Ancient Rome and Early Christianity, 500 B.C. A.D.
Ancient Rome and Early Christianity, 500 B.C. A.D. 500 Civilizations emerge and develop on fertile river plains in Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley, and China. Augustus (63 B.C. A.D. 14), first Roman emperor. NEXT Ancient Rome and Early Christianity, 500 B.C. A.D. 500 SECTION 1 The Roman Republic SECTION 2
The Roman Empire SECTION 3 The Rise of Christianity SECTION 4 The Fall of the Roman Empire SECTION 5 Rome and the Roots of Western Civilization Map Chart Chart NEXT
Section 1 The Roman Republic The early Romans establish a republic, which grows powerful and spreads its influence. NEXT SECTION 1 The Roman Republic The Origins of Rome Romes Geography Site of Rome chosen for its fertile soil and strategic location Located on Italian peninsula in center of Mediterranean Sea
Built on seven hills on Tiber River The First Romans Latins, Greeks, and Etruscans compete for control of region Latins found original settlement of Rome between 1000 and 500 B.C. Etruscans native to northern Italy; influence Roman civilization NEXT SECTION 1 The Early Republic Early Rulers
Around 600 B.C., Etruscan kings begin to rule Rome Kings build Romes first temples and public centers Romans overthrow cruel Etruscan king in 509 B.C. Romans found a republicgovernment in which citizens elect leaders Image Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 1 continued The Early Republic Patricians and Plebeians Different groups struggle for power in early Roman
Republic Patricianswealthy landowning class that holds most of the power Plebeiansartisans, merchants, and farmers; can vote, cant rule Tribuneselected representatives protect plebeians political rights Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 1 continued The Early Republic Twelve Tables In 451 B.C. officials carve Roman laws on twelve tablets
Called Twelve Tables, they become basis for later Roman law Laws confirm right of all free citizens to protection of the law Citizenship is limited to adult male landowners Twelve Tables are hung in the Forum Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 1 continued The Early Republic Government Under the Republic Rome elects two consulsone to lead army, one to direct government Senatechosen from Roman upper class; makes
foreign, domestic policy Democratic assemblies elect tribunes, make laws for common people Dictators are leaders appointed briefly in times of crisis The Roman Army Roman legionmilitary unit of 5,000 infantry; supported by cavalry Army is powerful; key factor in Romes rise to greatness NEXT SECTION 1 Rome Spreads Its Power Rome Conquers Italy Romans defeat Etruscans in north and Greek city-states in south
By 265 B.C., Rome controls Italian peninsula Conquered peoples treated justly; this enables Rome to grow Romes Commercial Network Rome establishes large trading network Access to Mediterranean Sea provides many trade routes Carthage, powerful city-state in North Africa, soon rivals Rome Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 1 continued Rome Spreads Its Power War with Carthage
Rome and Carthage begin Punic Warsthree wars between 264146 B.C. Rome defeats Carthage, wins Sicily, in first 23-year war HannibalCarthaginian generalavenges defeat in Second Punic War Attacks Italy through Spain and France, doesnt take Rome Rome Triumphs Roman general Scipio defeats Hannibal in 202 B.C. Rome destroys Carthage, enslaves people in last war (149146 B.C.) NEXT Section 2 The Roman Empire The creation of the Roman Empire transforms Roman government, society, economy, and culture.
NEXT SECTION 2 The Roman Empire The Republic Collapses Economic Turmoil Gap between rich and poor widens as Roman Republic grows Farmers, former soldiers, lose to large estates; become homeless Two tribunes, Tiberius and Gaius, try to help poor, are murdered Civil warconflict between groups within same country begins Military Upheaval
Military becomes less disciplined and disloyal Soldiers recruited from poor; show loyalty only to their generals Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 2 continued The Republic Collapses Julius Caesar Takes Control Military leader Julius Caesar elected consul in 59 B.C. Caesar, Crassus, Pompey form a triumviratea group of three rulers Military victories give Caesar increasing popularity and power
Pompey fears Caesars growing power and challenges him Caesar defeats Pompeys armies in Greece, Asia, Spain, Egypt Caesar is named dictator for life in 44 B.C. Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 2 continued The Republic Collapses Caesars Reforms Caesar makes reforms: grants wider citizenship, creates jobs for poor Group of senators opposes Caesar; kills him on March 15, 44 B.C.
