium 24 11 protons, 13 neutrons Not natural Highly radioactive, beta decay Used to find leaks in industrial pipes 5

6 Isotopes, Reactions, and Nuclear Energy Fission Breaking apart of Heavy Nuclei Example: n + U-235 n + He-4 Ba-139 + Kr-94 + 3n Fusion Combination of Light Nuclei Example: H-3 + H-2 n + He-4 n + He-4

Tritium + Deuterium n + He-4 neutron + Helium 7 Nuclear Reactions 1 ? 2 ? 3 ?

4 -1 ? 5 ? 8 9

Radioactivity 10 In Class Activity: Build Model Atoms For K-5 grade: Hydrogen: 1H 1 Proton, 1 electron Deuterium : 2H 1 Proton, 1 neutron, 1 electron Tritium: 3H

1 Proton, 2 neutrons, 1 electron Helium: 4He 2 Protons, 2 neutrons, 2 electron Middle & High School: Board game Critical Path What are the atomic and mass numbers of each isotope? What are the net charges? 11 Education Standards

Second Grade Georgia State Standards S2P1 Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the properties of matter and changes that occur in objects. b. Construct an explanation for how structures made from small pieces (linking cubes, building blocks) can be disassembled and then rearranged to make new and different structures. Activity: assemble basic atoms with Styrofoam balls and toothpicks alternate: pompoms of different sizes and a pipe cleaner to represent the boundary of the nucleus 12 Education Standards

Third Grade Georgia State Standards S3P1 Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the ways heat energy is transferred and measured. a. Ask questions to identify sources of heat energy. (Clarification statement: Examples could include sunlight, friction, and burning.) b. Plan and carry out an investigation to gather data using thermometers to produce tables and charts that illustrate the effect of sunlight on various objects. (Clarification statement: The use of both Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales is expected.) c. Use tools and every day materials to design and construct a device/structure that will increase/decrease the warming effects of sunlight on various materials. (Clarification statement: Conduction, convection, and radiation are taught in upper grades.)

Activity: Assemble basic atoms. Temperature is a measure of how fast atoms are moving. 13 Education Standards Eighth Grade Georgia State Standards S8P1 Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the structure and properties of matter. e. Develop models (e.g., atomic-level models, including drawings, and computer representations) by analyzing patterns within the periodic table that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms (protons,

neutrons, and electrons) and simple molecules Activity: Use the game Critical Path to explore the chart of the nuclides to learn about isotopes. 14 Education Standards Physical Science Georgia State Standards SPS4 Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to explain the changes in nuclear structure as a result of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay. a. Develop a model that illustrates how the nucleus changes as a result of fission and fusion.

b. Use mathematics and computational thinking to explain the process of half-life as it relates to radioactive decay. (Clarification statement: Limited to calculations that include whole half-lives.) c. Construct arguments based on evidence about the applications, benefits, and problems of nuclear energy as an alternative energy source. Activity: Use the game Critical Path to understand isotopes have unique characteristic half-lives. Radioactive decay is a statistical process. 15 Education Standards Chemistry

Georgia State Standards SSC1 Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the use of the modern atomic theory and periodic law to explain the characteristics of atoms and elements. d. Construct an explanation that relates the relative abundance of isotopes of a particular element to the atomic mass of the element. Activity: Use the game Critical Path to understand isotopes and their properties. 16 Education Standards

Chemistry Georgia State Standards SP6 Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about nuclear changes of matter and related technological applications. a. Develop and use models to explain, compare, and contrast nuclear processes including radioactive decay, fission, and fusion. b. Construct an argument to compare and contrast mechanisms and characteristics of radioactive decay. Activity: Fission can be modeled using a mouse trap chain reaction. The probabilistic nature of radioactive decay can be modeled with M&M half life 17

Education Standards Second Grade Next Generation Science Standards 2-PS1-3 Make observations to construct an evidence-based account of how an object made of a small set of pieces can be disassembled and made into a new object. Middle School Next Generation Science Standards MS-PS1-5 Develop and use a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved.

Activity: assemble basic atoms with Styrofoam balls and toothpicks 18 Education Standards Physical Science Next Generation Science Standards HS-PS1-C Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay. Activity: Fission can be modeled using Styrofoam balls.

Calculate the energy released during fission/fusion with E=mc2 19 Education Standards Earth and Space Sciences Next Generation Science Standards (HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3) Other than the hydrogen and helium formed at the time of the Big Bang, nuclear fusion within stars produces all atomic nuclei lighter than and including iron, and the process releases electromagnetic energy. Heavier elements are produced when certain massive stars achieve a

supernova stage and explode. HS-ESS1-2 Construct an explanation of the Big Bang theory based on astronomical evidence of light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, and composition of matter in the universe. Activity: Use the game Critical Path to explore the chart of nuclides. Learn that the heaviest stable isotope is Pb-208. 20 Education Standards Earth and Space Sciences Next Generation Science Standards

(HS-ESS1-3) In nuclear processes, atoms are not conserved, but the total number of protons plus neutrons is conserved. HS-ESS1-3 Communicate scientific ideas about the way stars, over their life cycle, produce elements Activity: Use the game Critical Path to explore the chart of nuclides. Learn that the heaviest stable isotope is Pb-208. Learn what makes isotopes stable. 21 22

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