COMP 323: Research Administration For Scientists Intellectual Property Wednesday, April 19, 2006 What is Intellectual Property? Any product of the human mind: Idea Invention
Expression Unique Name Business Method Industrial Process Chemical Formula that has value in the marketplace and can be reduced to a tangible form. COMP 290-083 United States Constitution Article 1, Section 8 The Congress shall have power: to promote the progress of science and the useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries
COMP 290-083 There are 4 categories of IP law that address different types of IP: Patent Law Copyright Law Trademark Law Trade Secret Law Important: Understand all 4 before seeking coverage for your creation.
COMP 290-083 Intellectual Property Law Legal Principles that determine: Who owns IP When and how owners can exclude others from exploiting IP Degree of recognition courts are willing to afford IP In short, IP law determines when and how a person can capitalize on a creation! COMP 290-083 Application of Intellectual Property Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 Background Before 1980, government restrictions limited the
commercialization of inventions developed with the support of federal funds Bayh-Dole Act changed that Authorized recipients of federal funds to retain ownership of patents Charged recipients with ensuring commercial use Government retains license to practice the invention (plus march-in rights) Tech transfer was born Application of Intellectual Property AUTM Report Association of University Technology Managers FY 2000 Survey Summary In 2000 alone, 347 new commercial products were introduced
Since 1980 3,376 new companies formed As of 2000 2,309 start ups still operating 2000 adjusted gross income - $1.26 billion (licenses and options) IP Protection Disclose and Protect (CDAs/NDAs, Provisionals) Patentable Inventions BEFORE: Publication Submission Proposal Submission Presentations Discussions w/ NonUniversity Personnel Web Postings
Thesis/Dissertation Submission Patent Law What is a patent? A right granted by the government to a person or legal entity What right does a patent grant? The right to exclude others from making, using, or selling the patented invention for a fixed period of time COMP 290-083 Patent Law How long can you exclude others from making, using, selling? 20 years from date of filing
You must pay maintenance fees COMP 290-083 Patent Law How do you stop someone from making, using, selling? File a patent infringement lawsuit in federal court Infringement battle between a product/process and a patent Interference battle between two patents (may occur up to twelve months after patent issues) filed with PTO COMP 290-083 Patent Law Who can apply for a patent? Any true inventor regardless of
Age Nationality Mental Competency Incarceration Even deceased persons (through their personal representatives) COMP 290-083 Patent Law What form of property is a patent? Personal property Comparison with land Land Patent
Sold Leased Willed Boundaries Defined by Deed Exclusionary Rights
Yours Till You Dispose of It COMP 290-083 Sold Leased (Licensed) Willed Boundaries Defined by Claims Exclusionary Rights Limited Life Patent Law What is the scope of a U.S. patent? U.S. patent rights extend throughout the U.S., its territories and possessions But not to foreign countries Must file country by country COMP 290-083
Patent Law U.S. vrs. rest of the world (after GATT and WTO) U.S. = first to invent Rest of the world = first to file COMP 290-083 Patent Law 35 USC 101 Inventions Patentable Whoever invents or discovers any new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement there of, may obtain a patent therefore, subject to the conditions and requirements of this title. COMP 290-083
Patent Law Role of PTO Examiner: Advocate of the public Tries to prevent you from getting a patent (first opponent) If he finds patentable material and you have difficulty writing a proper claim, the law requires the examiner to write one. Adversarial process usually strengthens patent Definition of a strong patent One that can be defended in the courts when infringed. COMP 290-083 Patent Law In order for an invention to be patentable, what requirements must it satisfy? Novelty different from what is known, any difference, even slight, will suffice (35 USC 102) Non-obvious at the time of invention, it was nonobvious to a person skilled in the art (35 USC 103)
Useful has value, works as described in patent (as perceived by patent examiner) COMP 290-083 35 USC 102 Novelty A person shall be entitled to a patent unless: Invention was known/used by others in U.S. or patented/published in U.S. or foreign country before invention by applicant, or Invention was patented/published in U.S. or foreign country or in use or on sale in U.S., more than one year prior to date of patent application, or Inventor has abandoned invention, or COMP 290-083 35 USC 102 Novelty A person shall be entitled to a patent unless:
Invention was patented/filed in foreign country by applicant more than 12 months before filing in US, or Before the date of applicants invention, the same invention was made in this country by another who had not abandoned, suppressed, or concealed it. COMP 290-083 35 USC 102 Novelty In determining priority of invention there shall be considered not only the respective dates of conception and reduction to practice of the invention, but also the reasonable diligence of one who was the first to conceive and last to reduce to practice, from a time prior to conception by the other. COMP 290-083
Definitions Diligence Actual Reduction to Practice Constructive Reduction to Practice Document Disclosure Program (DDP) Provisional Patent Application (PPA) Divisional Application COMP 290-083 Diligence (or reasonable effort) applies only to the time between conception and reduction to practice (prototype development), not between reduction to practice and filing! COMP 290-083 Actual Reduction to Practice
building and testing the hardware or prototype of the invention. Constructive Reduction to Practice under the law, the act of filing a patent application. COMP 290-083 Document Disclosure Program (DDP) File with PTO two copies of Proof of Conception documents PTO date stamps and returns one copy to inventor Small fee COMP 290-083 Provisional Patent Application (PPA) Locks in filing date
One year to file full application No claims included (articles and papers) Not examined Disadvantage nothing new can be added COMP 290-083 Provisional Patent Application (PPA) Options if either new material is to be added or some claims are not supported by attached material. Withdraw and re-file or File a Continuation in Part (CIP) a second patent application that relies heavily on the first Danger double patenting!
COMP 290-083 Divisional Patent Application Patent examiner determines that the application addresses more than one invention. Divides one application into two or more smaller applications and requires that they be prosecuted separately COMP 290-083 35 USC 103: Non-obvious Subject Matter A patent may not be obtainedif the differences between the subject matter sought to be patented and the prior art are such that the subject matter as a whole would have been obvious at the time the
invention as made to a person having ordinary skill in the art to which said subject matter pertains. COMP 290-083 Patent Law Are there different types of patents? Utility Patents (most common) cover inventions that function in a unique manner to produce a utilitarian result. Examples:
New Drugs Electronic Circuits Software Manufacturing Processes New Bacteria, Animals, Plants Machines Manufactured Products COMP 290-083 Patent Law Design Patents (ornamentation) cover the unique, ornamental or visible shape or design of an object. Uniqueness of shape must be purely for aesthetic reasons If for functional reasons utility patent applies Example: Workshop wall clock in shape of saw blade design patent
Special shape for airplane to reduce turbulence utility patent Plant Patents cover asexually reproducible plants through use of grafts and cuttings. COMP 290-083 Patent Law What cant be patented? Mental processes and abstract ideas (unless reduced to tangible form) Laws of nature Naturally occurring articles Literary/dramatic/musical/artistic works (copyrightable items) COMP 290-083
The Life Of An Invention Conceived but not documented Documented, but patent application not filed Inventor has no rights! Potential rights exist if first to invent 1-3 year process kept secret by PTO Patent pending, filed but not issued Patent issued: In-force Patent Expires
Right to exclude Patent infringement suits Licensing Public Record 20 years after filed No rights remain Prior-art reference Patent Law Can a patent right be lost? Failure to pay maintenance fees One or more prior-art references (earlier patents or other publications) are uncovered that show that the
invention wasnt new Patent owner engages in illegal conduct, e.g., antitrust violations with patent Fraud on PTO by failing to disclose material information (e.g., prior art) while patent was pending Re-examination COMP 290-083 Re-examination Anyone can initiate Modest fee Re-examination conditions Prior art that existed at the time patent application was filed has been discovered Results of re-examination may include:
COMP 290-083 Patent is fine Some claims invalidated Some claims narrowed Patent invalidated Common Patent Misconceptions 1. Patent gives owner the right to practice an invention. Fact if no person holds an exclusionary right (patent) you can practice your invention freely. 2. If a product is patented, it is bound to be superior. Fact a patent merely means that the invention is
significantly different, not necessarily superior. COMP 290-083 Common Patent Misconceptions 3. Once you get a patent, youll make money. Fact less than 5% of all patents produce enough revenue to pay for their prosecution costs. COMP 290-083 Patent Law In order for an invention to be patentable, what requirements must it satisfy? Novelty different from what is known, any difference, even slight, will suffice (35 USC 102) Non-obvious at the time of invention, it was nonobvious to a person skilled in the art (35 USC 103) Useful has value, works as described in patent (as perceived by patent examiner)
COMP 290-083 Parts of a Patent Application Title should reflect the essence of invention without being too long (~ seven words maximum) or so specific that its narrower than the full scope of invention. Parts of a Patent Application Title Field of Invention a one-sentence paragraph stating the general and specific field in which your invention falls, e.g., This invention relates to bicycles, specifically to an improved petal mechanism for a bicycle.
