Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2)

Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2)

Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2) Cecil R. Reynolds, Ph.D. Distinguished Research Scientist and Professor Texas A & M University R.W. Kamphaus, Ph.D. Distinguished Research Professor and Department Head University of Georgia Acknowledgements and Disclosure Cecil R. Reynolds, BASC 2 senior author, Rob Altmann and Mark Daniel of AGS Co-researchers Andy Horne, Carl Huberty, and Michele Lease of UGA, Jean Baker of Michigan State, Christine DiStefano of Louisiana State University, Linda Mayes of Yale Child Study Center, Patrick Schniederjan of Grand Junction CO, David Pineda of Universidad de Antioquia Student research team members Anne Winsor, Ellen Rowe, Jennifer Thorpe, Cheryl Hendry, Amanda Dix, Erin Dowdy, Anna Kroncke, Sangwon Kim, Chris Stokes, Meghan VanDeventer Alumni research team members Drs. Nancy Lett, Shayne Abelkop, Martha

Petoskey and Ann Heather Cody Some BASC Research was supported in part by grant number R306F60158 from the At-Risk Institute of the Office of Educational Research and Improvement of the United States Department of Education, to R. W. Kamphaus, J. A. Baker, & A. M. Horne. R. Kamphaus is co-author of the BASC 2 with a significant financial interest in the product Categorical Diagnosis Presence of marker symptoms or deviant signs defines the syndrome (e.g. schizotypal affect) as espoused originally by Kreapelin Syndromes are mutually exclusive (e.g. mental retardation, autism, versus pervasive developmental disorder) but potentially comorbid (e.g. ADHD and Tourettes) Diagnosis is dichotomous; that is one either has the disorder or not and subsyndromal psychopathology is not considered (Cantwell, D. P. (1996). Classification of child and adolescent psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 3-12.) Severity of symptoms in categorical systems is not measured. In other words criteria do not exist to define severe ADHD. Differential diagnosis of syndromes (e.g. ADHD, CD, and ODD) remains controversial Dimensional Diagnosis

Measures latent traits or latent constructs made up of multiple indicators (i.e. items) or behaviors (Kamphaus, 2001; Kamphaus & Frick, 2002) Traits are distributed dimensionally in the population thus making it possible to assess severity or amount of the latent trait possessed. Positive or adaptive traits are of relatively greater interest Norm referencing to a population is used to define deviance. Subsyndromal as well as hypersyndromal cases can be identified for both clinical and research purposes (Scahill et al., 1999) Measures are well suited for assessing response to treatment or intervention because of known reliability and validity (e.g. effectiveness of medications) Phenomenology of TRS-C Type 3 Disruptive Behavior Problems (8%) (Kamphaus, R. W., Huberty, C. J., Distefano, C., & Petoskey, M. D. (1997). A typology of teacher rated child behavior for a national U. S. sample. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25, 253-263.) 80 70

T-Score 60 50 40 30 Anxiety Conduct Learning Attention Atypicality Leadership Aggression Depression Withdrawal Study Skills Adaptability Social Skills Somatization Hyperactivity Multi-Dimensional-Multi-Method SDH: Structured Developmental History (Some changes) SOS: Student Observation System (No Changes, BASC POP) TRS: Teacher Rating Scales (Some changes)

PRS: Parent Rating Scales (Some changes) SRP: Self-Report of Personality (Some changes) SRP-Col: Self-Report of Personality College (New) SRP-I: Self-Report of Personality Interview (New; ages 6-7, Available in 2005) CPRF: Child-Parent Relationship Form (New) Additional Components Spanish-Language SRP, SDH, and PRS forms BASC Spanish version for Spain and Latin America now available Spanish and English language administration CDs Parent Feedback Forms BASC Portable Observation Program Changes - The Bottom Line BASC/BASC-2 correlations are in the 80s and 90s for the TRS BASC/BASC-2 correlations are in the 70s and 80s for the PRS BASC/BASC-2 correlations are in the 60s and 70s for the SRP BASC-2 Item Totals BASC2

BASC P 100 109 C 139 148 A 139 138 P 134 131 C

160 138 A 150 126 C 139 152 A 176 186 Col 185

TRS PRS SRP BASC2 TRS and PRS Scales Activities of Daily Living (PRS only) Adaptability (new to A) Aggression Anxiety Attention Problems Atypicality Conduct Problems (C, A) Depression

