Do Now Get a Chromebook Open Google Sheets Take out your ESS IA Lab Write Up Guide (If youve lost it, go on the class Weebly and get it) Take out your IA rough drafts Take out the Simpson Diversity Lab Worksheets Take out a sheet of paper Look over the sample IA How does soil affect biodiversity? Get ready to discuss this as a class IA Revisions
Get in your IA groups In Google sheets, each of you need to organize your raw data into 3 data tables, one for each parking lot. Use the sample IA as a guide. Calculate your Simpsons Diversity Index for each of the 3 parking lots Show your work!! Make a bar graph comparing the calculated biodiversities for the parking lots. Look at page 6 in the Write Up Guide under aspect 3. Make sure your graph contains everything listed!
Dont forget to label your axis and have a descriptive title. Answer the following questions as a group: 1. What do the Simpson Diversity values mean in terms of biodiversity? What could account of the differences in biodiversity? 2. Which of the three communities is most diverse? Support your conclusion with experimental data. 3. Compare/contrast this experiment to a real living ecosystem. 4. What are some improvements that could be made to this experiment? 30 minutes
2.5 Ecosystem Functions Major roles in an ecosystem Producers-Convert sunlight energy into organic matter Consumers- Use living organic matter as energy to grow and develop Decomposers- Break down the dead organic matter / return nutrients to the soil Estimating Biomass of Trophic Levels
Biomass (dry weight) of living tissue Take a sample from one area and assume the organisms are evenly spread out through the area. We use dry weight because water is non-living and needs to be excluded Ex. 1500g of ferns were sampled in a 100m2 area. How many ferns would be in 1000m2 field in the same ecosystem? ENERGY ENTERS THE ECOSYSTEM AS SUNLIGHT Only 2% of the light energy falling
on plant is used to create energy The rest is reflected, or just warms up the plant as it is absorbed Photosynthesis Process where plants use sunlight energy to create chemical energy Photosynthesis: equation 6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6O2 Inputs:
light energy, water, carbon dioxide Outputs: oxygen gas, sugar Energy transformations: Light to Chemical Cellular Respiration Process by which animals create energy through consumption of organic molecules (sugars) Respiration: C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O Inputs:
oxygen gas, organic molecules (sugars) Outputs: carbon dioxide, energy in ATP, waste heat Energy transformations: chemical to heat Photosynthesis backwards! Energy Transfers in Ecosystem Where does all the energy go? Energy Flow Diagram Water Cycle Nitrogen Cycle
Carbon Cycle Do Now 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. What is biomass? If there are 3450g of holly shrubs in 150 m2 area, how many are in a 3000m2 area? What is the purpose of photosynthesis?
What type of organisms perform photosynthesis? Write the equation for photosynthesis. What is purpose of cellular respiration? What type of organisms undergo cellular respiration? Write the equation for respiration. Name two ways in which energy is lost in an ecosystem/food chain. Productivity Vocab Gross: refers to the total amount of something made as a result of an activity (ex: profit from a business or a job salary) Net: refers to the amount left after deductions are made (ex: costs of production or
deductions of tax/insurance from a salary) Primary: plants Secondary: animals Biomass: the living mass of an organism but sometimes refers to dry mass Gross productivity Total energy captured or assimilated by an organism. Measured in joules (J) Gross Primary Productivity or GPP: Plants sunlight energy used during
photosynthesis Gross Secondary Productivity or GSP: Animals food eaten - energy in faeces Energy is stored in leaf as sugars and starches, which later are used to form flowers,
fruits, seeds, etc. Net productivity The energy left over after organisms have used what they need to survive. All organisms have waste energy and respiratory loss given off as heat, metabolism (R) Plants and animals have to use some of the energy they capture to keep themselves growing: They both move water and stored chemicals around Plants make flowers, fruits, new leaves, cells and stems
Animals create cells and need to move muscles. Net productivity = Gross productivity - Respiration Energy or using symbols: NP = GP - R Energy Transfers in Ecosystem Where does all the energy go? Net Primary vs. Net Secondary (NPP) vs. (NSP) Calculate Net productivity for plants and animals NPP = GPP R PLANTS NSP = GSP R ANIMALS
NSP NPP Productivity in Food Web In a food web diagram, you can assume that: Energy input into an organism represents the GP Energy output from that organism to the next trophic level represents the NP GP-NP = R (respiration energy ) and/or loss to decomposers
? Energy Flow Diagrams Measuring Primary Productivity 1. 2. 3. Harvest method measure biomass and express as biomass per unit area per unit time. CO2 assimilation- measure CO2 uptake in photosynthesis and releases by respiration 02 production-Measure O2 production and
consumption Therefore The least productive ecosystems are those with limited heat and light energy, limited water and limited nutrients. Example biome:_______________ The most productive ecosystems are those with high temperature, lots of water light and nutrients.
Example biome:__________________ Constructing an Energy Flow Diagram Trophic Level Gross Production KJ Respiratory
Loss KJ Loss to decomposers KJ Producers 50,000 20,000 500 1 Consumer 15,000
10,000 2,000 Respiratory loss by decomposer --- 2,000 --- Construct an energy flow model to represent all these data Label each arrow with the appropriate amount from the data table above.