Parts of a Patent Application Title Field of Invention Background discuss how the problem to which your invention is directed was approached previously, and then list all the disadvantages of the old ways of doing it. Dont be too derogatory, but make your invention look as good as possible by explaining why the prior art isnt as good Keep statements factual not opinionated Explain why a solution to the problem is needed Parts of a Patent Application Title Field of Invention Background
Objects and Advantages Objects What the invention accomplishes Advantages Sing the Praises of invention over prior art The more information placed here the better Remember once patent issues, the entire application becomes part of the public record (prior art) Less likely that someone else can get an improvement patent due to non-obviousness Parts of a Patent Application Title Field of Invention Background Objects and Advantages Detailed Description Description of drawings a series of separate paragraphs,
each briefly describing a respective figure of your drawing, e.g., Figure 1 is a perspective view of the invention. Description of invention detailed description of the static physical structure of invention. If a process, describe the procedures or machinery involved in it. Parts of a Patent Application Title Field of Invention Background Objects and Advantages Detailed Description Claims the claim is the invention Parts of a Patent Application Title Field of Invention
Background Objects and Advantages Detailed Description Claims Abstract a one paragraph (~250 words) concise summary of the invention. Usually read first While at end of application, it goes on first page of issued patents Write last! Parts of a Patent Application Title Field of the invention Background Objects and advantages Detailed description
Claims Abstract Patent Application Tips The claim is the invention Claim has three parts: Preamble Body Whereby clause Purpose of claim to unambiguously define the invention in words (no diagrams/charts) Structure of claim one sentence (can use , ; : but no period except at end). It does not need to follow proper rules of grammar. Patent Application Tips Characterization of claim
Broad (the less said, the broader) Narrow (the more said, the narrower) Five types of claims: Process or method Machine Article or article of manufacture Composition of matter New use of previous four statutory classes (always a method claim) COMP 290-083 Sample Process Claim A method for joining two pieces of cloth together at their edges, comprising the steps of: a. Positioning said two pieces of cloth together so that an edge portion of one piece overlaps an adjacent edge portion of the other piece, and b. Passing a thread repeatedly through and along the length
of the overlapping portions in sequentially opposite directions and through sequentially spaced holes in said overlapping adjacent portions, whereby said two pieces of cloth will be attached along said edge portions. COMP 290-083 SEWING Process/Method Claim If possible, try to include a process claim (the process followed to use the invention) in every patent application Even if an infringer can design around the physical claims, you will retain some protection from the process claim COMP 290-083
Sample Machine Claim A self-propelled vehicle, comprising: a. a body carriage having rotatable wheels mounted there under for enabling said body carriage to roll along a surface, b. an engine mounted in said carriage for producing rotational energy, and c. means for controllably coupling rotational energy from said engine to at least one of said wheels, whereby said carriage will be self-propelled along said surface. AUTOMOBILE Sample Software Machine Claim A machine of inserting additional characters within an existing series of characters on a display, comprising:
a. a memory which is able to store a series of characters at an adjacent series of addresses in said memory, b. a character input means which a human operator can use to store a series of characters in said memory at said adjacent series of addresses, c. A display which is operatively connected to said memory for displaying said series of characters stored in said memory at said adjacent series of addresses, d. a pointer means which said operator can manipulate to point to any location between any adjacent characters within said series of characters displayed on said display, Sample Machine Claim e. a memory controller which will: 1) direct any additional character which said operator enters via said character input means to a location in said memory, beginning at an address corresponding to the location between said adjacent characters as displayed on said display, and
2) cause all characters in said series of characters which are stored in said memory at addresses subsequent to said location in said memory to be transposed to subsequent addresses in said memory so that said additional characters will be stored in said memory at said location and before all of said subsequent characters, whereby said display will display said additional characters within said series of characters at said location between said adjacent characters, and whereby a writer can add words within the existing body of text and the added words are displayed in an orderly and clean fashion without having to reenter said existing body of text. WORD-PROCESSOR Sample Article of Manufacture Claim A hand-held writing instrument comprising: a. elongated core-element means that will leave a marking
line if moved across paper or other similar surface, and b. an elongated holder surrounding and encasing said holder being removable from an end thereof to expose an end of said core-element means so as to enable said core-element means to be exposed for writing, whereby said holder protects said core-element means from breakage and provides an enlarged means for holding said core-element means conveniently. COMP 290-083 PENCIL Sample Composition of Matter Claim A rigid building and paving material comprising a mixture of sand and stones, and a hardened cement binder filling the interstices between and adhering to sand and stone, whereby a hardened,
rigid and strong matrix for building and paving will be provided. CONCRETE Sample New Use Claim A method of stimulating the growth of swine comprising feeding such swine aspirin in an amount effective to increase their rate of growth. Definitions Comprising including the following items, but can also include others (open-ended). Consisting of including the following items only (closed-ended). COMP 290-083
Banana Split Example Food item comprising the following items: bananas, strawberries, ice cream and whipped cream. Food item consisting of the following items: bananas, strawberries, ice cream and whipped cream. Question: If I add walnuts, do I infringe on either claim? COMP 290-083 Writing Claims Strategy Write claim based upon your understanding of invention Broaden based upon results of prior art search Narrow based upon your instincts concerning nondiscovered prior art
Dont be greedy! Seek adequate protection for your invention dont try to cover the waterfront Remember If too broad, the claim may include some prior art that was never intended and may invalidate patent. Writing Claims Ways to make a claim narrower Qualify an existing element Add an additional element Limit claim to what something is: Not what it is not Not its advantages Writing Claims First claim is always independent
Write a series of dependent claims in successively narrower terms If broader claim is disallowed, a more specific (narrower) one may be allowed (becomes the new independent claim) COMP 290-083 Writing Claims Important: Always chart claims to be certain no claims are left hanging! COMP 290-083 Writing Claims Independent Claim An article of furniture for holding objects for a sitting human, comprising:
(a) a sheet of rigid material of sufficient size to accommodate use by a human being for writing working COMP 290-083 and Writing Claims: Simple Claims Map 1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8 I D D D D D
D D 1. An article of furniture . . . 2. The article of furniture of Claim 1 wherein said sheet of rigid material is made of wood. 3. The article of furniture of Claim 2 wherein said sheet of rigid material of wood is made of chipboard. 4. The article of furniture of Claim 3 wherein said sheet of chipboard has a rectangular shape. COMP 290-083 Writing Claims Independent Claim An article of furniture for holding objects for a sitting
human, comprising: (a) a sheet of rigid material of sufficient size to accommodate use by a human being for writing and working; (b) a plurality of elongated support members of equal length; and (c) means for joining said elongated support members at right angles to the underside of said top at spaced locations so as to be able to support said top horizontally. Writing Claims: Multiple Path Dependent Claims Map 15 D 14 D
13 D 1 I (c) means for joining said elongated support members at right angles to the underside of said top at spaced locations so as to be able to support said top horizontally. 9
D 2 D 3 D 4 D 5 D 6 D 7
D (a) a sheet of rigid material of sufficient size to accommodate use by a human being for writing and working 10 D 11 D 12 D (b) a plurality of elongated support members of equal length 8 D
Writing Claims Strategies for developing multiple independent claims: Describe the invention from several different perspectives Write a claim on part of the invention, then on the remainder of invention, then on both parts combined Writing Patent Claims Initial filing fee allows 20 claims total with up to 3 being independent More allowed for additional fee Multiple dependent fees allowed for additional fees Must be expressed in Bolian and/or terms
Understanding Infringement Battle between a product/process and a patent 1 COMP 290-083 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 Understanding Infringement Battle between a product/process and a patent 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Infringed Are any other claims infringed? COMP 290-083 8 Understanding Infringement Battle between a product/process and a patent 1 2 3 4
5 6 7 Infringed Are any other claims infringed? Yes, 1 and 2 but not 4-8! COMP 290-083 8 Understanding Infringement 15 D
14 D 13 D 1 I 9 D 10 D 11 D 12 D 2
D 3 D 4 D 5 D 6 D 7 D 8
D Understanding Infringement 15 D 14 D 13 D 1 I 9 D 10 D
11 D 12 D 2 D 3 D 4 D 5 D 6
D 7 D 8 D Infringed Are any other claims infringed? Understanding Infringement 15 D 14 D
13 D 1 I 9 D 10 D 2 D 3 D 4
D 5 D 6 D 7 D 8 D Infringed Are any other claims infringed?