Functional Communication Hyperactivity Leadership (C, A) Learning Problems (TRSC, A) Social Skills Somatization Study Skills (TRSC, A) Withdrawal BASC2 TRS and PRS Scales Activities of Daily Living (PRS only) (MR PRS = 34-36; Motor PRS 36-38) Acts in a safe manner. Needs to be reminded to brush teeth. Organizes chores or other tasks well. Adaptability (new to A) (Bipolar TRS = 36, PRS = 30-36) Adjusts well to changes in family plans. Recovers quickly after a setback. Aggression Hits other children. Seeks revenge on others.(recognition of concept of relational aggression) BASC2 TRS and PRS Scales

Anxiety (Somatization still key symptom of anxiety in childhood) Is nervous. Worries about making mistakes. Attention Problems (sub-clinical problems may cause impairment; Scahill, L., Schwab-Stone, M., Merikangas, K. R., Leckman, J. F., Zhang, H., & Kasl, S. (1999). Psychosocial and clinical correlates of ADHD in a community sample of school-age children. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 38, 976-984.) (ADHD TRS = 60-61, PRS = 64) Listens to directions. Pays attention. Atypicality (preschool imaginary friends persist into early elementary school with 27% in preschool and 31% at ages 6 and 7, Taylor, M. (2004) Developmental Psychology, 40) (ASD TRS = 66-71, PRS = 75-76) Sees things that are not there. Acts strangely. BASC2 TRS and PRS Scales Conduct Problems Lies to get out of trouble. Deceives others. Depression (clinical sample PRS = 76-80, TRS = 65) Is sad.

Seems lonely. Functional Communication (MR TRS = 32-39, PRS = 29-31; Speech-Lang 41-38; Motor PRS 36-38; Hearing PRS 42-46) Is unclear when presenting ideas. Responds appropriately when asked a question. Is able to describe feelings accurately. BASC2 TRS and PRS Scales Hyperactivity (ADHD TRS = 61, PRS = 64-66; evidence of cross-cultural validity in Pineda, D.A., Aguirre, D.C., Garcia, M.A., Lopera, F.J., Palacio, L.G., & Kamphaus, R.W. (in press). Validation of Two Rating Scales for ADHD Diagnosis in Colombian Children. Pediatric Neurology.) Cannot wait to take turn. Acts out of control. Leadership (C, A) (group collaboration assessed) Gives good suggestions for solving problems. Is good at getting people to work together. Learning Problems (TRSC, A) (LD TRS = 61-62) Had reading problems. Has trouble keeping up in class.

BASC2 TRS and PRS Scales Social Skills Compliments others. Offers help to other children. Somatization Has stomach problems. Complains of being sick when nothing is wrong. Study Skills (TRSC, A) Reads assigned chapters. Tries to do well in school. Withdrawal (ASD PRS = 72-73, TRS = 66-71) Avoids other children. Quickly joins group activities. BASC2 TRS and PRS Composite Scales Externalizing Problems Hyperactivity Aggression Conduct Problems (C/A only) Internalizing Problems Anxiety

Depression Somatization BASC2 TRS and PRS Composite Scales Adaptive Skills Adaptability Social Skills Functional Communication Leadership (C and A only) Study Skills (TRS-C/A only) Activities of Daily Living (PRS only) School Problems (TRSC, A) Attention Problems Learning Problems BASC2 TRS and PRS Composite Scales Behavioral Symptoms Index (BSI) Hyperactivity Aggression Depression Attention Problems Atypicality Withdrawal BASC2 TRS and PRS

Validity Indexes F Index Consistency Index Number of Omitted/Unscoreable Items Patterned Responses BASC-2 Software ASSIST Unlimited use Basic scoring and reporting Fast, efficient item entry with optional verification Multi-rater report comparisons Windows 98 SE +and MAC OSX compatible Scannable version available for Windows Network compatible BASC-2 Software ASSIST Plus Unlimited use

Advanced scoring and reporting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria Content scales Extended narrative Multi-rater report comparisons Fast, efficient item entry with optional verification Windows 98 SE + and MAC OSX compatible Scannable version available for Windows Network compatible Terry Mild mental retardation, ADHD combined type, clinical depression 10 year old third grader diagnosed with MR in grade 1 Full Scale IQ = 66, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite = 61 Diagnosed as ADHD in first grade as well Ritalin has not worked as well for the past two months as she has become more emotional Her mother reports I think she needs more nerve medicine Terrys depression and school stress