Use boxes to represent each trophic level and arrows to show the flow of energy Calculate the Net Productivity for: NPP for Producers NSP for 1Consumers NSP for Decomposers The data in the table below relate to the transfer of energy in a small clearly defined habitat. The units in each case are in kJ m -2 yr-1 Trophic Level Gross Production Respiratory Loss
Loss to decomposers Producers 60724 36120 477 1 Consumer 21762 14700
3072 2 Consumer 714 576 42 3 Consumer 7 4 1
Respiratory loss by decomposers --- 3120 --- Construct an energy flow model to represent all these data Label each arrow with the appropriate amount from the data table above. Use boxes to represent each trophic level and arrows to show the flow of energy Calculate the Net Productivity for NPP for Producers NSP for 1Consumers, 2Consumers, 3Consumers
NSP for Decomposers ENERGY FLOW MODEL R=36120 R=14700 60724 Producers 21762 Herbivores R=576
714 1st. Carnivores 3072 R=4 7 Top Carnivores 42 477
1 Decomposers R=3120 Productivity Calculations PP of Producers: 60724 -(36120+477)=24127 kJ.m-2.yr-1 NSP of 1 Consumer 21762 -(14700+3072)=3990 kJ.m-2.yr-1 NSP of 2 Consumer 714 -(576+42) =96 kJ.m-2.yr-1
NSP of 3 Consumer 7 -(4+1) =2 kJ.m-2.yr-1 SP of Consumers: 22483 - (15280+3115)=4088 kJ.m-2.yr-1 SP of Decomposers: (477+3072+42+1) -3120 =472 kJ.m-2.yr-1 Do Now Take out your labs and IAs
Study biomes. You have a quiz today! Classwork/Homework Due Tuesday, November 24th Page 94: To Do Questions #1-10 Page 96: To Do Phytoplankton & Zooplankton Chart Construct an energy flow model to represent all the data
Label each arrow with the appropriate amount from the data table given. Use boxes to represent each trophic level and arrows to show the flow of energy Show equations and calculations for letters a. e. Productivity Lab Groups 1. 2. 3.
4. Grass Seed A Emily , Jonathan , Jelissa Hugh , Alex, Elaina, Alexa Lauren , Tashari , Kayla, Anthony Austin , Hannah , Karen, Christopher 1. 2. 3. 4.
Grass Seed B Winston , Destiny , Casey, KenNa Anna, Maria , Justin, Ariel Ramon, Marcus, Mary Jane, Olivia Moises , Christian , Munir, Darren Now check you have understood! Draw a complete food web for an ecosystem of your choice, which should include: the sun and its energy named primary producers (at least 2)
named primary consumers (at least 3) named secondary consumers (at least 2) named decomposers (at least 2) respiration energy loss (use red marker for this arrow) On your diagram use arrows to show direction of energy flow Complete this energy flow diagram: Label
GPP, NPP and R for the primary producer Add arrows to show missing energy pathways (5 in total) Fill in the blank box to explain why some sunlight is not fixed by plant HERBIVORES PLANT SUN
. (~98% of energy is here) RESPIRATION DECOMPOSERS Draw your own energy flow diagram, rather like the one on the previous slide to show energy flows through the trophic levels in your food web. Include the following labels: Start with sunlight energy
Include all trophic levels from your food web Include arrows showing energy moving from each trophic level to another and to decomposers Show energy lost in faeces Show Respiration loss (heat energy) USE RED MARKER! Label each individual arrow with a letter (A,B,C,D,E) Use the lettered arrows to write an equation for GPP, NPP Write an equation for GSP, NSP for primary consumers
SELF SERVICE. AUTOMATION. Give Customers of IT services the ability to identify, access and request services as needed. Controlled empowerment. Request offerings displayed based on user role. Intuitive, easy to navigate portal. Self-service reporting. Automate the processes and systems necessary...
(the measured size of the finished part after machining) 4. Basic size (the theoretical size used as a starting point for the application of tolerances) ... Symbols for Tolerances and Deviation and Symbols for Fits: 3.A fit (A fit is...
En la región de polarización inversa existe una región de agotamiento (libre de portadores) que se comporta como un aislante entre las capas de carga opuesta. Debido a que el ancho de esta región (d) se incrementara mediante el aumento...
Chapter 14 Economic Growth and Rising Living Standards Economic Growth and Rising Living Standards Economist Thomas Malthus, writing in 1798, came to a striking conclusion "Population, when unchecked, goes on doubling itself every twenty-five years, or increases in a geometrical...
The Eltsin Years Politics and Poetry Anatoly Chubais (1955-) 1980s formed group of young reformer economists 1991 becomes Eltsin's privatization tsar 1996 organizes Eltsin's bid for reelection Privatization Anatoly Chubais introduces "vouchers" exchangeable for shares; quickly sold by Russians to...
Antigen present at birth is recognized as self [clone deletion]. It is found in salivary glands, pancreas, kidney, liver, lungs, testes and semen. Therefore, no antibodies for H antigen. If A antigen is absent, anti A is produced after exposure....
C Cavity C So * Collectively a serous membrane around the body cavity ... peritoneum Visceral pleura Visceral peritoneum Mesenteries Sclerotome Myotome Dermatome Axial skeleton Trunk Muscles Appendicular muscles Dermis Skull Branchial cartilage Extraembryonic endoderm of yolk sac and allantois...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!