Chapter 12 -- Cell Division & Mitosis Unicellular organisms cell division = reproduction chromosomes Multicellular organisms cell div. needed for development & for reproduction (meiosis) Mitosis vs. Meiosis Mitosis gives each cell
complete set of genetic material and cytoplasmic organelles One cell divides to form two genetically identical daughter cells Nucleolus & Nucleus Before mitosis (interphase) each chromosome is duplicated Fig 12.4
A duplicated chromosome has two sister chromatids Each sister chromatid contains exactly the same genes. In mitosis each daughter cell gets one sister chromatid from each chromosome Cell Cycle: ordered set of events from one cell division to the next interphase - mitosis - interphase - etc.
centromere Prophase: condensation of chromosomes formation of spindle breakdown of nuclear envelope & nucleus attachment of chromosomes to spindle Centrosome and centrioles organize
the spindle (composed of microtubules) Fig 12.7 Metaphase: chromosomes align at center of cell Anaphase: centromeres split - one sister chromatid from each chromosome moves to one centromere Telophase: reverses prophase Cytokinesis: cell divides in two
Fig 12.7 Meiosis Specialized cell division for sexual reproduction Meiosis reduces the chromosome number by 2 Diploid (2n) cells have two copies of each chromosome Haploid cells (n) have
one copy of each chromosome. Meiosis converts 2n cells into n cells (gametes) Fig 13.5 Diploid organisms have two copies of each chromosome Similar To
Fig 13.3 Human Karyotype: 46 chromosomes, 23 pairs 22 pairs of autosomes, one pair sex chromsomes (X & Y) Most Organisms are Diploid (2N) Homologous Chromosomes - - carry the same genes but may have
different alleles A A a a B
B b b C C C
C MEIOSIS One diploid cell divides twice and forms 4 haploid cells Each daughter cell gets one chromatid from each pair of homologous chromosomes Meiosis First Division (Meiosis I) homologous chromosomes
are separated into different daughter cells chromosome recombination (crossing over) occurs Second Division (meiosis II) no DNA replication before division sister chromatids are separated into different daughter cells Fig 13.7
Meiosis I Fig 13.8 Homologous chromosomes pair and crossover during Propohase I Crossingover - reciprocal exchange of chromatid arms Meiosis II Fig 13.8 Cells immediately divide again (no DNA replication)
Division is like mitosis (sister chromatids are separated) Pure-breeding peas differing in 7 pairs of traits Seed Shape - round vs. smooth Seed Color - yellow vs. green Pod Shape Flower color etc. Pure-Bred White Flowers
X Pure-Bred White Flowers 100 % White Flowers Pure-Bred Red Flowers X
Pure-Bred Red Flowers 100 % Red Flowers Pure breeding red X Pure breeding white P F1 F2
Mendels Law of Segregation 1. Each trait is controlled by a pair of factors GENES 2. When 2 different factors for a trait are present in an individual on is DOMINANT and one is RECESSIVE ALLELES -- alternate forms of a gene 3. During gamete formation the paired factors SEGREGATE RANDOMLY
Partial dominance and Codominance Neither allele is dominant or recessive Heterozygous individuals have a distinct phenotype Partial dominance - heterozygote has an intermediate phenotype Codominance - heterozygote expresses both alleles DIHYBRID CROSS Punnett Square for a Dihybrid Cross
Outcome of the Dihybrid Cross Inheritance of Flower Color in Snapdragons P1 Red X F1
Pink F1 Pink X White Pink F2 1 Red : 2 Pink : 1 White
Partial Dominance Aka Incomplete Dominance Discovery of linkage The White eye mutation in Drosophila is linked to inheritance of sex Thomas Hunt Morgan -- 1910 Females are XX Males are XY White eyes are found more
often in males White eye is due to a recessive gene on the X The Y chromosome carries no corresponding allele White-eyed male X wild type female F1 - all wild type F1 X
F1 F2 all females wild type males are 50-50 wild type or white eyed male female
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