The Failure of 20th Century Intelligence Robert David
The Failure of 20th Century Intelligence Robert David Steele Intelligence Coach [email protected] Updated 18 April 2006 Elements of Intelligence Covert Action Black Ops Mind Ops Collection Human Technical Leadership
Mindset Courage Analysis Current Estimative Counterintelligence Defensive Offensive Brief History of Intelligence Secret War For centuries, this has been the primary focus on national-level intelligence. It remains valid. Strategic Analysis Sherman Kent introduced this as the focal point, but he was not successful. It remains valid.
Smart Nation This is where I think we need to go. More later. Global Collection Failure I Ignored Open Source Information Open Sources AC L A NT Analyst - 5 days 3 frames of EO Imagery 50 country reports
50 books 1 OSINT Terminal Brussels $1500 1 year of electronic subscription 3 months service 10 copies of ORBATS 10 copies of proliferation databases 5 frames of Radar Imagery 80% of what we need to do intelligence is
not secret, not digital, not in your language, and not owned by the government. We failed to treat open sources with respect. We need OSINT! Global Collection Failure II Very Limited Non-Official Cover 80% of the bad boys and girls that we need to recruit/monitor for clandestine operations do not attend Embassy cocktail parties. We have been lazy and cheap about nonofficial cover (in USA).
Global Collection Failure III Almost no Technical Processing If we do not process what we have collected (generally at great expense), we might as well not collect it at all--we can save the money. CN + PN = IntelNN Processing Matters! Global Processing Failure I No Data Standards Data standards (for
instance, XML) are vital if we are to be able to exploit modern information technology. Microsoft is the enemy of the state! Open source software, and data standards, add value to your work. Global Processing Failure II No Geospatial Attributes Automated all-source fusion is not possible unless every datum, in every medium, has both a time and a geospatial attribute.
XML Geo needs to be an international standard--you can lead. Global Processing Failure III No Interoperability or All-Source Mixing Security is the opposite of intelligence. Compartmentation is the enemy of knowledge. There must be one single processing agency where everything can be mixed and evaluated. Global Analysis Failure I
Emphasis on Security Instead of Answers Intelligence is about decision-support--about answering the question! Must not confuse expertise, foreign languages, and security clearances nor should we require that the same person have them all! Mix and match... Global Analysis Failure II Focused on Threats Instead of Opportunities Threats that are here and now represent a strategic warning failure. Intelligence is at its best
when it makes the case for preventive investments--anticipatory policy--opportunities for advantage. Global Analysis Failure III Emphasis on Local Now Vice Global Future Greatest intelligence value comes from strategic estimative analysis about big issues-global issues Politicians already know the local nuances--must teach them--and the public--the global tradeoffs
Global Policy Failure I Failure to Impact on Budget Health Others Culture Russia Education Assistance Europe Intelligence USA Diplomacy
0 500 Military National intelligence has virtually no impact on how the citizens taxes are allocated across various national priorities. We spend too much on hard power and almost nothing on soft power. Global Policy Failure II Failure to Impact on Policymaker Wisdom
Policymakers are loosely-educated and often dismiss the value of global knowledge. Intelligence is most valuable to the public interest when it constantly educates policymakers in a compelling manner. Global Policy Failure III Failure to Win Public Support for Intelligence Intelligence is not taught in schools and there is no public appreciation for its vital contributions. We must establish a
public discipline of intelligence across the seven tribes and in the public eye. Global Acquisitions Failure I Failure to Impact on What We Buy Examples Aviation temperatures Cross-country mobility Line of sight distances Bridge loading limits Ports (-), Airheads (+) C4I anti-Internet/open OOTW assets (MP etc.) US military buys what contractors want to sell,
not what we need. Strategic generalizations about the real world have no impact on procurement. US ignores allied interoperability and affordability needs. Global Acquisitions Failure II Failure to Impact on Private Sector IT Microsoft Systran Finished Intelligence and Reporting Revision Tracking and Realtime G roup Review
Desktop Publishing and Word Proce ssing A Collaborative Work B C Interactive Search and Retr ieval of Data Clu ster ing and Linking of Related Data
Conversion of Paper Documents to Digital Form Notetaking and Organizing Ideas Graphic and Map Based Visualization of Data Statistical An alysis to Reveal Anomalies Automated Foreign L anguage Translation Open Literature Production of
Graphics, Videos and Online B riefings Structured Argument Analysis Modeling and Simulations Detection of Changing Tr ends Processing Images, Video, Audio, Sign al Data Non-Text Data Detection of Alert Situations
Automated Extraction of Data Ele ments From Text and Images Standardizing and Converting Data Formats Restricted Information Failed to legislate stable transparent Application Program Interfaces (API). Failed to define generic functionalities for joint development. Failed to define an agile security architecture.
Global Acquisitions Failure III Failure to Provide for Intelligence US mobility, weapons, and C4I systems do not program funds for the acquisition and delivery of necessary data. Intelligence is treated as a free good. Commanders assume intelligence will be provided when needed. Global Operations Failure I Cannot Do Wide Area Surveillance
US satellites optimized for finding Soviet missile silos Air-breather options never had the processing system created to do near real time change detection. Still a labor intensive hit or miss activity. Global Operations Failure II Cannot Do Last Mile Cant see under jungle canopy or into city streets Cant find single individuals with
technology--still a clandestine human endeavor and generally cant do it Global Operations Failure III Cannot Do Real-Time Change Detection Air Operations Plans now require 24+ hours to prepare (US/NATO) Sensor to shooter processing is terrible-and mostly manual Have lost ability to do quick reaction strikes-when the lawyers let us. Philosophical Failure I
National Tribe instead of Global Tribes National intelligence tribe has monopolized the money/attention. Failed to create generic intelligence discipline with seven tribes. Failed to develop regional or global intelligence networks. Philosophical Failure II Government Secrecy Over Public Sharing The new paradigm rewards sharing more than secrecy. Secrets are primarily valuable in the context
of a rich open source knowledge foundation. Cannot have smart spies within dumb nation. Philosophical Failure III Letting Americans Lead is Wasteful American dominance of NATO intelligence is wasteful & dangerous. We need a European alternative emphasizing commercial security, web-based sharing, multicultural approaches, global burden-sharing.
Conclusion I ...spies only know secrets Intelligence is about discovering, discriminating, distilling, and delivering ANSWERS. The problem with spies is they only know secrets. So, we still need secrets, but we need to be smarter about the context for our secrets. Conclusion II Spies & schoolboys We do not get extra points for collecting information in the hardest or most
expensive way. Do not send a spy where a schoolboy can go. Find, Get, Buy, Steal--in that order. Conclusion III Make sense or add value If you cannot make sense of the raw data, or add value, you are not creating intelligence. Its about actionable answers, not about secrets, or spies, or toys. Intelligence saves time, lives, money, and honor.
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