Image Beginning of the Empire 43 B.C., Caesars supporters take control; become Second Triumvirate Octavian, Mark Antony, Lepidus alliance ends in jealousy, violence In 31 B.C., Mark Antony and Cleopatras forces are defeated at Actium Octavian accepts title of Augustus, exalted one, and rules Rome Image NEXT SECTION 2
A Vast and Powerful Empire Pax Romana Under Augustus, Rome moves from a republic to an empire Power no longer resides with citizens, but a single ruler Rome enjoys 200 years of peace and prosperity known as Pax Romana A Sound Government Augustus, Romes ablest ruler, creates lasting system of government - glorifies Rome with beautiful public buildings - sets up a civil service to administer the empire Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 2 continued A
Vast and Powerful Empire Agriculture and Trade Agriculture most important industry in empire; 90% of Romans farm Common coin, denarius, makes trade within empire easier Rome has vast trading network, includes China and India Network of Roman roads links empire to Persia, Russia Map Image NEXT SECTION
2 The Roman World Slaves and Captivity Slavery is a significant part of Roman life in both cities and farms Some slaves become gladiators; forced to fight to death Image Gods and Goddesses Early Romans honor guardian spirits and gods Jupiter, Juno, Minerva Worship of emperor becomes part of official religion of Rome Society and Culture Rich live well; most people are poor, receive grain from government 150 holidays and Colosseum events created to
control the masses Image NEXT Section 3 The Rise of Christianity Christianity arises in Roman-occupied Judea and spreads throughout the Roman Empire. NEXT SECTION 3 The Rise of Christianity
The Life and Teachings of Jesus Romans Conquer Judea Rome conquers Judea, home of Jews; makes it part of empire, A.D. 6 Many Jews believe a Messiah, or savior, eventually will free them Jesus of Nazareth Image Jesusa Jew born in Bethlehem (around 6 to 4 B.C.), raised in Nazareth At age 30 begins preaching monotheism, Ten Commandments Does good works, reportedly performs miracles Stresses personal relationship with God, love for friends and enemies Continued . . . NEXT
SECTION 3 continued The Life and Teachings of Jesus A Growing Movement Apostlesthe twelve men who are disciples (or pupils) of Jesus Jesus ignores wealth and status; his message appeals to poor Jesus Death Many Jews view Jesus as the Messiah; others see him as a heretic Roman governor Pontius Pilate sentences Jesus to be crucified Apostles believe Jesus ascended into heaven after death Christos, Greek word for savior; Christianity
derived from Christ NEXT SECTION 3 Christianity Spreads Through the Empire Growth of Christianity Map Followers spread Christianitynew religion based on Jesus teachings Pauls Mission Apostle Paulspends life preaching and interpreting Christianity Common languages of Latin and Greek help to spread message Paul stresses Jesus is son of God who died for
peoples sins Paul declares that Christianity open to all converts Image Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 3 continued Christianity Spreads Through the Empire Jewish Rebellion Jews rebel against Rome; Romans storm Jerusalem, destroy Temple Rebellions in A.D. 66, 70, 132 fail; Jews driven from homeland Diasporacenturies of Jewish exile (from Greek
word for dispersal) Image Persecution of the Christians Christians wont worship Roman gods; become enemies of Roman rule Roman rulers use Christians as scapegoats for hard times As Pax Romana crumbles, Christians crucified, burned, killed in arena NEXT SECTION 3 A World Religion Christianitys Expansion Christianity becomes powerful force; reasons for widespread appeal:
embraces all people gives hope to the powerless appeals to those repelled by extravagance of Roman life offers personal relationship with a loving God promises eternal life after death Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 3 continued A World Religion Constantine Accepts Christianity ConstantineRoman emperor battles for control of Rome in A.D. 312 Has vision of cross, Christian symbol; places on
soldiers shields Believes Christian God helped him win; legalizes Christianity In A.D. 380 Emperor Theodosius makes Christianity religion of empire Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 3 continued A World Religion Early Christian Church Priests direct a single church; bishops supervise numerous churches Apostle Peterfirst bishop of Rome; clergy trace their authority to him