11 D 12 D Yes, 1, 2 and 3 but not 5-15! Understanding Invalidation 1 COMP 290-083 2 3 4
5 6 7 8 Understanding Invalidation 1 2 3 4
5 6 Prior art reads on claim Are any other claims lost? COMP 290-083 7 8 Understanding Invalidation 1
2 3 4 5 6 Prior art reads on claim Are any other claims lost? Yes, 1-3 but not 5-8! COMP 290-083 7
8 Understanding Invalidation 15 D 14 D 13 D 1 I 9 D 10
D 11 D 12 D 2 D 3 D 4 D 5 D
6 D 7 D Prior art reads on claim Are any other claims lost? 8 D Understanding Invalidation 15 D
14 D 13 D 1 I 9 D 10 D 11 D 12 D 2
D 3 D 4 D 5 D 6 D 7 D Prior art reads
on claim Are any other claims lost? Yes, 1-4 and 9-15! 8 D Understanding Invalidation 15 D 14 D 13 D
1 I 9 D 10 D 11 D 12 D 2 D 3 D 4
D 5 D 6 D 7 D Prior art reads on claim Are any other claims lost? Yes, 1-4 and 9-15! How should you respond?
8 D Understanding Invalidation Previous dependent claims become new independent claims! 11 D 10 D 13 5 9 I
1 I 5 I 6 D 7 D 8 D 9 2 D 3
D 4 D Can You Sue For Infringement If? Product comes on market that infringes Claim 6. They find prior art that reads on Claim 5. 1 2 3 4 5
Prior Art COMP 290-083 6 7 8 Infringement Can You Sue For Infringement If? Product comes on market that infringes Claim 6. They find prior art that reads on Claim 5. 1
2 3 4 5 6 Prior Art Yes, Claims 6-8 remain! COMP 290-083 7 8
Infringement Tip: Patent Prosecution Never say anything negative about your invention in writing If examiner raises an issue in an action and you agree, simply ignore the issue in your response thus conceding the point If examiner uses prior art in an action to argue obviousness, check for diverse fields COMP 290-083 History of Copyright in the U.S. Late 15th Century England Introduction of Printing Press 1710 Statute of Anne
Established principles of authors ownership of copyright Fixed term of protection (14 years, renewable for 14 more if author is alive upon expiration of protection) Created a public domain for literature by limiting term of protection and ensuring that once a work was purchased the author no longer had control over its use 1787 U.S. Constitution
According to Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the U.S. Constitution, the Congress shall have power . . . to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries History of Copyright in the U.S. 1790 U.S. Copyright Act Granted American authors the right to print, re-print or publish their work for a period of 14 years and to renew for another 14 years 1831 Revision of the U.S. Copyright Act Extended term of protection to 28 years with possibility of a 14 year extension
Conformed with European law 1870 Revision of the U.S. Copyright Act Administration of copyright registrations moved from District Courts to the Library of Congress Copyright Office No change in term of protection History of Copyright in the U.S. 1886 Berne Convention
Mutual recognition of copyright between sovereign nations Uniform law to replace need for registration in every country U.S. did not become a signatory until 1988 1908 Berlin Act Set duration of copyright protection at life of author plus 50 years
Expanded scope to include newer technologies 1909 Revision to the U.S. Copyright Act Broadened scope to protect all works of authorship Extended term of protection to 28 years with possibility of a 28 year renewal History of Copyright in the U.S. 1976 Revision to the U.S. Copyright Act In anticipation of U.S. adherence to the Berne Convention (1886), extended term of protection to life of author plus 50 years (75 years
for works for hire) Allowed for library copying without permission for purposes of scholarship preservation
inter-library loan Fair Use Doctrine was Codified the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright History of Copyright in the U.S. To determine whether use is a fair use: 1. purpose and character of use (including whether the use is commercially motivated or instead is for nonprofit educational purposes)
2. nature of copyrighted work 3. amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to whole 4. effect of use on potential market 1988 U.S. becomes Berne Convention Signatory 1990 Revision to the U.S. Copyright Act Allowed libraries to lend computer software provided copy of a computer program which is lent by such library has affixed to the packaging containing the program a warning of copyright
History of Copyright in the U.S. 1991 Basic Books, Inc. v. Kinkos Graphics Corp. A Federal District Court in New York ruled that Kinkos Graphic Corporation infringed copyrights, and did not exercise fair use, when it photocopied coursepacks that included book chapters, and then sold them to students for classwork. The court found that most of the fair use factors worked against Kinkos in this case, especially given Kinkos profit motive in making the copies. Additionally, the court found that the classroom guidelines did not apply to Kinkos. The court did not rule that coursepacks cannot constitute fair use in other circumstances. History of Copyright in the U.S. 1991 Feist Publications v. Rural Telephone Service Co., Inc. The U.S. Supreme Court found that the U.S. Constitution requires that, for a work to receive copyright protection, it must reflect creative expression or originality. Thus, the compilation of a telephone directory by Feist was not an infringement even though it was compiled from the information in the Rural Telephone Service White Pages. The information in the white pages was not
copyrightable because it comprised comprehensive collection of facts arranged in conventional formats. New Challenges to Intellectual Property Rights in the Digital Age Copyright and Printed Matter Copying a book is expensive (poor quality) Loaning it to someone means you cant use it Somewhat self-enforcing Law, public policy, economics and technology were in relative balance
Copyright and Electronic Information Infinite number of high quality copies Free and instantaneous distribution (world-wide) Expectations of internet users access to information Copyright infringement is relatively easy to accomplish Law, public policy, economics and technology are no longer in relative balance New Challenges to Intellectual Property Rights in the Digital Age The Digital Dilemma The promise of more quantity, quality and access to information while
Imperiling the means for rewarding those who create and publish thus Reducing the incentive to create! 200 Years of Intellectual Property History Rethinking our fundamental premises and practices Test cases of significant importance occur almost daily Changes are every bit as significant to society as those associated with the industrial revolution All this occurring in the context of a global economy where laws and practices vary widely New Challenges to Intellectual Property Rights in the Digital Age Remember Balance of Private Rights and Public Interest the Congress shall have power . . . to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings
and discoveries Copyright Law in the Digital Age 1988 Apple v. Microsoft 1985 License agreement between Apple and Microsoft concerning screen display 1988 Copyright and breach of contract lawsuit by Apple alleging that in Windows 1.0 Microsoft (and HPs NewWave) went beyond license agreement 1994 9th Circuit Court of Appeals Ruled Copyright law protects the original expression of ideas in tangible form (not ideas alone) Normal standard infringing copy is substantially similar to original work New standard Virtually identical (higher standard) Copyright Law in the Digital Age 1993 Playboy Enterprises Inc. v. Frena
The Florida Northern District Court held that Frena, an electronic bulletin board operator, had violated Playboys copyright when one of their photographs was digitized and placed on the bulletin board system by one subscriber and downloaded by another subscriber. According to the decision, it does not matter that Defendant Frena may have been unaware of the copyright infringement. Intent to infringe is not needed to find copyright infringement. Intent or knowledge is not an element of infringement, and thus even an innocent infringer is liable for infringement; rather innocence is significant to a trial court when it fixes statutory damages, which is a remedy equitable in nature. Copyright Law in the Digital Age 1998 Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act Extended protection to life of the author plus 70 years (95 years for works for hire) Applied to current as well as future copyrighted materials 1-15-03 Supreme Court upheld law
1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) Implemented WIPO Internet Treaties Facilitated Internet Broadcasting Section 1201 prohibits gaining unauthorized access to a work by circumventing a technological protection measure put in place by the copyright owner where such protection measure otherwise effectively controls access to a copyrighted work Copyright Law in the Digital Age 2000 Recording Industry Association of America v. Napster 1998 19 year old Shawn Fanning (nickname Napster), a college student at Northeastern University, developed a software application to search for MP3 files on line. MP3s greatly compressed file size (12:1) and high sound quality, made them the preferred means to digitally transmit music files over internet His peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing technology allowed users to connect with each other and share individual files stored on their individual hard drives (without regard to copyright)
June 12, 2000 RIAA files lawsuit against Napster for copyright infringement February 12, 2001 9th Circuit Court of Appeals ruled Napster liable for both contributory and vicarious copyright infringement Copyright Law in the Digital Age 2001 Russian Programmer Arrested for Copyright Circumvention Dmitri Sklyarov, a Russian programmer accused of circumventing copyright protections in Adobe Systems eBook Reader while working for a Russian software firm, ElcomSoft. Sklyarov was arrested in July 2001. ElcomSoft was charged with one count of conspiracy and four counts of trafficking in technology used to circumvent copyright protections. ElcomSofts attorneys argued that the actions at issue in the case occurred outside of the U.S., and that the law banned tools that consumers could use for legitimate purposes, such as blind people converting e-books to audio files to be read aloud by their computers. Finally the attorneys argued that
computer code is speech and is therefore protected under the first amendment to the U.S. Constitution. ElcomSoft verdict: Not guilty (12-17-02) Jury found there was insufficient evidence to prove ElcomSoft acted willfully and knew their actions were intended to violate the law. Copyright Law in the Digital Age 2001 Greenberg v. National Geographic Society Two photographers claimed that inclusion of their photographs in the NGSs CD-ROM version violated their copyrights. NGS argued that Section 201 (c) of the Copyright Act permits the owner of copyright in a collective work, such as a magazine or encyclopedia, to reproduce and distribute an individual authors freelance contribution as part of that particular collective work, any revision to that collective work, and any later collective work in the same series. Furthermore, NGS argued that since the CD-ROM included every magazine published between 1888-1996, it would be impossible to locate every free-lance photographer who owns copyrighted pictures.