Recent trouble getting to sleep and staying asleep Recent crying spell at school in the lunch room Refusing to go to school and is bullied by others She reports, Most of them pick on me and laugh about it. When asked why teased she said, Im too slow, and I cant do my work. She said that the same boy pushes her onto the same girls desk every day. The girl gets angry at her and Terry feels bad the remainder of the day. Terry says that the teasing makes her so angry that she cries Her mother cannot manage her at home. She is disobedient and refused to help around the house. Her mother is very stressed and says, I cant take it any more. Terry - Maternal Ratings Hyperactivity Aggression Conduct Problems Anxiety Depression Somatization Atypicality Withdrawal Attention Problems Social Skills Leadership Adaptability

73 71 79 61 88 56 93 73 68 17 21 22 Terry - Teacher Ratings Hyperactivity 75 Aggression 72 Conduct Problems 51

Anxiety 95 Depression 100 Somatization 98 Atypicality 87 Learning Problems 74 Withdrawal 77 Attention Problems 73

Adabtability 25 Social Skills 42 Leadership 44 Study Skills 36 Under-diagnosis of ADHD in Children with MR Pearson and Annan (1994) concluded,Findings suggest that chronological age should be taken into consideration when behavior ratings are used to assess cognitively delayed children for ADHD. However, the results do not support guidelines stating that mental age must be used to determine which norms should be applied when such children are evaluated clinically. (p. 395) The use of mental age as a consideration in making the

ADHD diagnosis for children with mental retardation may result in the denial of somatic and behavioral treatments that are known to have demonstrated efficacy (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2002). BASC2 SRP Changes Mixed item format (T/F and MC) Age range expansion College-form edition Interview format for ages 67 (available 2005) New scales Response Format Change: Sample Relations with Parents Item Loadings Item TF Item MC Item I like to be close to my parents. .46 .56

My mother and father like my friends. .31 .71 My parents are proud of me. .37 .83 Response Format Change: Sample Depression Item Loadings Item TF Item MC Item I feel like my life is getting worse and worse. .56

.62 I think that nothing about me is right. .44 .72 I feel like I just dont care anymore. .65 .27 Response Format Change: Sample Anxiety Item Loadings Item TF Item MC Item I worry about something bad happening to me.

.61 .38 I worry when I go to bed at night. .50 .79 I worry most of the day. .70 .68 BASC2 SRP Scales Alcohol Abuse (COL) Anxiety Attention Problems (ADHD SRP-C = 58, SRP-A = 57) (Bipolar SRP-A = 61)

Locus of Control Relations with Parents (Bipolar SRP-A = 43) School Maladjustment (COL) Self-Esteem (Depression SRP-A = 43) Self-Reliance (Bipolar SRP-A = 43) Sensation Seeking (A) Sense of Inadequacy Social Stress (ASD SRP-C = 55, SRP- Attitude to School (C, A) Attitude to Teachers (C, A) Atypicality Depression (Depression SRP-A = 55) A = 57) Hyperactivity (ADHD SRP-C = 57, SRP-A Somatization (A) (Depression SRP= 56) (Bipolar SRP-A = 59)

Interpersonal Relations (ASD SRP-C = 45, SRP-A = 41) (Bipolar SRP=-A = 44) A = 56) BASC2 SRP Composite Scales School Problems (Formerly School Maladjustment; C, A) Attitude to School (C, A) Attitude to Teachers (C, A) Sensation Seeking (A) BASC2 SRP Composite Scales Internalizing Problems (Formerly Clinical Maladjustment; cluster found in US population by Kamphaus, DiStefano, & Lease, 2003, A Self-Report Typology of Behavioral Adjustment for Young Children. Psychological Assessment, 15, 17-28)

Atypicality Locus of Control Social Stress Anxiety Depression Sense of Inadequacy Somatization (A, COL) BASC2 SRP Composite Scales Inattention/Hyperactivity Composite Attention Problems Hyperactivity Personal Adjustment Relations with Parents Interpersonal Relations Self-Esteem Self-Reliance BASC2 SRP Composite Scales Emotional Symptoms Index (ESI) Social Stress Anxiety Depression Sense of Inadequacy Self-Esteem Self-Reliance (replaces Interpersonal Relations)

