Nixon, Ford & Carter -

Nixon, Ford & Carter -

Nixon, Ford & Carter The 1970s The Nixon Administration Nixon sought to turn US on conservative path with New Conservatism New Federalism Nixon felt federal govt. became too strong under LBJ,

wanted to return some power back to the states To accomplish this, Nixon advocated Revenue Sharing State govts would be allowed to spend federal tax dollars as they wished The Nixon Administration Nixon expanded funding for some social programs,

such as Social Security, Medicare & Medicaid However, Nixon attempted to cut the Job Corps & Office of Economic Opportunity, both social assistance to impoverished Americans Nixon also tried to reform welfare with the Family Assistance Plan, but was attacked by both conservatives & liberals for being too tough/weak Nixon used impoundment to withhold funding for

programs didnt like The Nixon Administration Nixon also sought to return law & order to American society for the great, Silent Majority Abused presidential powers to watch political enemies Plumbers placed wiretaps on liberals & Democratic

Natl HQ at the Watergate Building CIA compiled information on political dissidents IRS investigated civil rights leaders VP Spiro Agnew went after political rivals & media The Nixon Administration The 68 election was close & Nixon was always worried about losing

Nixon wanted to make inroads with the conservative South Their dissatisfaction with Democratic Party was illustrated by George Wallace in 68 election Launched Southern Strategy Dept. of HEW told to delay integration in Southern schools Opposed extending Voting Rights Act of 1965

Promised to nominate Southerner to Supreme Court The Nixon Administration Nixon also appointed conservative, Southern justices to Supreme Court

Warren Burger, MN (Chief Justice) Harry Blackman, MN (vote Roe v. Wade) Lewis Powell, Jr. , VA William Rehnquist, VA However, Nixon would be quickly disappointed by his Supreme Court Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education

1971 Districts may bus students to prevent all-white or all-black schools US Economy US economy tanked at end of 1960s & beginning of 1970s because of Stagflation High unemployment

Boomers entered workforce, flood US job market High inflation LBJ used significant deficit spending to pay for Great Society & Vietnam War Fiat currency, the dollar no longer affixed to gold, but affixed to economys success instead Since economy is decreasing, the dollar is devaluing

US Economy Driving force behind struggling US economy was dependence on foreign oil US received most of its petroleum from OPEC During 1960s, OPEC gradually raised oil prices makes cost of US goods inflate 1973, US backed Israel when attacked by Syria & Egypt during Yom Kippur War Arab OPEC nations cut supply to US, when they

resumed supply in 1974, prices were 4x higher The Nixon Administration Nixon was a foreign policy president that dealt with more than the Vietnam War Henry Kissinger encouraged Nixon to take a new approach to foreign affairs Persuaded Nixon to abandon containment, massive

retaliation & flexible response for a policy of Realpolitik Illogical to ignore powerful countries based on ideology Need to acknowledge powerful countries, even Communist ones, and build relationships with them The Nixon Administration Nixon used Dtente policy to build relationships w/ Communist China & USSR

US prepared to negotiate & be flexible w/ Communist countries Nixon visits China, winter 1972 Wont compete to control Pacific, will settle disputes cooperatively, including situation w/ Taiwan Nixon visits USSR, spring 1972 SALT I Treaty, limits number of ICBMs for 5 yrs

Watergate 1971 Nixon sought to stop leaks after Pentagon Papers released H.R. Haldeman, Nixons chief of staff, formed the Plumbers to harass Dan Ellsberg Charles Colson (Nixon counsel) G. Gordon Liddy (FBI) E. Howard Hunt (CIA)

1972 CREEP, headed by Nixons former Attorney General John Mitchell and Jeb Magruder, formed to reelect Nixon Mitchell approved plan to break-in to DNC HQ Watergate June 17, 1972, James McCord, security head for CREEP, Liddy & Hunt arrested for breaking-in to DNC HQ (twice) CREEP sought Democrats election strategy & if they had

dirt on Nixon Nixon ordered cover-up Burglars bribed for silence ($500k) Incriminating documents shredded CIA ordered to halt FBIs investigationJ. Edgar Hoover, dead Sept. 1972, McCord, Liddy & Hunt scheduled for trial in federal court with Judge John Sirica following the election