Greenberg argued that the copyright law prohibits new uses for existing photographs without negotiated royalty payments. 11th Circuit Court agreed with Greenburg and Supreme Court refused to hear the case, thus upholding lower court decision which found for Greenburg. Parody: Fair Use or Copyright Infringement A parody, because it is a method of criticism, must inevitably make use of another creative work. This inherently creates a conflict between the creator of the work that is being parodied (as no one likes to be criticized, made fun of or ridiculed) and the creator of the parody. It is also highly unlikely that a copyright owner will grant permission or a license to a parodist to use their copyright protected work in creating a parody. Parody: Fair Use or Copyright Infringement A parody, because it is a method of criticism, must inevitably make use of another creative work. This inherently creates a conflict between the
creator of the work that is being parodied (as no one likes to be criticized, made fun of or ridiculed) and the creator of the parody. It is also highly unlikely that a copyright owner will grant permission or a license to a parodist to use their copyright protected work in creating a parody. Since copyright law prohibits the substantial use of a copyrighted work without permission of the copyright owner, and because such permission is highly unlikely when the use is to create a parody, it may be necessary for the parodist to rely on the fair-use defense to forestall any liability for copyright infringement. Another defense first amendment right of free speech! Parody: Fair Use or Copyright Infringement 1994 Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music Inc. The Supreme Court ruled that 2 Live Crews parody of Roy Orbisons song, Pretty Woman, was a fair use. The court found that a commercial use could be a fair use especially when the markets for an original work and a transformative work are different.
Copyright Law What is a copyright? A right that the government gives an author of any original work of expression to exclude others from copying or commercially using the work without approval. What does a copyright cover? Literary/dramatic/musical/artistic works Software Any work of authorship COMP 290-083 Copyright Law When does a copyright go into effect? Common at moment of creation Registered with U.S. Copyright Office (USCO)
Helps to prove first to create in infringement suits (also can collect damages plus legal fees) Copyright Notice Copyright 2003 Timothy L. Quigg All Rights Reserved COMP 290-083 [TITLE of SOFTWARE] Copyright [DATE], The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill All rights reserved. No part of this software may be sold or distributed in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Distribution and use of this software is subject to the Software License Agreement [ incorporated in this software][set forth below]. By having, retaining or using a copy of this software, you agree to be subject to the terms of the Software License Agreement. ******* Software License Agreement Permission is given to copy [Name of Software], and its files (the Software) and to use them locally, as long as foregoing Copyright Notice is not removed and the Software name is retained unaltered. By opening, possessing, retaining, using, or having a copy of the
Software, you are deemed to have agreed to the terms of this Software License Agreement. The Software is provided strictly on an "as is" basis without warranty of any kind. Neither the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, its faculty, staff or students, nor anyone else who has been involved in the creation, production or delivery of the Software shall be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential or incidental damages arising out of the use or inability to use the Software even if such entities or persons may be advised of the possibility of such damages. No part of this software may be sold or distributed in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Your use of the Software is limited to non-commercial, not-for-profit uses and activities. To secure permission to make any other use of the Software, you should contact the person named below. Contact person: ______________, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill email: @cs.unc.edu phone: fax: Copyright Law How long does a copyright last? Life of author + 70 years
What constitutes a copyright infringement? Directly copying or commercially using the particular arrangement of words in a published work You can use the ideas/concepts if expressed in your own words COMP 290-083 Computer Software: Where Patents and Copyrights Overlap Software as a creative work of expression copyright Software as a set of instructions that make a machine operate in a certain way - patent COMP 290-083 Computer Software
Advantages to patent protection: 20 years, broad protection Disadvantages to patent protection: > 2 years to issue (may not be valuable) Cost COMP 290-083 Computer Software Advantages to copyright protection: Inexpensive Immediate protection Life of author + 70 years Disadvantages to copyright protection: Copyright only covers the way program is written, not what it does (all word processors do the same things)
Easy to design around COMP 290-083 Comparison of Design Patent with Copyright Design Patent Copyright Aesthetic Aspects of Manufactured Articles Literary/Artistic Works Broad Rights Expensive Filing/Prosecution with PTO
COMP 290-083 Narrow Rights Against Copiers, Not Against Independent Creators Small Filing Fee Trademark Law What is a trademark? Any word or symbol that is consistently attached to a product to identify and distinguish it from others in the marketplace, e.g., a brand name Often used with patents for extra protection Xerox has patents on photocopiers and the Xerox trademark name If patent expires, trademark still offers some protection Also used with products that are not patent protected (Hula Hoop, Crock Pot)
COMP 290-083 Trademark Law Other protected words/symbols include: Service Marks (Blue Cross/Blue Shield Emblem) Certification Marks (Good Housekeeping Seal of Approval) Collective Marks (FDIC Symbol) Trade Name (Proctor & Gamble is trade name Ivory is trademark) COMP 290-083 Trademark Law So, you need a Band-Aid (sterile bandage strip) and some aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), because while you were in the park roller-blading (in-line skating) and rocking out to your Walkman (portable stereo device), a Frisbee (plastic flying disk toy) clocked you on the noggin (head).
Trademark Law So, you need a Band-Aid (sterile bandage strip) and some aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), because while you were in the park roller-blading (in-line skating) and rocking out to your Walkman (portable stereo device), a Frisbee (plastic flying disk toy) clocked you on the noggin (head). The word aspirin is a trademarked brand owned by the German company Bayer AG. Only Bayer may legally use that word everywhere in the world, with the United States being the lone exception. Thats a legacy of World War II. Trademark laws are specific per country. Some countries dont even have trademark laws. Trademark Law June, 2002 Austrias Supreme Court ruled that Sony can no longer claim exclusive trademark rights for the name walkman, the hand-held
portable tape player it introduced in 1979. The court reasoned that the word had passed into common usage once it had been defined in a German dictionary as any portable stereo player. In the United States, however, the Walkman name and product remains solely under Sonys ownership, and will probably remain so for the foreseeable future. Trademark Law Victorias Secret v. Victors Secret January, 2003 the case involved a Kentucky mom-and-pop business called Victors Secret that sells adult novelty and wild outfits. The claimed the name was inspired by Victor Moseleys desire to keep the business secret from a former employer. The lingerie manufacturer Victorias Secret, which has held the trademark on its name since 1981, claimed unfair competition, trademark infringement, and sued him. At issue for the Supreme Court was whether Victorias Secret had to show its trademark was diluted, or whether there was merely the likelihood of economic harm if the store was allowed to keep the name.
