CS 5150 Software Engineering Lecture 3 Software Processes 2 CS 5150 1 Administration Project teams Any announcement to class? CS 5150
2 Administration Project teams When you have formed your team and reached agreement with your client, please send a message to: [email protected] and [email protected] with the names of the team, the client's name, and the topic of the project. CS 5150 3
Observations about Big Projects A big project may be 100 to 10,000+ person years Every large system is developed by many people, who are constantly changing. Before a big project is completed the requirements have changed many times. No large system is ever complete.
CS 5150 Projects A CS 5150 project is about 0.3 person/years. This is about the size of a single increment (sprint) in a production Agile process. CS 5150 4 Software Process Fundamental Assumption: Good processes lead to good software Good processes reduce risk
Good processes enhance visibility Systematic testing is an integral part of all processes CS 5150 5 Variety of Software Processes Software products are very varied... Therefore, there is no standard process for all software engineering projects BUT successful software development projects all need to address similar issues. This creates a number of process steps and testing steps that should be part of all software projects
CS 5150 6 Basic Process Steps in all Software Development Feasibility and planning Requirements System and program design Implementation Acceptance and release These steps may be repeated many times during the development cycle
Operation and maintenance CS 5150 7 Basic Testing Steps in all Software Development Vallidating the requirements Testing the system and program design Usability testing Testing the implementation Acceptance testing Bug fixing and maintenance All these steps will be repeated many times during the life of the system
CS 5150 8 Process Step: Feasibility A feasibility study precedes the decision to begin a project. What is the scope of the proposed project? Is the project technically feasible? What are the projected benefits? What are the costs, timetable? A feasibility study leads to a decision: go or no-go. CS 5150 9
Process Step: Requirements Requirements define the function of the system from the client's viewpoint. The requirements establish the system's functionality, constraints and goals by consultation with the client, customers, and users. The requirements may be developed in a self-contained study, or may emerge incrementally. CS 5150 10 Process Step: System and Program Design
Design describes the system from the software developers' viewpoint System design: Establish a system architecture that matches the requirements to hardware or software systems. Program design: Represent the software functions in a form that can be transformed into one or more executable programs CS 5150 11 Process Step: Implementation Implementation (coding) The software design is realized as a set of programs or
program units. The software components may be written specifically, acquired from elsewhere, or modified. CS 5150 12 Process Step: Acceptance and Release Acceptance The system is tested against the requirements by the client, often with selected customers and users. Delivery and release The system is delivered to the client and released into production or marketed to customers.
CS 5150 13 Process Step: Operation and Maintenance Operation: The system is put into practical use. Maintenance: Errors and problems are identified and fixed. Evolution: The system evolves over time as requirements change, to add new functions or adapt the technical environment. Phase out: The system is withdrawn from service. This is sometimes called the Software Life Cycle CS 5150
14 Testing User testing A preliminary version of the user interface is tested by users. Their experience may lead to changes in the requirements or the design. Program testing The development team tests components individually (unit testing) or in combination (system testing) to find bugs, etc. Acceptance testing The client tests the final version of the system or parts of the system against the requirements. CS 5150
15 Sequence of Processes Every software project will include these basic processes, in some shape or form, but: They may be formal or informal They may be carried out in various sequences Deliverables In a heavyweight process, each process step creates a deliverable, usually documentation, e.g., a requirements specification.
In a lightweight process, the deliverables are incremental working code, with minimal supporting documentation. CS 5150 16 Heavyweight and Lightweight Software Development In a heavyweight process, the development team works through the entire development cycle slowly and systematically, with the aim of delivering a complete software product with minimal changes and revision. Example: the Modified Waterfall Model In a lightweight process, the development team releases working software in small increments, and develops the plans
incrementally, based on experience. Example: Agile Software Development CS 5150 17 Heavyweight and Lightweight Methodologies Heavyweight Processes and tools Documentation Contract negotiation Following a plan Lightweight
Individuals & interactions Working software Customer collaboration Responding to change Based on the Manifesto for Agile Software Development: http://agilemanifesto.org/ CS 5150 18 Sequence of Processes Major alternatives
Sequential: As far as possible, complete each process step before beginning the next. Waterfall model. Iterative: Go quickly through all process steps to create a rough system, then repeat them to improve the system. Iterative refinement. Incremental: An extension of iterative refinement in which small increments of software are placed in production (sprints). Agile development. CS 5150
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CS 101 Bypass Exam. Details on main CS 101 page at bottom. Under "Useful Class Resources" Date given this semester: August 30. Gives 3 credit hours and a letter grade on your transcript. Office Hours. There will be several office...
Correlation Coefficient Formula Correlation Coefficient Computation Short-cut Formula Linear Function (Intercept and Slope) Correlation and Covariance It asks how two variables are related When x changes, how does y change?
Hadith 02. We were astonished at his thus questioning him and telling him that he was right, but he went on to say, "Inform me about iman (faith)." He (the Messenger of Allah) answered, "It is that you believe in...