Popethe father, or head, of Christian Church; Rome, center of Church Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 3 continued A World Religion A Single Voice Church leaders compile standard Christian beliefs in New Testament New Testament added to Hebrew Bible (also called Old Testament) The Fathers of the Church
Early writers and scholars of teachings called Fathers of the Church Augustine, bishop in North Africa, one of the most Image important Fathers Stressed receiving sacraments to obtain Gods grace Wrote famous book, The City of God NEXT Section 4 The Fall of the Roman Empire Internal problems and innovations spur the division and decline of the Roman Empire. NEXT
SECTION 4 The Fall of the Roman Empire A Century of Crisis The Empire Declines Pax Romana ends in A.D. 180 with death of emperor Marcus Aurelius Subsequent emperors unable to govern giant empire Romes Economy Weakens Hostile tribes outside the empire disrupt trade Inflationdrop in value of money and rise in pricesweakens trade Overworked soil, war-torn farmland leads to food shortages NEXT
SECTION 4 A Century of Crisis Military and Political Turmoil By third century A.D. Roman military in turmoil Soldiers loyal to commanders, not Rome; commanders fighting for throne Government enlists mercenariesforeign soldiers they pay to fight Average citizens lose interest in the affairs of Rome NEXT SECTION 4 Emperors Attempt Reform
Diocletian Reforms the Empire In A.D. 284 Emperor Diocletian restores order, divides empire in two Two emperors in Greek-speaking East, Latinspeaking West In A.D. 305 Diocletian retires, rivals compete for power Constantine Moves the Capital Constantine becomes emperor of Western Empire in A.D. 312 Seizes Eastern Empire in A.D. 324; moves Roman capital to Byzantium Byzantium eventually renamed Constantinoplecity of Constantine NEXT SECTION 4 The Western Empire Crumbles
Interactive Germanic Invasions Mongol nomads from Asia, the Huns, invade northern borders of empire Germanic tribes flee Huns, enter Roman lands, sack Rome A.D. 410 Attila the Hun Attilaunites the Huns in A.D. 444; plunders 70 cities in East Attacks Rome in 452; famine and disease prevents victory An Empire No More Last Roman emperor falls to Germans in 476; end of Western Empire East thrives for another thousand years (Byzantine Empire)
NEXT Section 5 Rome and the Roots of Western Civilization The Romans develop many ideas and institutions that become fundamental to Western Civilization. NEXT SECTION 5 Rome and the Roots of Western Civilization The Legacy of Greco-Roman Civilization A New Culture Emerges
Romans adopt aspects of Greek and Hellenistic culture Results in Greco-Roman culture, or classical civilization Roman Fine Arts Romans develop bas-relief sculptures to tell stories Artists skilled in creating mosaics, painting frescoes PompeiiRoman town; ash from volcano eruption A.D. 79 preserves art Image Image Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 5
continued The Legacy of Greco-Roman Civilization Learning and Literature Romans borrow from Greek philosophy and literature Poet Virgil writes epic Aeneid modeled after Homers Greek epics Roman historian Tacitus excels in writing factually accurate history Annals and Histories provide comprehensive look at Roman life NEXT SECTION 5 The Legacy of Rome
The Latin Language Latin was official language of Roman Catholic Church until 1900s Develops into French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Romanian More than half the words in English stem from Latin Master Builders Romans pioneer use of arch; also used domes and concrete Create aqueductsstructures to bring water into cities, towns Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 5 continued The
Legacy of Rome Roman System of Law Principles of Roman law form basis of modern legal systems Romes Enduring Influence By preserving and adding to Greek civilization, Rome strengthened the Western cultural tradition NEXT This is the end of the chapter presentation of lecture notes. Click the HOME or EXIT button. Print Slide Show 1. On the File menu, select Print 2. In the pop-up menu, select Microsoft PowerPoint If the dialog box does not include this pop-up, continue to step 4 3. In the Print what box, choose the presentation format
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