A unanimous court ruled that while Victorias Secret unquestionably has an interest in protecting its famous name, federal trademark law requires more evidence that a competitor actually caused harm by using a sound-alike or knockoff name. Ruling for Victors Secret. Trademark Law Matel v. MCA Records and Aqua January, 2003 The Supreme Court declined without comment to hear a rancorous appeal from Mattel in a trademark battle over the right to parody Barbie in song. Mattel sued after Aqua, a Danish band, called Barbie a blond bimbo in their smash 1997 dance single Barbie Girl. The 9th Circuit ruled last summer that Aquas free-speech rights in their parody outweighed Mattels right to see its trademark untarnished and undiluted by Aquas mean lyrics. Barbie broke her silence today to speak out about the lawsuit, issuing the following press release from the steps of her Barbie Dreamhouse in Malibu:
Trademark Law Barbies Response Ladies and Gentlemen: It is with a heavy chest that I learned of the Supreme Courts decision this week not to hear the appeal of my case against Aqua. I want to say for the record that I believe strongly in free speech and that for only $1.99 I will phone you or your child at home and speak freely to them about all things Barbie TM. So call now. I also want to add that as a feminist, an international spokesmodel, and an artist, I respect the courts decision about the right of everyone to capitalize on and exploit me and not just the people at Mattel. Finally, I want to express my deep regret about the courts decision to hear Mickey Mouses intellectual property lawsuit earlier this year, while refusing to hear mine. Its hard to believe that the Supreme Court would be more interested in the fate of that tired little Disney rodent than they would be in mine, but I guess that just goes to show you that sexism is still alive and well in America. Maybe someday when everyone on the Supreme Court looks like and/or Ann Coulter, women, feminists, and Americas downtrodden will finally be treated equally in the eyes of the law. Thank you.
Disclaimer: The above material is intended purely as a parody of Barbie and in no way reflects an attempt by Slate to capitalize on Barbies name, likeness, or image. Any references herein to Barbie are purely coincidental. Trademark Law Offensive rights for trademark protection: Arbitrary (Apple Computers), fanciful (Double Rainbow Ice Cream), or coined terms (Intel) are strongest terms Generic (The Pill for birth control pills) or descriptive (Electric Fork) are weak and yield little offensive rights Dont select a mark already in use (or close enough to cause customer confusion, mistake or deception) Use the name or file an intent-to-use (ITU) Register with PTO Trade Secret Law
What is a trade secret? Any information, design, devise, process, composition, technique, or formula that is not known generally and that affords its owner a competitive business advantage Examples Formula for paper used to make U.S. currency Chemical recipes for soft drinks, cosmetics, etc. Manufacturing process for forming eyes in needles COMP 290-083 Trade Secret Law Trade secrets may also take the form of Business Information. Customer lists Names of suppliers Pricing data Both technical and business information trade
secrets can be protected! COMP 290-083 Trade Secret Law The law affords protection for trade secrets: 1. Proportional to their business value and 2. Based upon how well the business protected the secret The courts have rejected requests for relief if company had sloppy procedures for protecting secrets! COMP 290-083 Relationship of Patents To Trade Secrets
Pending patent applications are confidential, thus the information can be protected as a trade secret Rejected patent applications remain confidential, thus the information can be protected as a trade secret Even if a decision is made by PTO to grant a patent, it can be rejected COMP 290-083 Relationship of Patents To Trade Secrets Why would an owner choose to reject patent protection in favor of protection under trade secret law?
Perpetual protection is possible Cost Confidentiality makes it hard to design around Inventors arent named in trade secret rights Trade secret rights are obtained immediately COMP 290-083 Relationship of Patents To Trade Secrets Why would an owner choose patent protection over trade secret law? Reverse engineering is possible with trade secrets. Patents are presumed valid by the court, trade secrets must be proven to exist before the suit may proceed. Trade secrets discovered by legitimate means may be
patented by others (if an invention is protected under trade secret law and put to commercial use, a patent must be filed within one year or any subsequently issued patent may be invalided). COMP 290-083 Important Inventors should consider the relative advantages/disadvantages available for protecting their creations under U.S. intellectual property law! COMP 290-083 University/Industry Research Collaboration Issues 1. NDA/CDA/PIA 2. Licensing Agreements
3. Industry-Sponsored Research 4. Conflict of Interest Non-Disclosure Agreements One or Two Way PROPRIETARY INFORMATION EXCHANGE AGREEMENT This Agreement is entered into by and between Corporation, a corporation organized and existing under the laws of Delaware, by and through its Electronic Systems, having offices at Baltimore, Maryland (hereinafter referred to as Corporation) and the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, a corporation organized and existing under the laws of by and through its Division, having offices at 245 Sitterson Hall, UNC Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (hereinafter referred to as UNC ). Subject of Corporation information: Strategy and proposal information for DARPA Class Program. Subject of UNC information: Strategy and proposal information for DARPA Class Program. Purpose of exchange: To enable teaming discussions for the DARPA Class Program. The parties hereto desire to exchange the information described above, and considered by them to be proprietary, for the above-stated purpose. The party furnishing the proprietary information will
be referred to as the Disclosing Party and the party receiving the proprietary information will be referred to as the Receiving Party. In order to provide for the protection of such proprietary information from unauthorized use and disclosure, the parties hereby agree that the disclosure of such information between them shall be subject to the following terms and conditions: Non-Disclosure Agreements Definition of Confidential Information 1. Only that information disclosed in written form and identified by a marking thereon as proprietary, or oral information which is identified as proprietary at the time of disclosure and confirmed in writing within thirty (30) days of its disclosure, shall be considered proprietary and subject to this Agreement. 2. The exclusive points of contact with respect to the delivery and control of proprietary information disclosed hereunder are designated by the parties as follows:
UNC: Faculty Member name, address and phone Corporation: Contact name, address and phone Either party may change its point of contact by written notice to the other. Non-Disclosure Agreements Duration 3. Information identified and disclosed as provided in this Agreement shall be held by the Receiving Party in confidence for a period of 5 year(s) from the date of receipt. During such period, such information shall be used only for the purpose stated above and shall not be
disclosed to any third party. Neither party shall be liable for disclosure pursuant to judicial action or government regulation or requirement, provided that the originating party is given prompt notice of such government or judicial action and is afforded an opportunity to respond prior to disclosure by the Receiving Party. Non-Disclosure Agreements Degree of Care 4. 5. The parties shall have no obligation under this Agreement to hold information in confidence which, although identified and disclosed as stated herein, has been or is: a) developed by the Receiving Party independently and without the benefit of information disclosed hereunder by the Disclosing Party;
b) lawfully obtained by the Receiving Party from a third party without restriction; c) publicly available without breach of this Agreement; d) disclosed without restriction by the Disclosing Party to a third party, including the United States Government; or e) known to the Receiving Party prior to its receipt from the Disclosing Party. Each party shall use not less than the degree of care used to prevent disclosure of its own
proprietary information to prevent disclosure of information received in accordance with this Agreement. In no event, however, shall less than a reasonable standard of care be used. Non-Disclosure Agreements Export Control 6. All information received and identified in accordance with this Agreement shall remain the property of the Disclosing Party and shall be returned upon request. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as a right or license, express or implied, under any patent copyright, or application therefore, of either party by or to the other party. 7. Any U. S. Government classified information disclosed by one party to the other shall be handled in accordance with the Department of Defense Industrial Security Manual for Safeguarding Classified Information (DoD 5220.22-M) or the National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM), their supplements, and other applicable U. S.