BASC2 SRP Validity Indexes F Index L Index (new to C level) V Index Consistency Index (new) Number of Omitted/Unscoreable Items Patterned Responding Maleco False Positive Third grade boy referred for suspected ADHD with an abrupt onset of symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and conduct problems at the beginning of second grade. He has been cited for hitting others, setting another childs hair ablaze, running away from school, teacher defiance, cursing, and anger outbursts. He is about to be suspended from school unless his behavior improves significantly. His teachers hope that medication will improve his behavior. Maleco - History He is an only child who moved across country to a new school at the beginning of second grade. Up until this time he was raised by his maternal grandparents. His development was normal until the beginning of second grade and he is considered to be an intelligent child by all. He was described by his first grade teacher as exceedingly well behaved, high achieving, obedient, and curious. He has been

acting out at home with anger outbursts, crying spells, setting a garage on fire, and tearing up shrubs in his mothers yard. His mother does not think that he has any serious problems such as ADHD and is concerned about placing him on stimulant medication. He is currently receiving play therapy to help him control his behavior and emotions better. Maleco Cognitive Results Composite intelligence test score of 118 Academic achievement test scores ranging from a low of 116 in mathematics computation to a high of 128 in reading comprehension Grades have been all As and Bs but are beginning to suffer due to refusal to complete work at school Maleco Mothers Ratings Hyperactivity Aggression Conduct Problems Anxiety Depression Somatization Atypicality Withdrawal Attention Problems

Social Skills Leadership Adaptability 56 51 58 61 49 56 44 50 60 55 49 45 Maleco - Teacher Ratings Hyperactivity Aggression Conduct Problems Anxiety Depression Somatization Atypicality Learning

Problems Withdrawal 71 78 70 51 49 55 60 44 45 Maleco Self Report

Scale T-Score Anxiety 66 Depression 75 Sense of Inadequacy 78 Social Stress 73 Atypicality 71 Locus of Control 59 Attitude to School 68 Attitude to Teachers 75 Relations with Parents 51 Interpersonal Relations 35 Self-Esteem 46 Self-Reliance 36 Maleco Critical Items

Life is getting worse and worse Sometimes voice tell me to do bad things No one understands me I cannot stop myself from doing bad things I cannot control my thoughts Nobody ever listens to me Other kids hate to be with me I am always in trouble at home Sometimes I want to hurt myself I give up easily Nothing goes my way Assessment for Diagnosis and Classification (Kamphaus, R. W., & Frick, P. J. (2002). Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Personality and Behavior. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.) Assess core constructs/symptoms (DSM IV) and

severity (rating scales) Assess age of onset (history), developmental course (history), and multiple contexts (history, observations, and rating scales) Rule out alternative causes (history and rating scales) Rule in comorbidities (history, DSM IV, IDEA, and rating scales) History SDH Age and rapidity of symptom onset (e.g. ADHD, Pandas - pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection caused OCD;; differentiates ADHD from low birth weight, Johnson-Cramer, N.L., 1999. Assessment of school-aged children with comorbidity of attention deficit disorder and low birth weight classifications, Dissertation Abstracts Internationl, Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 59, 7A, 2344) Developmental course (e.g. Episodic reading problems) Assessment of etiology (e.g. Depression associated with Interferon therapy for cancer) Solution focused intervention design or asking when, or under what conditions does she or he behave well (e.g. Prozac related relapse or Cheryls head banging) Assessment of risk and resilience factors (e.g. family resemblance for

depression, peer substance use or abuse, recreational strengths such as music or sports) Available in Spanish Principles for Interpretation All raters possess evidence of validity Parent/Teacher predictive validity (Verhulst, F. C., Koot, H. M., & Van der Ende, J. (1994). Differential predictive value of parents and teachers reports of childrens problem behaviors: a longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 22, 531-546.) Teachers accurately assess effects of medication (Conners,1956) SRP possesses concurrent validity with peer ratings (Kamphaus, R. W., DiStefano, C. A., & Lease, A. M. (2003). A Self-Report Typology of Behavioral Adjustment for Young Children. Psychological Assessment, 15, 17-28) Simple interpretation schemes work as well as complex schemes (Piacentini, 1991) SRP-C Type 9, Internalizing yoked ratings (7.4% of 8-11 year olds, 47%f; low self-confidence, uncooperative, too sensitive, anxious/shy, unhappy/sad, disruptive, loses things, seems odd, unlikeable, unpopular, fewer friends)

80 SRP-C PRS-C TRS-C 70 60 50 40 30 Anx Rel Par Att Schl Att Teach Atyp Dep Inter

S of I Loc Con Se Est Se Rel Soc Stre Agg Att Hyper Interpretation Step 1: Validity Congruence of findings Lie index F index Omitted items Patterned responding Consistency index Reading proficiency

Interpretation Step 2: Classification Adaptive Scales Clinical Scales T-score Range Very High Clinically Significant 70 and above High At-Risk 60 69 Average Average 41 59