Watergate Before trial of burglars, Watergate is overshadowed by Vietnam However, Bob Woodward & Carl Bernstein of Washington Post kept on case Published secret info from upset FBI informant W. Mark Felt January 1973, Sirica found McCord, Hunt, & Liddy guilty

Judge threatened tough sentences because he thinks there is more than just a petty burglary Watergate April 1973, Nixon accepted resignations of John Dean III (pres. lawyer), H.R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman (dom. adv.), new AG Richard Kleindienst Went on TV, announced new AG Elliot Richardson

who will appoint special investigator, Archibald Cox McCord accused Dean, Mitchell, and Magruder of knowing about/ordering the break-in June 1973, Senate began grilling all the presidents men Watergate Senator Howard Baker asked, What did the president

know & when did he know it? John Dean informed that Nixon abused FBI & CIA, placed wiretaps, ordered the cover-up & offered hush money July 1973, pres. aid. Alexander Butterfield revealed Nixon recorded ALL of his presidential conversations Nixon wanted to be able to write memoirs after presidency (idiot)

Watergate Fall of 1973, things are ugly for Nixon Nixon refused to turn over Nixon Tapes to Cox, Sirica & Senate Irvin Committee citing executive privilege Saturday Night Massacre Nixon wants Cox fired, but AG Richardson & Deputy

AG William Ruckelshaus resign instead Finally, Solicitor General, Robert Bork, fires Cox & hires replacement Leon Jaworski VP Agnew forced to resign due to bribery, Speaker of the House Gerald Ford appointed VP Nixon also in trouble for mistakes on taxes Watergate

Remainder of Watergate centered around Nixons tapes October 1973-July 1974, Leon Jaworski pressed Nixon to release the tapes Spring of 1974, Nixon released edited tapes for profanity, edited parts sometimes spanned 18 minutes March 1974, presidents aids indicted on charges of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and perjury

July 1974, Jaworski took Nixon to Supreme Court, upon appeal of Siricas ruling, to release the tapes Watergate US v. Nixon 1974 Nixon argued he has Executive Privilege to keep tapes secret due to threat of national security

And, executive branch has right to determine privileged info, not judiciary Supreme Court ruled Nixon must surrender tapes President has right to executive privilege, but judiciary has right to review info to determine threats of national security Marbury v. Madison 1803 Established judicial review

Watergate Nixon released the tapes on August 5, 1974, but US House Judiciary Committee voted to impeach Nixon resigned August 8, 1974, just before the full House of Representatives voted on impeaching president Nixon was never impeached, but is only president to

resign office Andrew Johnson & Bill Clinton impeached on partisan grounds Johnson, Republicans thought he wasnt doing enough after Civil War Clinton perjured himself about a sex scandal Gerald Ford Started out rough from beginning, pardoned Richard Nixon

Americans quickly realized hes a Ford, not a Lincoln Ford because the butt of many jokes, partly because hes a klutz, mostly because Watergate cost the presidency its prestige Plan to beat inflation, Whip Inflation Now, didnt have incentives to work

Americans, as it turns out, became lazy & selfish by the 1970s Gerald Ford Ford continued on with Nixons foreign policy Helsinki Accords East & West agreed to diplomacy in Europe, but didnt stop Mutual Assured Destruction

Vietnam fell in 1975 after fighting reignited in 1973, but Congress denied more funding Cambodian pirates seized Mayaguez in Gulf of Siam, Ford used great show of military force to rescue 39 sailors Lost 41 American soldiers Jimmy Carter

1976 Presidential Election Ford held off Ronald Reagan for GOP nomination, Jimmy Carter won Democratic nomination Jimmy Carter, peanut farmer & governor of GA, was Washington outsider Honest & plain-spoken, won a narrow victory US ready for down-to-earth president Carter elected due to being an outsider, but refusing to play

political games cost him Jimmy Carter Refused to pass out spoils to congressional Democrats & relied heavily upon himself & political advisors from GA Beyond secluding himself politically, he was overwhelmed by trying to do everything himself Nothing of substance accomplished