Government security regulations. 8. The Receiving Party represents and warrants that no technical data delivered to it by the Disclosing Party shall be exported from the United States without first complying with all requirements of the International Traffic in Arms Regulations and the Export Administration Act, including the requirement for obtaining any export license, if applicable. The Receiving Party shall first obtain the written consent of the Disclosing Party prior to submitting any request for authority to export any such technical data. Non-Disclosure Agreements Governing Law Authorized Signature 9. The terms and conditions herein constitute the entire agreement and understanding of the parties and shall supersede all communications, negotiations, arrangements and agreements, either oral or written, with respect to the subject matter hereof. No amendments to or
modifications of this Agreement shall be effective unless reduced to writing and executed by the Parties hereto. The failure of either party to enforce any term hereof shall not be deemed a waiver of any rights contained herein. 10. The effective date of this Agreement shall be the date of the last signature below. This Agreement shall expire one (1) year from the effective date hereof unless extended in writing by the parties hereto. The obligations of the parties contained in paragraph 3 above shall continue in effect notwithstanding the expiration of this Agreement. 11. This Agreement shall be governed and interpreted in accordance with the laws of the State of Maryland except its rules in regard to choice of laws. CORPORATION UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA, CHAPEL HILL
BY: BY: TYPED NAME: TYPED NAME: TITLE: TITLE: DATE: DATE: AGREEMENT NO.:
University/Industry Research Collaboration Issues 1. NDA/CDA/PIA 2. Licensing Agreements Licensing Agreement THIS LICENSE AGREEMENT is made and entered into this ___ day of _______, 199__ between THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL having an address at CB #4105, 308 Bynum Hall, Chapel Hill, N.C. (hereinafter referred to as University) and _________________ , a corporation organized and existing under the laws of _________ and having an address at ____________________________________, (hereinafter referred to as Licensee). WITNESSETH WHEREAS, University owns and controls an invention known as " ________"; file #OTD ______ (hereafter, "Invention"); and WHEREAS, the Invention was developed by __________ (hereafter, "Inventor"), of the University; and WHEREAS, Licensee is desirous of producing, using and selling products which include the use of Invention and is willing to expend its best efforts and resources to do so if it can obtain a license to use the Invention under
the terms and conditions set forth herein; and WHEREAS, University desires to facilitate a timely transfer of its information and technology concerning the Invention for the ultimate benefit of the public and this transfer is best accomplished by the grant of this license; and WHEREAS, in the opinion of the University, this transfer can best be accomplished consistent with its mission by affiliation with Licensee; NOW, THEREFORE, for and in consideration of the covenants, conditions, and undertakings hereinafter set forth, it is agreed by and between the parties as follows: Licensing Agreement 1. Definitions 1.1 "University Technology" means any unpublished research and development information, know-how, and technical data in the possession of the Inventor prior to the effective date of this Agreement which relates to and is necessary for the practice of the Invention and which University has the right to provide to Licensee. l.2 "Licensed Products" means any method, procedure, product, or component part thereof whose manufacture or sale includes any use of University Technology or Patent Rights.
1.3 "Patent Rights" means any U.S. patents and/or patent applications covering the Invention owned or controlled by University prior to or during the term of this Agreement and which University has the right to provide to Licensee, as well as any continuations, continuations in part, divisionals, provisionals, continued prosecution applications, or reissues thereof, and any foreign counterpart of any of the foregoing. 1.4 "Net Sales Price" means the invoiced sales price, less any charges for (a) sales taxes or other taxes separately stated on the invoice and (b) shipping and insurance charges. 1.5 "Net Sales" means the total Net Sales Price of Licensed Products, after deducting actual allowances for returned or defective goods, less trade discounts, but before cash discounts. Licensed Products will be considered sold when billed out, or when delivered or paid for before delivery, whichever first occurs. 1.6 "Licensed Territory" means ___________________. 1.7 "Licensed Field" means, and is limited to, the practice of the Invention for _________________. Licensing Agreement 2. Grant of License and Term 2.1 University grants to Licensee to the extent of the Licensed Territory a non-exclusive right and license to
use University Technology in the Licensed Field, subject to all the terms and conditions of this Agreement. 2.2 University grants to Licensee to the extent of the Licensed Territory, an exclusive license under the Patent Rights and the right to make, use and sell Licensed Products in the Licensed Field, upon the terms and conditions set forth herein. 2.3 Any license granted herein is exclusive for a term beginning on the date of execution of this Agreement and, unless terminated sooner as herein provided, ending at the expiration of the last to expire patent included in the Patent Rights, or if no patents mature from said Patent Rights, such license shall terminate 15 years from the date of its commencement. 2.4 Licensee shall not disclose any unpublished University Technology furnished by University pursuant to Paragraph 2.1 above to third parties during the term of this Agreement or any time thereafter, provided, however, that disclosure may be made of any such University Technology at any time: (1) with the prior written consent of University, or (2) after the same shall have become public through no fault of Licensee. 2.5 Notwithstanding the foregoing, any and all licenses granted hereunder are subject to the rights of the United States Government which arise out of its sponsorship of the research which led to the Invention. Licensing Agreement 3.
License Fee and Royalties 3.1 Licensee shall pay to University a license issue fee in the amount of _______________. Licensee will pay a further license fee in the form of reimbursement of the costs (including attorney's fees) arising out of the patenting of the Invention pursuant to Article 9 of this Agreement. Both the license issue fee and the reimbursement of patenting costs shall be non-refundable and shall not be a credit against any other amounts due hereunder except as may be provided for elsewhere in this Agreement. Reimbursement of patenting costs shall be due upon monthly billings from University. 3.2 Beginning on the effective date of this Agreement and continuing for the life of this Agreement, Licensee will pay University a running royalty of ___________ of all Net Sales of the Licensed Product(s). 3.3 Licensee agrees to make quarterly written reports to University within 30 days after the first days of each January, April, July, and October during the life of this Agreement and as of such dates, stating in each such report the number, description, and aggregate Net Selling Prices of Licensed Products sold or otherwise disposed of during the preceding three calendar months and upon which royalty is payable as provided in Article 3.2 hereof. The first such report shall include all such Licensed Products so sold or otherwise disposed of prior to the date of such report. Until Licensee has achieved a first commercial sale of a Licensed Product a report shall be submitted by Licensee at the end of each January, April, July and October after the effective date of this Agreement and will include a full written report describing Licensees technical and other efforts made towards such first commercial sale for all
Licensed Products under development. Licensing Agreement 3. License Fee and Royalties 3.4 Concurrently with the making of each such report, Licensee shall pay to the University royalties at the rate specified in Article 3.2 of this Agreement on the Licensed Products included therein. 3.5 If in any calendar year during the term of this Agreement, total amounts payable under Paragraph 3.2 hereof are less than the minimum amount indicated in the Schedule below corresponding to such calendar year, Licensee shall pay the University within thirty (30) days after the end of such calendar year, the difference between the amounts payable for such calendar year and said minimum amount. SCHEDULE Calendar Year 199__ 199__ 199__
199__ and all subsequent years Minimum Amounts 3.6 Should this Agreement become effective or terminate or expire during a calendar year, the minimum royalty under paragraph 3.5 for such portion of a year shall be determined by multiplying the minimum royalty set forth in said paragraph for the year in which this Agreement becomes effective, terminates or expires, by a fraction, the numerator of which shall be the number of days during such calendar year for which this agreement shall be in effect and the denominator of which shall be 365. Licensing Agreement 3. License Fee and Royalties 3.7 In the event of default in payment of any payment owing to University under the terms of this Agreement, and if it becomes necessary for University to undertake legal action to collect said payment, Licensee
shall pay all legal fees and costs incurred by University in connection therewith. 3.8 University may, by written notice to Licensee, terminate this Agreement during any April subsequent to the year ______________, if Licensee has not practiced the Invention during each calendar year which precedes each such April to the extent of generating earned royalties under paragraph 3.2 of this Agreement in the amount of ___________________. 4. Best Efforts 4.1 Licensee shall use its best efforts to proceed diligently with the manufacture and sale of Licensed Products and shall earnestly and diligently offer and continue to offer for sale such Licensed Products, both under reasonable conditions, during the period of this Agreement. 4.2 In particular, Licensee will use its best efforts to meet the performance milestones set forth in Appendix A, which is attached hereto. Licensing Agreement 5.
Cancellation by University 5.1 It is expressly agreed that, notwithstanding the provisions of any other paragraph of this contract, if Licensee should fail to deliver to University any royalty at the time or times that the same should be due to University or if Licensee should in any material respect violate or fail to keep or perform any covenant, condition, or undertaking of this Agreement on its part to be kept or performed hereunder, then and in such event University shall have the right to cancel and terminate this Agreement, and the license herein provided for, by written notice to Licensee if Licensee has failed to cure any such breach within 30 days of receipt of written notice from University describing such breach. Licensee's right to cure a breach will apply only to the first two breaches properly noticed under terms of this Agreement, regardless of the nature of those breaches. Any subsequent breach by Licensee will entitle University to terminate this Agreement upon proper notice. 5.2 Alternatively, should Licensee be in breach or default as set forth above, and should University be in a position where it could rightfully terminate this Agreement, then in its sole discretion, University may convert this exclusive license to a non-exclusive license upon giving notice of such decision to Licensee. 5.3 If Licensee should be adjudged bankrupt or enter into a composition with or assignment for the benefit of its creditors, then in such event University shall have the right to cancel and terminate this Agreement, and the license herein provided for, by written notice to Licensee. 5.4 Any termination or cancellation under any provision of this Agreement shall not relieve Licensee of its
obligation to pay any royalty or other fees (including attorney's fees pursuant to Article 3.1 hereof) due or owing at the time of such cancellation or termination. Licensing Agreement 6. Disposition of Licensed Products On Hand Upon Cancellation or Termination 6.1 Upon cancellation of this Agreement or upon termination in whole or in part, Licensee shall provide University with a written inventory of all University Technology and Licensed Products in process of manufacture, in use or in stock. Except with respect to termination pursuant to Paragraph 5.1, Licensee shall have the privilege of disposing of the inventory of such Licensed Products within a period of one hundred and eighty (180) days of such termination upon conditions most favorable to University that Licensee can reasonably obtain. Licensee will also have the right to complete performance of all contracts requiring use of the University Technology, Patent Rights (except in the case of termination pursuant to Paragraph 5.1) or Licensed Products within and beyond said 180-day period provided that the remaining term of any such contract does not exceed one year. All Licensed Products which are not disposed of as provided above shall be delivered to University or otherwise disposed of, in University's sole discretion, and at Licensee's sole expense.
