Chapter 16 Nonspecific Defense 1 Summary of the

Chapter 16 Nonspecific Defense 1 Summary of the major components of the host defenses. Fig. 14.1 Flowchart summarizing the major components of the host defenses. 2

First-line of defense Barriers Anatomical Chemical Genetic 3 Anatomical barriers

Skin Outermost layer Hair follicles Skin glands Mucous membrane Digestive Urinary Respiratory Eye

4 The trachea contain cilia that entrap and propel particles out of the respiratory tract. F Fig. 14.3 The ciliary defense of the respiratory tree. 5

Chemical barriers Sebaceous secretions Eyelid glands meibomian gland

Tears and saliva lysozyme Acidic pH Sweat Stomach Skin Semen Vagina 6 Genetic barriers

Different level of sensitivity and resistance to infectious agents Malaria Tuberculosis Leprosy Fungal infections 7 Second-line and Thirdline of defense

Defines immunology Protective cells 8 Immunology Study of the development of resistance to infectious agents by the body

Surveillance of the body Recognition of foreign material Destruction of foreign material or agent Involve nonspecific and specific immune defense systems White blood cells (wbc) or leukocytes are involved 9

WBC WBC recognize self markers on the host cell Do not attack or do not respond to host cell WBC recognize nonself markers on the invading microbe Attack or respond to microbe 10

11 Components of blood White blood cells (WBC) or leukocytes Red blood cells (RBC) Platelets 12

White blood cells Leukocytes Granulocytes (large cytoplasmic granules) Neutrophils Basophils Eosinophils

Agranulocytes (very small granules) T cells B cells Monocytes 13 Neutrophils Nuclei - horse shoe or

polymorphic nuclei Present in high numbers in blood and tissue Phagocytize bacteria granules are digestive enzymes First to arrive during an immune response (inflammation) 14

Eosinophils Nuclei bilobed Present in the bone marrow and spleen Attach and destroy eucaryotic pathogens Associated with inflammation and allergies 15

Basophils Nuclei constricted Present in low in number in the body Function is similar to eosinophils Localized basophils are called mast cells 16

Lymphocytes Specific immunity T cells B cells Present throughout the body 17 Monocytes

Agranulocyte Differentiate into macrophages (circulation and lymphatics) and dendritic cells (tissue associated) Phagocytosis 18 Lymphatic system

Network of vessels that extend to most body areas Connected to the blood system Provides an auxiliary route for the return of extracellular fluid to the circulatory system Drain off system for inflammatory response Contains lymphocytes, phagocytes and antibodies

19 Non-specific Immunity Inflammation Phagocytosis 20 Inflammation Five major symptoms

Redness Warmth Swelling Pain Loss of function 21 Causes Trauma

Tissue injury due to physical or chemical agents Specific immune reactions 22 Function Mobilize and attract immune components to the site of injury

Aid in the repair of tissue damage Localized and remove harmful substances Destroy microbes and block their invasion 23 24

Fever Caused by pyrogens reset the hypothalamic thermostat (increase temperature) Vasoconstriction Pyrogens Microbes and their products (ex. LPS) Leukocyte products (ex.

lnterleukins) Inhibits microbe and viral multiplication, reduces nutrient availability, increases immune reactions 25 Phagocytosis Neutrophils and eosinophils Macrophages

Mechanism 26 Neutrophils and eosinophils Early responders to inflammation Neutrophils are primary components of pus

Eosinophils are primary responders to parasitic infections 27 Mechanism

Chemotaxis Ingestion Phagolysosome Destruction 28 A summary of the mechanism of phagocytosis.

Fig. 14.19 The phases in phagocytosis 29

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