Radical radicles: Flowers, fruits, & seeds Flower development

Radical radicles: Flowers, fruits, & seeds Flower development

Radical radicles: Flowers, fruits, & seeds Flower development Plant must be mature Environmental triggers activate floral genes Growth bud becomes flower bud Flower buds dont elongate Tissues differentiate

Flower structure Female parts (pistil = stigma + ovary) Male parts (stamen = anthers + filaments) Most flowers are Perfect Have male & female parts Always monoecious Male

Female Some are Imperfect Not always dioecious Squash, corn, begonia Flower structure: Composites Sunflower many small perfect flowers Calla lily females below, males above

(imperfect flowers) Asters Florets Skunk cabbage & Anthurium many small perfect flowers Arums Spadices Pollination

Pollen tubes Required for seed development Pollen germinates, fertilizes ovule(s) Ovule(s) becomes seed(s) Preventing self-pollination Location, timing, sexual incompatibility Some do self-pollinate Pollination Strategies

Wind, insect, animal Nectar as an attractant Flowers look different in UV Some pollen glows! Pollination Strategies Sphinx moths Star orchid

Oregon wild ginger Darwin predicted this moths existence 40 years before it was discovered in Madagascar! Pollenation Strategies Sphinx moths Star orchid

Oregon wild ginger Darwin predicted this moths existence 40 years before it was discovered in Madagascar! Seed Development After pollination, petals drop Ovule matures to final form (fruit, pod, capsule, etc.)

Cell division Cell expansion Starch accumulation Ripening or hardening Seed Dispersal Strategies Samara Seeds Fruits Always come from flowers Designed to be eaten

No pollination, no seeds! Sweeten when seeds mature Many dispersal strategies Seeds dispersed by animals Kinds of Fruits (botanically) Berries: multiple seeds from a single ovary in a single flower. Grape, tomato, squash, papaya, cucumber, eggplant, banana, peppers, citrus, blueberry Aggregates: multiple seeds from multiple ovaries in a single flower. Blackberry, raspberry, strawberry Drupes: single seed from a single ovary in a single flower. Plum, cherry, peach, olive, apricot, mango, coffee, almond, pistachio, walnut, pecan

Pomes: from the Malinae subgroup of the Rose family. Apple, pear, quince, loquat Multiples: from several flowers that fuse into one fruit. Pineapple, fig, mulberry, breadfruit, jackfruit Nuts: from hardened ovary wall, seed within usually unattached. Filbert, acorn, chestnut, beechnut Legumes: from a single ovary in a single flower, forming a pod. Beans, peas, lentils, carob, peanut, tamarind, alfalfa

Conifers & Cones Forgotten seed cache Cones develop from female flower Some cones are Seeds borne under bracts serotinous and open only Have single wing after fire Seed Germination

Epigeal germination Hypogeal germination Radicle is first root Environmental triggers Cotyledons are first leaves Temperature, moisture, sunlight Scarification: physical or chemical Endosperm is energy reserve until leaves developed

Stratification: temperature Questions?

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