Figure 10.1 Relationship of Noncomparative Scaling to the

Figure 10.1 Relationship of Noncomparative Scaling to the Previous Chapters and the Marketing Research Process Focus of This Chapter Continuous Rating Scales Itemized Rating Scales Relationship to Relationship to Marketing Previous Chapters Research Process Research Design Components (Chapter 3) Basic Types of Scales (Chapter 9) Problem Definition Approach to Problem Research Design Field Work Data Preparation and Analysis Report Preparation and Presentation Figure 10.2 Non Comparative Scaling Techniques: An Overview

Noncomparative Scaling Techniques Fig 10.3 Table 10.1 Continuous Rating Scales Itemized Rating Scales Likert Stapel Semantic Differential Rating Scale Decisions Figs 10.4 and 10.5 Table 10.2 Scale Evaluation Fig 10.6 Choosing a Scaling Technique TQM Application to Contemporary Issues Internationa Technolog

l y Ethics Focus on Elrick & Lavidge Internet Applications Opening Vignette Figure 10.3 A Classification of Noncomparative Rating Scales Noncomparative Rating Scales Continuous Rating Scales Semantic Differential Itemized Rating Scales Stapel Likert Figure 10.4 Balanced and Unbalanced Scales

Balanced Scale Surfing the Internet is Unbalanced Scale Surfing the Internet is ____ Extremely Good ____ Extremely Good ____ Very Good ____ Very Good ____ Good ____ Good ____ Bad ____ Somewhat Good ____ Very Bad ____ Bad ____ Extremely Bad ____ Very Bad

Figure 10.5 Rating Scale Configurations A variety of scale configurations may be employed to measure the comfort of Nike shoes. Some examples include: Nike shoes are: 1) Place an X on one of the blank spaces Very Very Uncomfortable Comfortable 2)Circle the number Very Very Uncomfortable 1 2 3 4 3)Place an X on one of the blank spaces Very Uncomfortable Neither Uncomfortable nor Comfortable Comfortable 5 6

7 Comfortable Figure 10.5 Rating Scale Configurations (continued) 4) Uncomfortable Somewhat Somewhat Comfortable Very Neither Uncomfortable Comfortable Uncomfortable Comfortable nor Uncomfortable Very Comfortable 5) -3 2 Very uncomfortabl e -2 3

-1 Neither Comfortable nor Uncomfortable 0 1 Very Comfortable Figure 10.6 Scale Evaluation Scale Evaluation Validity Reliability Test-Retest Alternative Forms Content Internal Consistency Criterion Construct Convergent

Validity Discriminant Validity Nomological Validity TABLE 10.1 Basic Noncomparative Scales Scale Basic Characteristics Examples Advantages Disadvantages Continuous Rating Scale Place a mark on a continuous line Reaction to TV commercials Easy to construct Scoring can be cumbersome

unless computerized Itemized Rating Scales Likert Scale Degree of agreement on a Measurement of 1 (strongly disagree) to attitudes 5 (strongly agree) scale Easy to construct, administer, and understand More time consuming Semantic Differential Seven-point scale with bipolar labels Brand, product, and company images Versatile Difficult to construct

appropriate bipolar adjectives Stapel Scale Unipolar ten-point scale, -5 to +5, without a neutral point (zero) Measurement of attitudes and images Easy to construct Administered over telephone Confusing and difficult to apply TABLE 10.2 Summary of Itemized Rating Scale Decisions 1. Number of categories While there is no single, optimal number, traditional guidelines suggest that there should be between five and nine categories. 2. Balanced vs. unbalanced

3. Odd or even number of categories In general, the scale should be balanced to obtain objective data. If a neutral or indifferent scale response is possible for at least some of the respondents, an odd number of categories should be used. TABLE 10.2 (Cont.) Summary of Itemized Rating Scale Decisions 4. Forced versus nonforced In situations where the respondents are expected to have no opinion, the accuracy of data may be improved by a nonforced scale. 5. Verbal description An argument can be made for labeling all or many scale categories. The category descriptions should be located as close to the response categories as possible. 6. Physical form A number of options should be tried and the best one selected.

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