Neuroscience of Learning

Neuroscience of Learning

Shifts: SAT Redesign & PA Core Overview Baldwin-Whitehall SD Presented by Heather Moschetta, PhD. Reading Achievement Center, Allegheny Intermediate Unit What the College Board says You might be surprised by everything thats new about the new SAT: All-new essay and its optional No penalty for guessing No vocab that youll never use again

4 parts: Reading, Writing and Language, Math, and the optional SAT Essay 4001600 score scale 3 hours and 50 minutes with the SAT Essay or 3 hours without it 4 answer choices What the College Board says One of our biggest goals in changing the SAT is to make sure its highly relevant to your future success. The new test will be more focused on the skills and knowledge at the heart of education. It will measure: What you learn in high school

What you need to succeed in college If you think the key to a high score is memorizing words and facts youll never use in the real world, think again. You dont have to discover secret tricks or cram the night before. The same habits and choices that lead to success in school will help you get ready for the SAT. The best way to prepare for the test is to: Take challenging courses. Do your homework. Prepare for tests and quizzes. Ask and answer lots of questions.

In short, take charge of your education and learn as much as you can. Key Shifts of the SAT Redesign for Spring 2016 Command of Evidence Evidence-Based Reading and Writing section Inferential thinking Implications of authors words Language Tasks

taking the stance of an editor assess the development of claims, clarity, effectiveness, including relevance and quality of supporting textual evidence keep, add, revise, or delete written content to further a writers purpose. The (optional) Essay As you read the passage below, consider how [the author] uses evidence, such as facts or examples, to support claims.

reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence. stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion, to add power to the ideas expressed. Write an essay in which you explain how [the author] builds an argument to persuade [his/her] audience that [authors claim]. In your essay, analyze how [the author] uses one or more of the features listed above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of [his/her] argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the

Two big considerations. . . 1. On every SAT, students will encounter source texts from science, history, and social studies, analyzing them the way they would in those classes 2. Will be given source material to develop essay Analysis Accuracy Coherence OLD

NEW Do not have to cite evidence Evidence-Based Reading & Writing Passage-Based Reading Comprehension of what is stated or implied

Analysis of Texts Examine hypotheses Interpret data Consider implications Analyze how authors word choice shapes meaning, style, and tone Identify how authors use evidence to support claims Find a relationship between an informational graphic and a paired

passage OLD NEW Argument essay based on background and/or experience Essay measures ability to analyze evidence and/or explain how author builds an

argument to persuade Vocabulary sometimes obscure and limited Vocabulary robust and highly generalizable or polysemous meaning dependent on context OLD NEW

Source documents are texts not widely available Documents will include Docs do not represent a wide range of academic disciplines 1 classic or contemporary work of U.S. or world literature

1 or a pair from either a U.S. founding document or a text in the great global conversation they inspired The U.S. Constitution or a speech by Nelson Mandela, for example. 1 about economics, psychology, sociology, or some other social science. 2 science passages (or 1 and a pair) that examine foundational concepts and developments in

Earth science, biology, chemistry, or physics. Turn and Talk What are the implications of the SAT redesign for your practice? For your school? For your role within the school? For others within the school? More than level of texts. . . DOK Modulate level of thinking

(not necessarily text) Most PACS are at a DOK 3 Writing is often at a DOK 4 Teaching implication: Pre-plan questions that help students think deeply about text Like the Lottery: Probability increases when you bet on combinations. . . THINKING

TEXT Low Medium High Low Too much Low time here Low Low Medium High

Medium MediumSweet Medium Spot Low Medium High High High High The

Stretch Three Instructional Shifts Required by the Core Regular practice with complex texts and their academic language Reading, writing, and speaking grounded in evidence from texts, both literary and informational Building knowledge through contentrich nonfiction Instructional Shift 1 Regular practice with complex texts and

their academic language Two parts: Complex text Academic vocabulary Instructional Shift 1 Staircase of Complexity: K-12, to prepare students for demands of college- and career-level reading Progressive development of reading comprehension so that students advancing through the grades are able to gain more from what they read

Instructional Shift 1 What are complex texts? Typified by a combination of longer sentences, a higher proportion of lessfrequent words, and a greater number and variety of words with multiple meanings In higher grade levels, complex text involves higher levels of abstraction, more subtle and multidimensional purposes, and a wider variety of writing styles all of which place greater demands on working memory. Instructional Shift 1

Measuring text complexity Reader and Task Considerations Instructional Shift 1 Quantitative Lexile Qualitative Relationships: interactions among ideas or characters Richness: size and sophistication of information conveyed through data or literary devices

Structure: text organization Style: authors tone and use of language Vocabulary: authors word choice Purpose: authors intention Reader & Task Considerations Individualized to class and students Background knowledge, academic level, cultural relevance Instructional Shift 1

Instructional Shift 1 Why not just Lexile? Which of these titles has the highest Lexile score? Instructional Shift 1 Why not just Lexile? Lexile uses quantitative methods Guess the Lexile score

individual words sentence lengths Lexile score does not include: Qualitative analysis of content Thus, Lexile scores for texts do not reflect factors such as multiple levels of meaning or maturity of themes

