Early Latin America Introduction Course home page: http://www.hist.umn.edu

Early Latin America Introduction Course home page: http://www.hist.umn.edu /~rmccaa/colonial/index.htm 1 Todays Lecture Introduction: staff, syllabus Chronology: before, first encounters, seasoning, resurgence, independence Physical geography:

Tectonic plates, climate, physical features Prehistoric settlement types: bands, tribes, chiefdoms, states 2 Chronology Before, 1450-1492 America, Iberia and Africa First encounters, 1492-1575 Cantares Mexicanos (1523): Our cries of

grief rise up Seasoning, 1575-1750 Viceroy Toledo (1582): the Indians are resettled Resurgence, 1750-1808 Bourbon reconquest Independence, 1808-1825 Bolivar: Independence is the only benefit 3 New Spain

Latin America 1580: Spanish and Portuguese settlement domains Peru Brazil Cambridge Encyclopedia of Latin America & the Caribbean 4 Cambridge Encyclopedia of Latin America & the Caribbean New Spain S Latin America, 1808: Political

and Economic Geography G New Granada 1739 Brazil S Peru S S G Rio de la Plata 1776 5 Geography

Tectonic plates Mosaic of distinct geological units Climate Latitude: Night is the winter of the tropics. Ocean currents: hot, cold Altitude: hot, temperate, cold, very cold Physical features: Andean, Interior lowlands, Atlantic massifs Mesoamerica and Caribbean 6 Cambridge Encyclopedia of Latin America & the Caribbean

Tectonic Plates: PreCambrian Sedementary Plains Basins Young Mtns. Volcanic Basalt Plateau 7 Principal Physical Features. Key (meters): Cambridge Encyclopedia of Latin America & the Caribbean 3000-5000 1000-3000 500-1000 200-500 sea level-200 8

Prehistoric settlement types Bands: ~30 people per band foragers and fishers Tribes: ~200 people per tribe shifting agriculture Chiefdoms: 5,000 - 60,000 per irrigation: chinampas, terraces States: 100,000 - millions diversified agriculture, complex hierachies, 9

Cultural Types at Contact: Bands, Tribes, Chiefdoms, States Chiefdoms States Tribes Bands 10 Mexican marriage systems: continuity, 1540 - 1779; contrast, 1779-1930 (% women married aged 15 or more years) 1779, 1930, 1960, 1990: censos; 1540 - 850 mujeres nahuas

casadas nocasada 100 90 80 95% Not 70 70% porcentaje 60 50 Married 40

30 20 10 0 1540 1540 1779 1779 1930 1930 1960 Mexico: mujeres adultas (15+) alguna vez casadas 1960 1990 1990 11

Marriage (at 15) Codex Mendoza, 1540 15: 12 5 complete conjugal families 4 generations, 3 married brothers (1540) Simply an old widow Son Married Married Head Married Son Married 1 yr ago

Married Son, Married 1 yr ago Married Married Son Married Married Niece, 20 Unmrrd Son, 10 Unmrrd 13

Aztec household structure before the spiritual conquest (1540) 1540: Predomina la familia extensa Familias nahuas de pueblos rurales de Morelos Not Head 13% jefe 13% conyugue 24% hijos 50% familiar Spouse 1% sinparen Kin Offspring Extended families were the norm 14

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