7. Use of University's Name 7.1 The use of the name of University, or any contraction thereof, in any manner in connection with the exercise of this license is expressly prohibited except with prior written consent of University. 8. University Use 8.1 It is expressly agreed that, notwithstanding any provisions herein, University is free to use University Technology, Patent Rights and Licensed Products for its own research, public service, clinical, teaching and educational purposes without payment of royalties. Furthermore, University shall be free to publish University Technology, as it sees fit. Licensing Agreement 9.
Patents and Infringements 9.1 Licensee shall bear the cost of filing and prosecuting U.S. Patent applications included within the Patent Rights. Such filings and prosecution shall be by counsel of University's choosing and shall be in the name of University. University shall keep Licensee advised as to the prosecution of such applications by forwarding to Licensee copies of all official correspondence, (including, but not limited to, Applications, Office Actions, responses, etc.) relating thereto. Licensee shall have the right to advise University as to such prosecution, and further, shall have the right to make reasonable requests as to the conduct of such prosecution. 9.2 As regards filing of foreign patent applications corresponding to the U.S. applications described in paragraph 9.1 above, Licensee shall designate that country or those countries, if any, in which Licensee desires such corresponding patent application(s) to be filed. Licensee shall pay all costs and legal fees associated with the preparation and filing of such designated foreign patent applications and such applications shall be in the University's name. University may elect to file corresponding patent applications in countries other than those designated by Licensee, but in that event University shall be responsible for all costs associated with such nondesignated filings. In such event, Licensee shall forfeit its rights under this license in the country(ies) where University exercises its option to file such corresponding patent applications. Licensing Agreement
9. Patents and Infringements 9.3 If the production, sale or use of Licensed Products under this Agreement by Licensee results in any claim for patent infringement against Licensee, Licensee shall promptly notify the University thereof in writing, setting forth the facts of such claim in reasonable detail. As between the parties to this Agreement, Licensee shall have the first and primary right and responsibility at its own expense to defend and control the defense of any such claim against Licensee, by counsel of its own choice. It is understood that any settlement of such actions must be approved by University. Such approval shall not be unreasonably withheld. University agrees to cooperate with Licensee in any reasonable manner deemed by Licensee to be necessary in defending any such action. Licensee shall reimburse University for any out of pocket expenses incurred in providing such assistance. 9.4 In the event that any Patent Rights licensed to Licensee are infringed by a third party, Licensee shall have the primary right, but not the obligation, to institute, prosecute and control any action or proceeding with respect to such infringement, by counsel of its choice, including any declaratory judgment action arising from such infringement.
9.5 Notwithstanding for foregoing, and in University's sole discretion, University shall be entitled to participate through counsel of its own choosing in any legal action involving the Invention. Nothing in the foregoing sections shall be construed in any way which would limit the authority of the Attorney General of North Carolina. Licensing Agreement 10. Waiver 10.1 It is agreed that no waiver by either party hereto of any breach or default of any of the covenants or agreements herein set forth shall be deemed a waiver as to any subsequent and/or similar breach or default. 11. License Restrictions 11.1 It is agreed that the rights and privileges granted to Licensee are each and all expressly conditioned upon the faithful performance on the part of the Licensee of every requirement herein contained, and that
each of such conditions and requirements may be and the same are specific license restrictions. 12. Assignments 12.1 This Agreement is binding upon and shall inure to the benefit of the University, its successors and assigns. However, this Agreement shall be personal to Licensee and it is not assignable by Licensee to any other entity without the written consent of University, which consent shall not be withheld unreasonably. Licensing Agreement 13. Indemnity 13.1 Licensee agrees to indemnify, hold harmless and defend University, its officers, employees, and agents, against any and all claims, suits, losses, damage, costs, fees, and expenses asserted by third parties, both government and private, resulting from or arising out of the exercise of this license.
14. Insurance 14.1 Licensee is required to maintain in force at its sole cost and expense, with reputable insurance companies, general liability insurance and products liability insurance coverage in an amount reasonably sufficient to protect against liability under paragraph 13, above. The University shall have the right to ascertain from time to time that such coverage exists, such right to be exercised in a reasonable manner. 15. Independent Contractor Status. 15.1 Neither party hereto is an agent of the other for any purpose. 16. Late Payments
16.1 In the event royalty payments or fees are not received by University when due, Licensee shall pay to University interest and charges at the maximum rate of interest allowed by law on the total royalties or fees due. Licensing Agreement 17. Warranties 17.1 University makes no warranties that any patent will issue on University Technology or Invention. University further makes no warranties, express or implied as to any matter whatsoever, including, without limitation, the condition of any invention(s) or product(s), that are the subject of this Agreement; or the merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose of any such invention or product. University shall not be liable for any direct, consequential, or other damages suffered by Licensee or any others resulting from the use of the Invention or Licensed Products. 18. Accounting and Records
18.1 Licensee will keep complete, true and accurate books of account and records for the purpose of showing the derivation of all amounts payable to University under this Agreement. Such books and records will be kept at Licensee's principal place of business for at least three (3) years following the end of the calendar quarter to which they pertain, and will be open at all reasonable times for inspection by a representative of University for the purpose of verifying Licensee's royalty statements, or Licensee's compliance in other respects with this Agreement. The representative will be obliged to treat as confidential all relevant matters. 18.2 Such inspections shall be at the expense of University, unless a variation or error exceeding U.S. $1,000, or the equivalent, is discovered in the course of any such inspection, whereupon all costs relating thereto paid by Licensee. 18.3 Licensee will promptly pay to University the full amount of any underpayment, together with interest thereon at the maximum rate of interest allowed by law. Licensing Agreement 19. Compliance with Laws
19.1 In exercising its rights under this license, Licensee shall fully comply with the requirements of any and all applicable laws, regulations, rules and orders of any governmental body having jurisdiction over the exercise of rights under this license. Licensee further agrees to indemnify and hold University harmless from and against any costs, expenses, attorney's fees, citation, fine, penalty and liability of every kind and nature which might be imposed by reason of any asserted or established violation of any such laws, order, rules and/or regulations. 20. U.S. Manufacture 20.1 It is agreed that any Licensed Products sold in the United States shall be substantially manufactured in the United States. 21. Notices 21.1 Any notice required or permitted to be given to the parties hereto shall be deemed to have been properly given if delivered in person or mailed by first-class certified mail to the other party at the appropriate address as set forth below or to such other addresses as may be designated in writing by the parties from time to time during
the term of this Agreement. UNIVERSITY Associate Vice Provost Office of Technology Development CB #4105, 308 Bynum Hall UNC-CH Chapel Hill, NC 27599-4105 LICENSEE Licensing Agreement 22. Governing Laws 22.1 This Agreement shall be interpreted and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of North Carolina.
23. Complete Agreement 23.1 It is understood and agreed between University and Licensee that this license constitutes the entire Agreement, both written and oral, between the parties, and that all prior agreements respecting the subject matter hereof, either written or oral, expressed or implied, shall be abrogated, canceled, and are null and void and of no effect. 24. Severability 24.1 In the event that a court of competent jurisdiction holds any provision of this Agreement to be invalid, such holding shall have no effect on the remaining provisions of this Agreement, and they shall continue in full force and effect.