730 2nd-3rd grade Instructional Shift 1 Three levels of complexity based on qualitative factors Instructional Shift 1 Reader & Task Considerations There had been no words for naming when she was born. She was Girl Owens on the stamped paper that certified her birth, and at home, she

had just been Sister, that was all. When asked to decide, at six, what she would be called, she had chosen Sunday, the time of voices, lifted in praise. That was one piece of the story, but other parts had gone unspoken, and some had been buried, but were not at rest. She was headed back to claim them, as she had taken her name. Instructional Shift 1 Suggestions for effective practice: Text sets that balance: More complex texts with easier tasks

Less complex texts with more challenging tasks Close reading anchor text of text set Gradually increase the complexity of the task and complexity of the text Not all texts must be complex! We want to build readers We want kids to experience success Analyze Your Curriculum How is the staircase of complexity reflected in in the curriculum and your

textbooks? Passages/literature Instructional learning activities/tasks Assessments of comprehension & analysis Instructional Shift 1 Regular practice with complex texts and their academic language Two parts: Complex text Academic vocabulary Instructional Shift 1

Focus on academic vocabulary Inextricably connected to reading comprehension Academic vocabulary: Words that appear in a variety of content areas Words with multiple meanings, often tied to their use in different content areas EX: Ignite, commit Instructional Shift 1 What do students need to be able to do?

Determine word meanings How? The most effective vocabulary instruction teaches word meanings as concepts; it connects the words being taught with their context and with the students' prior knowledge. Five techniques have proven especially effective:

Concept Definition Maps Semantic Mapping/Semantic Feature Mapping Possible Sentences Comparing and Contrasting Teaching Word Parts Instructional Shift 1 What do students need to be able to do? Appreciate the nuances of words How?

Teach denotation vs. connotation Not just synonym and antonym Instructional Shift 1 Connotation writing activity: Write about someone who could be considered slender. Be as detailed and descriptive as possible. Write a minimum of five lines. Time limit: 1:47 Instructional Shift 1 What do students need to be able to do?

Steadily expand their range of words and phrases How? Read more complex and varied texts Vocabulary activities to understand the vocab in the texts they read; apply word concepts to other unfamiliar, but related, words in future reading Model use of language of the standards Analyze Your Curriculum How is academic language reflected in in the curriculum and your textbooks?

Passages/literature Vocabulary activities/tasks Vocabulary instruction Instructional Shift 2 Reading, writing, and speaking grounded in evidence from texts, both literary and informational Instructional Shift 2 Emphasis on using evidence from texts to present: Careful analyses

Well-defended claims Clear information Instructional Shift 2 The standards no longer require students to answer questions from prior knowledge and experience Drawing personal connections is an important part of comprehension, but we can no longer stop there Standards require students to answer questions that depend on having read the

texts closely Instructional Shift 2 In writing: Drawing on student experience and opinion is not enough to prepare students for the demands of college, career, and life Standards still expect narrative writing Standards also expect an command of sequence and detail that are essential for effective argumentative and informative writing

Instructional Shift 2 Close reading Text-dependent questioning techniques Require inferential thinking Require evidence from the text More than just comprehension of content Questions about authors craft, text structure, key ideas & details, integration of knowledge & ideas Analyze Your Curriculum How is text evidence reflected in in the curriculum and your textbooks?

Close reading Text-dependent questions Analysis questions Questions and texts that require deep inferencing Writing activities/assignments requiring students to cite evidence Instructional Shift 2 Suggestions for effective practice: Close reading Text-dependent questions Citing evidence & analysis of evidence

Model TDA & gradually transition into students writing their own TDA essay responses Instructional Shift 3 Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction Instructional Shift 3 Content-rich nonfiction: Builds strong general knowledge Helps students develop vocabulary

Students need extensive opportunities to build knowledge through texts so they can learn independently Instructional Shift 3 How much informational text? K-5: 50-50 balance between informational and literary reading Informational: content-rich nonfiction in history/social studies, sciences, technical studies, arts Deliberately select texts to support students in systematically developing knowledge about

the world Instructional Shift 3 How much informational text? Grades 6+ Much greater attention on the specific category of literary nonfiction in ELA standards The standards recognize that literature is the core of the work of secondary (6-12 ELA teachers) Standards require that students build knowledge in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects through reading and writing

Pairing Fiction with Nonfiction Five reasons to say yes to text sets: 1.Increase range of complexity 2.Extend into varying genres 3.Promote ideation 4.Require synthesis 5.Increase domain knowledge Instructional Shift 3 Activity: Analysis of literary nonfiction TDQ for We Are the Ship

Turn and talk: If this is the kind of thinking that students are required to do in grades 4-5, what does this mean for middle/high school teachers? Analyze Your Curriculum How is knowledge building though content-rich nonfiction reflected in in the curriculum and your textbooks? Genre-based units or text pairings/text sets? 50/50 balance (grades 3-5)

Amount of literary nonfiction (grade 6) How much is student-directed (vs. teacher-directed) learning? Instructional Shift 3 Suggestions for effective practice: Text sets Supplementary texts To pair with texts that require world knowledge Analysis of literary elements in nonfiction More than just facts and content!

Where Are You? Balancing Literary and Informational Texts Knowledge in the Disciplines Staircase of Complexity Text-based Answers Writing from Sources Academic Vocabulary Areas of strength? Areas of need?

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