Became butt of SNL, too Often addressed nation by fireside in a sweater, discussed energy & economy Called it a moral equivalent to war, Americans must work with one another to achieve goals Energy being Carters biggest issue, sent 100s of proposals for energy conservation & development to Congress

Jimmy Carter Beaten back by auto & oil lobbies National Energy Act, placed tax on gas-guzzlers, de-regulated US oil & natural gas industries, and gave tax credits for development of alternative energies Jimmy Carter wasnt very popular with Americans as inflation hit double digits & economy worsens during his presidency

US no longer a major producer, goods manufactured cheaper overseas Jimmy Carter Many excluded from job market due to lack of education/training US standard of living falls from #1 to #5 Malaise or Crisis of Confidence speech caused

many to believe he gave up, especially amongst self-centered Americans Regents of University of California v. Bakke 1978 Allan Bakke sued UC-Davis because he wasnt admitted to medical school 16 spots out of 100 reserved for minorities, UC-Davis Affirmative Action plan Bakkes scores & grades were quite competitive Ruling: Quotas were prohibited

Jimmy Carter Carter was focused on human rightssimilar to Woodrow WilsonCarter abandoned dtente No longer dealing with countries based on power, deals with countries based on protection of human rights SALT II not signed because USSR invaded Afghanistan in 1979 Carter releases Carter Doctrine

US returns Panama Canal because its right thing to do Jimmy Carter US heavily focused on Middle East during 70s, mostly because of oil prices Constant conflict between Muslims & Palestinians with Israel devastating US economy Camp David Accords, 1978 Carter met with Egypts Anwar Sadat & Israels

Menachem Begin Egypt gets Sinai Peninsula, lost in Six Day War in 1967, returned Egypt recognizes Israels right to exist as a country Jimmy Carter US became hyper-focused on Iran beginning in 1979 1953, US CIA orchestrated plan to put Reza Shah Pahlavi in control of Iran, agreed to provide US with favorable oil

prices January 1979, Iranians upset with his tyranny, overthrew him under leadership of religious leader, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Overthrow is known as Iranian Revolution, many wanted to rid country of western ways Iranian Hostage Crisis, November 1979-Janaury 1981 Jimmy Carter

Revolutionaries disliked Carter letting Pahlavi into US for cancer treatment when mortally ill Jimmy Carter Iranian college students overrun US embassy in Tehran, take 52 US citizensafter releasing Blacks & women hostage for 444 day Iranians demanded: Shah be returned to Iran Return the money he stashed in US

Apologize to Iran Jimmy Carter April 1980, Carter launched rescue plan that failed miserably Elaborate plan: helicopters, refueling cargo planes, & secretly secured trucks to meet up in deserted Iranian desert Sandstorm & failed hydraulics crippled three

helicopters, one crashed into cargo plane w/ fuel & exploded In all, 8 soldiers killed Hostages wouldnt be released until Reagan sworn in & Iraq invaded Iran The Middle East Cradle of Civilization Earliest of civilizations began around Nile, Euphrates & Tigris

rivers Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia Region between & immediately surrounding Euphrates & Tigris rivers Area constantly subject to tribal conflict The Middle East Ottoman Empire

One of the most influential Muslim civilizations in history, began in 13th century Ended Byzantium Empire by conquering Constantinople (15th century) renaming it Istanbul Continued to expand into Europe Empire begins to decline at end of 19th century with colonization of Africa The Middle East

Following Battle of Gallipoli, spring 1915, British & French secretly agree to carve up Ottoman Empire after WWI Sykes-Picot Agreement, 1916 Palestine to be made international zone due to its importance to many major religions Temple on the Mount (Jews) Site of King Solomons Temple Location of the Ark of the Covenant

The Middle East Wailing Wall (Jews) Last remnants of Second Temple, Jesus preached here Dome of the Rock (Jews & Muslims) Mohammad ascended to Heaven Abraham attempted to sacrifice Isaac/Ishmael

Church of the Holy Sepulcher (Christians) Built by Constantine, place where Jesus was crucified, buried & resurrected The Middle East Status of affairs takes turn for the worse when England issued the Balfour Declaration, 1917 England supported creation of a Jewish state in

Palestine Zion, Biblical reference to Holy Land Zionism, Return to Holy Land Although things wouldnt get out of hand until after WWII, Muslims & Jews havent gotten along since Biblical times Abraham, his wife & his mistress