25. Survival of Terms 25.1 The provisions of Articles 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, and 23 shall survive the expiration or termination of this Agreement. Licensing Agreement IN WITNESS WHEREOF, both University and Licensee have executed this Agreement, in duplicate originals, by their respective officers hereunto duly authorized, the day and year first above written. Inventors have likewise indicated their acceptance of the terms hereof by signing below. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL By:____________________________ By:_____________________ Name:___________________
Associate Vice Provost, Technology Development INVENTORS: __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Title:__________________ University/Industry Research Collaboration Issues 1. NDA/CDA/PIA 2. Licensing Agreements 3. Industry-Sponsored Research
Unrestricted Gift Good Sponsored Research Agreement Be Careful IP Clauses Right of First Negotiation/Refusal
Publication Clauses Prime/Sub on Federally Sponsored Research Agreement IP Clauses Appropriate FAR Clauses Cultural Issues University/Industry Research Collaboration Issues 1. NDA/CDA/PIA
2. Licensing Agreements 3. Industry-Sponsored Research 4. Conflict of Interest Conflict of Interest Its About Public Trust Longstanding interest in objectivity in research and financial conflict of interest. Key Question: Is the situation likely to interfere or appear to interfere with the independent judgment one is supposed to show as a professional performing official duties? Conflict of Interest University of Pennsylvania (1999) Researchers testing new way to replace defective genes to treat enzyme disorders. 18
year old Jesse Gelsinger died from the gene therapy study. The university held equity in the company developing the drug, and the lead doctor held one-third of its shares of stock. Conflict of Interest Its About Public Trust Trust Test Would relevant others [employers, clients, professional colleagues, or the general public] trust my judgment if they knew I was in this situation? Conflict of Interest Institutional policy must ensure that investigators have provided all required financial disclosures at the time the proposal is submitted to NSF or NIH.
It must also require that those financial disclosures are updated during the period of the award, either on an annual basis, or as new reportable significant financial interests are obtained. Conflict of Interest NSF requirement Significant Financial Interest Disclosure in connection with research application. Includes faculty member, spouse or dependent children. Management plan required. NSF notified only if the institution finds that it is unable to satisfactorily manage an actual or potential conflict of interest. Conflict of Interest NIH requirement Significant Financial
Interest Disclosure in connection with research application. Includes faculty member, spouse or dependent children. Management plan required. Institute Grants Management Officer notified. Conflict of Interest Significant Financial Interest PHS Definition (42 CFR 50.603) Significant Financial Interest means anything of monetary value, including but not limited to, salary or other payments for services; equity interests; and intellectual property rights. Conflict of Interest Significant Financial Interest PHS Definition (42 CFR 50.603)
The term does not include: Salary, royalties, or other remuneration from the applicant institution; Any ownership interests in the institution, if the institution is an applicant under the SBIR Program; Income from seminars, lectures, or teaching engagements sponsored by public or nonprofit entities; Income from service on advisory committees or review panels for public or nonprofit entities; An equity interest that when aggregated does not exceed $10,000 of FMV and does not represent more than a 5% ownership interest in any single entity; or Salary, royalties or other payments that when aggregated are not expected to exceed $10,000. Conflict of Interest Significant Financial Interest Interest must be either Managed;
Reduced; or Eliminated Management Plan Include brief, general explanation of actions taken but Exclude personal financial data Updates Conflict of Interest declarations are made annually or as new SFIs are obtained THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL POLICY ON CONFLICTS OF INTEREST AND COMMITMENT This Policy on Conflicts of Interest and Commitment (hereinafter, the "Policy") provides guidelines for relationships between the University and its faculty, staff, and students with private industry, federal and state government, and the nonprofit sector that will help to assure the primacy of
academic integrity. The University encourages employees to engage in appropriate outside relationships, but members of the University community are expected to avoid conflicts of interest that have the potential to directly and significantly affect the Universitys interests, compromise objectivity in carrying out University responsibilities, or otherwise compromise performance of University responsibilities, unless such conflicts are disclosed, reviewed, and managed in accordance with this Policy. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL POLICY ON CONFLICTS OF INTEREST AND COMMITMENT The fact that an individual has a conflict of interest does not imply that the conflict is unethical or impermissible; it means simply that the relation of the conflict to the individuals University responsibilities must be carefully examined because conflicts of interest - real or perceived - may impair performance of our missions of teaching, research, and public service, as well as jeopardize public trust and support.
Examples of Potential Conflicts CATEGORY I: Activities or relationships that are routinely allowable and are not required to be disclosed pursuant to the Policy because they do not represent significant potential for compromising the objectivity of research results, the welfare and rights of human research subjects, the integrity of faculty-student interactions, or other interests of the University, the sponsor, or the public* 1. Receiving royalties for published scholarly works and other materials or for inventions pursuant to the University's Patent and Copyright Policies. 2. Membership in and service on professional associations, learned societies, professional review or advisory panels and accreditation bodies; presentation of lectures, papers, concerts, or exhibits; participation in seminars and conferences; and reviewing or editing scholarly publications and books are permitted. 3.
Ownership of or equity in a corporation used solely for ones consulting activities. 4. Requiring or recommending ones own or ones family members textbook or other teaching aids, materials, software, equipment, or the like to be used in connection with University instructional programs. Examples of Potential Conflicts CATEGORY II: Activities or relationships that may be allowable following disclosure and, where necessary, the implementation of monitoring procedures or other forms of management to ensure the integrity of research and other institutional activities. CATEGORY III: Activities or relationships presenting such serious risks that they will be presumed to be inappropriate unless it is determined that they can be managed in accordance with this Policy. In such cases, a heavy burden will rest with the covered individual to demonstrate to the Universitys satisfaction the compatibility of such
relationships with University policy prior to going forward with the proposed activity. Required and Suggested Monitoring Activities 1. At the outset, monitors should meet with the affected covered individual and his or her chair to review the circumstances of the activities and relationships to be monitored, explain the monitors function and authority, and address questions or concerns. Monitors must be mindful that conflicts cannot be managed successfully without cooperation and assistance from the covered individual being monitored. Monitors should approach their task in a spirit of collegiality, not adversity, and such a spirit should inform interactions with the covered individual to be monitored wherever possible. Required and Suggested Monitoring Activities 2. All monitors must meet annually with the covered individual
and regularly (at least once in approximately the middle of each semester and as appropriate during the summer sessions) with students and trainees (e.g., post-doctoral fellows, residents, or in some cases junior faculty) of the covered individual who has an activity that is being monitored. Because students or trainees not directly involved in an approved COI may still be affected by a covered individuals commitments, monitors should meet with every member of the covered individuals research group. Required and Suggested Monitoring Activities 3. All students and trainees involved in research studies with a covered individual who has an approved COI must be informed of the COI in writing either at the beginning of the students or trainees involvement with the study or upon approval of a COI and a management plan for the COI, whichever comes later.
The management plan will assign responsibility for sending written notice to the students and trainees. Such written notice shall inform the students and trainees: a) that the approved COI exists, and b) that their concerns, if any, can be discussed with the Chair of the University Committee on Conflicts of Interest, Universitys Research Compliance Coordinator, Department Chair, Dean, or, if applicable, the monitor or monitoring panel, as appropriate. Monitors must work with the affected covered individual to introduce procedures in the covered individuals research group sufficient to assure that such information is communicated on a timely basis to current students and trainees, and to students and trainees who join the project later. Required and Suggested Monitoring Activities 4. Monitors should meet individually with student and trainee members of the covered individuals research group at least once each year. The primary purpose of both group and individual meetings is to ascertain whether students or trainees perceive any untoward influence on their own or others
research or education as a result of the conflict being monitored. Students and trainees should be informed that under University policy they may not be retaliated against for good faith disclosures of such concerns. Required and Suggested Monitoring Activities 5. Monitors should review any publications made by the covered individual or members of his or her research group to ensure that significant financial interests have been reported in conjunction with the publication and that the publication is free of any inappropriate influence resulting from such significant financial interests. Monitors should also look for the absence of publications by the covered individual or members of his or her research group, which may indicate inappropriate withholding of research results. Required and Suggested
Monitoring Activities 6. Monitors must keep minutes of their meetings and/or activities. Where a Dean has delegated monitoring responsibilities, monitors should report on their activities to the Dean or his designee and to the University Committee and Deans committee, where applicable, not less than annually. In order to assist the Dean in ongoing evaluation of approved COIs, such reports should be filed not later than 60 days before the next due date for submission of Conflicts Evaluation Forms. Conflict of Interest Resources Conflict of Interest (NIH, OER) http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/policy/emprograms/ overview/ep-coi.html PHS Policy (42CFR50) http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/