Rhetorical Devices Used by Speakers and Writers Rhetorical devices are the nuts and bolts of speech and persuasive writing; the parts that make a communication work. Separately, each part of is meaningless, but once put together, they create a powerful effect on the listener/reader. Rhetorical devices are techniques writers use to enhance their arguments and make their writing effective. Parallelism
Parallelism is the use of components in a sentence that are grammatically the same; or similar in their construction, sound, meaning or meter. Writing structures that are grammatically parallel helps the reader understand the points better because they flow more smoothly. If there is anyone out there who still doubtswho still wonderswho still questions Rhetorical Question question requiring no answer: a question asked for effect that neither expects nor
requires an answer. "Can you do anything right?" is asked not to literally evaluate the abilities of the person being spoken to, but rather to hyperbolically imply that the person always fails. Hypophora A common technique is to start a speech with a hypophora, in which the speaker first asks a question and then
answers it. In many political speeches, the word Why is used regularly as an obvious signpost of the speakers intention to give his audience answers. Repetition Repetition can be effective in creating a sense of structure
and power. In both speech and literature, repeating small phrases can ingrain an idea in the minds of the audience. Yes, we can, to opportunity and prosperity. Yes, we can heal this nation. Yes, we can repair this world. Yes, we
can. Antithesis a figure of speech in which an opposition or contrast of ideas is expressed by parallelism of words that are the opposites of, or strongly contrasted with, each other, such as hatred stirs up strife, but love covers all sins
Obama is famous for having said There are no red states or blue states. There are only the United States of America. "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of
belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way." (Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities) Argument by Analogy Argument by analogy draws a parallel
between basically dissimilar events or situations. If the curfew law aims to reduce youth crime, it mistakenly targets the wrong hours. It is much like shutting the corral gate after the horses have escaped. Loaded Words Loaded words carry strong emotional associations. Our baseball team won the tournament, pulverizing the Brantley County Herons in the final.
Figurative speech People like to think in metaphors. The image of bending the arc of history up towards hope is powerful. Figurative speech tends to work best when set off by concrete images. the arc of history with the backyards of Des Moines and the living
rooms of Concord and the front porches of Charleston Anaphora The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses or lines. "We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we
shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender." (British Prime Minister Winston Churchill) Hyperboles exaggeration: deliberate and obvious exaggeration used for effect, e.g. Example: Weve fought a million wars together. Synecdoche
when a one part of something is recognized as a whole. Cleveland won by six runs! (meaning Clevelands baseball team) Tricolon A tricolon is a list of three, or a sentence in which there are three parts or clauses. The cumulative effect of three has a powerful effect on an audience.
Here, the backyards, living rooms and front porches build a strong picture of plain folks Polysyndeton using several conjunctions in close succession, especially where some might be omittedused to stress the importance
of each item $5 and $10 and $15 Asyndeton The practice of omitting conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses. In a list, it gives a more extemporaneous effect and suggests the list may be incomplete. Example: that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth by Abraham Lincoln. Structurally opposite of polysydeton
Allusion the act or practice of making a casual or indirect reference to something. By using allusion, you not only associate yourself with the ideas of the original text but also create a bond with the audience by evoking share knowledge The words government of the people, by the people, and for the people are lifted from the Gettysburg Address Rhetorical & Persuasive Appeals Ethos the overall appeal of the speaker or writer
himself or herself; it is important that this person have impressive credentials, a notable knowledge of the subject, and/or appear to be a likeable and moral person. Ethos appeals to the audience with a clam, trustworthy, seemingly sincere approach. We listen because we trust the speaker. Appealing to a persons ethics or morals. --I promise you, we as a people will get there. --But I will always be honest with you about the challenges we face. I will listen to you, especially when we disagree. And, above all, I will ask you to join in the work of remaking this nation . . .
Rhetorical & Persuasive Appeals Logosrational appeal; asks the readers to use their intellects and powers of reasoning. It relies on established conventions of logic and evidence. Logos appeals to the audience with facts, statistics, definitions, historical proof, quotes from expert. Think of a sports commercial that has a sports star or celebrity giving statistics about their own product. Rhetorical & Persuasive Appeals Pathosan emotional appeal; asks readers to
respond out of their beliefs, values, or feelings. It inspires, affirms, frightens, angers. By appealing to the audiences emotions, the speaker can make the audience feel sorrow, shame, sympathy, embarrassment, anger, etc. --So tonight, let us ask ourselvesif our children should live to see the next century; if my daughters should be so lucky to live as long as Ann Nixon Cooper, what changes will they see? What progress will we have made? Ethos, Logos, and Pathos https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9L_G8
2HH9Tg Rhetorical Devices in Disney Songs https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nkRC4 DZF-_U&safe=active
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