The Middle East Israeli-Palestinian conflict centered on conflict of various peoples Arabs Arabic people from the Arabian Peninsula and surrounding areas Palestinians

Arabic-speaking, Muslim people originating in Palestine Israelis Hebrew-speaking people of Israel moved there by UN Mandate in 1947 The Middle East Almost immediately after Allies withdraw from Palestine, Jordan invaded West Bank, Egypt invaded Gaza Strip

Six Day War, 1967 Egypt blocked Israels Port of Eilat on Gulf of Aqaba Israel launched attack, taking Gaza Strip & Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank from Jordan & Golan Heights from Syria Yom Kippur War, 1973 Syria invaded Israel to reclaim Golan Heights, Egypt invaded Israel to reclaim Sinai Peninsula & Gaza Strip, both countries WHIPPED by Israel

The Middle East Islamic Extremism follows WWI Muslim Brotherhood, founded during 1920s in Egypt by Hasan al-Bana, wanted Islamic republics after fall of Ottomans, especially after caliph abolished Political org. focused on Islamic way of life, organized schools, sporting events, and non-secular communities Iranian Revolution in 1979 marks beginning of Islamic

Extremism Iran should return to its Shiite-Islamic roots, rejects nonsecular, western influences Rest of Middle East follows suit The Middle East Hezbollah Lebanese, Shiite-Islamic extremist terrorist group, advocated for non-secular, non-west Middle Eastern countries after Iranian Revolution

Established in 1980s due to Palestinian-Israeli conflict Hamas Palestinian, Sunni-Islamic extremists terrorists established after Six Day War Eventually replaced Fatah as ruling power of Palestinian Liberation Organization after Yasser Arafat negotiated with Israelis during Oslo Accords The Middle East

Al-Qaeda Founded in the 1980s to combat the 1979 USSR invasion of Afghanistan by Osama bin Laden Now focused on expelling western influence and governments, implementing Islamic ones September 11, 2001 The Middle East Turkey is the anomaly of the Middle East

As Ottoman Empire declined, Young Turk movement gains popularity Led by Mustafa Kemal, realized weaknesses of Ottoman Empire Turkey should be independent of diverse Ottoman Empire, should be a republic Needed to modernize, focus on education, secularize govt. Turkey is the Western Middle East country

The Middle East Kurds, Muslim-tribal people that speak Kurdish After WWI, Kurdish people denied their own country Currently live in Kurdistan, conglomerate or portions of ME countries Experienced numerous hardships, esp. Desert Storm Saddam Hussein gassed hundreds of thousands

The Middle East Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988 Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein (a Sunni) invaded Shiite-Iran over territorial dispute regarding Shatt al-Arab Realistically, he was worried that hed be overthrown by Shiites since they were majority of Iraqs population Modern era of biological warfare/terrorism begins Ultimately a war of attrition, nothing sought was gained Iraq would have to invade Kuwait in 1990 to cover war

costs The Middle East Sunni Muslims (roughly 90% of Muslim world) Believe that the caliphsIslamic leadersand their heirs that followed Mohammad after his death in 7th Century CE, were rightful leaders of Islam Caliphs led Muslims through end of Ottoman Empire following WWI

Shiite Muslims Separated from Sunnis due to their assassination of the fourth caliphs son, meaning succeeding caliphs were not legitimate rulersuntil Ruhollah Khomeini led a revolution in Iran Environmentalism Movement began with awareness of how everyday habits can ruin environment

Rachel Carson wrote Silent Spring, 1962 Pesticides developed to deal with rodents & insects were causing significant ecological problems DDT, banned in 1972 Nixon combines federal agencies into Environmental Protection Agency in 1970 to set & enforce pollution standards

Environmentalism Nuclear Energy Alternatives to oil included nuclear power plants, which were potentially dangerous 1979, Three Mile Is., PA 1986, Chernobyl, Ukraine (USSR) Oil Resources, Alaska post-1968 Alaskan Pipeline 1989, Exxon Valdez

Oil tanker runs aground at Prince William Sound, Alaska, dumping 11 million gallons of oil into the ocean

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