At-Risk Low 31 40 Clinically Significant Very Low 30 and Below Interpretation Step 3. Ratings Identify all scales with T scores in the at-risk range Confirm or disconfirm the importance of each with available evidence Collect additional evidence as needed Draw conclusions regarding classification, diagnosis, and intervention Impairment and Diagnosis Guidelines 70+ Functional impairment in multiple settings, Often diagnosable condition 60-69 Functional impairment in one or more

settings, sometimes diagnosable condition 45-59 No functional impairment or condition <45 Notable lack of symptomatology Report Writing SRP ATTITUDE TO SCHOOL Indicates negative attitudes toward school; child may display or report: Bad feelings about school Boredom in school ATTITUDE TO TEACHERS Indicates negative attitudes toward teachers; child may report: Not being cared about

Being treated unfairly SENSATION SEEKING (ages 12 21 only) Indicates a relatively high level of sensation seeking; child may report: Getting into fights Taking risks ATYPICALITY Indicates an above-average number of unusual behaviors or thought; child may report: Lacking thought control Hearing strange voices LOCUS OF CONTROL Indicates a belowaverage sense of control; child may report: Being controlled by parents

Bad things happening SOCIAL STRESS Indicates a relatively high number of stressful feelings in social situations; child may report: Being lonely Feeling out of place ANXIETY Indicates a relatively high number of anxious feelings; child may report: Being nervous Worrying DEPRESSION Indicates a relatively high number of depressed feelings; child may report: Not caring about things Not feeling understood Report Writing SRP (contd)

SENSE OF INADEQUACY Indicates a relatively high number of feeling of inadequacy; child may display or report: Quitting easily Sense of failure SOMATIZATION (ages 12 21 only)Indicates a relatively high number of health worries or complains; child may excessively complain of: Headaches Stomachaches ATTENTION PROBLEMS Indicates problematic levels of paying attention; child may report: Having a short attention span Forgetting things HYPERACTIVITY Indicates problematic levels of activity: child may report: Having trouble sitting still Being too noisy

RELATIONS WITH PARENTS Indicates problematic relationship with parents; child may display or report: Lack of trust Not being close with parents INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS Indicates relatively poor interpersonal relations; child may display or report: Not being liked Not being respected SELF-ESTEEM Indicates below-average levels of self-esteem; child may display or report: Concerns about looks Wanting to be someone else SELF-RELIANCE Indicates below-average levels of self-reliance; child may display or report: Lack of dependability

Difficulty making decisions TRS/PRS Report Writing HYPERACTIVITY Indicates problematic levels of activity; child may display or engage in: Bothering other children Rushing through things AGGRESSION Indicates problematic levels of aggression; child may display or engage in: Threats Hitting others CONDUCT PROBLEMS (ages 6 21 only)Indicates a problematic levels of conduct problems; child may engage in: Lies Breaks rules ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING Indicates below average daily living skills that may include:

Needs help dressing Acts safely ANXIETY Indicates problematic levels of anxiety; child may display: Nervousness Worry DEPRESSION Indicates problematic levels of depression; child may display or complain of: Sadness Being overwhelmed SOMATIZATION Indicates problematic levels of somatization; child may display or complain of: Headaches General pain TRS/PRS Report Writing (contd) ATTENTION PROBLEMS Indicates problematic levels of paying attention; child may display: Trouble listening Being distracted LEARNING PROBLEMS (ages 6 21 only) Indicates problems with learning in areas that may include:

Reading/math Organization skills ATYPICALITY Indicates problematic levels of unusual behavior or thoughts; child may display or engage in: Strange behavior Babbling WITHDRAWAL Indicates problematic levels of withdrawal; child may display or report: Trouble making friends Avoidance of others ADAPTABILITY Indicates below-average adaptability; that may include: Difficulty switching tasks Difficulty adjusting to change SOCIAL SKILLS Indicates below-average social skills that may include: Does not complement others Unwillingness to volunteer LEADERSHIP Indicates below-average leadership that may include: Indecisiveness Makes poor suggestions STUDY SKILLS (ages 6 21 only) Indicates belowaverage study skills that may include:

Incomplete homework Poor study habits FUNCTIONAL COMMUNICATION Indicates below-average communication skills that may include: Unclear communication Cannot describe own feelings Assessment for Intervention Define target behaviors via history, interviews, rating scales, and observations Establish baseline behavioral adjustment using rating scales and/or observations Assess intervention/treatment effectiveness with minimum of three (3) rating scales and/or observations Adjust intervention/treatment based on findings Student Observation System (SOS) Both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors are observed Multiple methods are used including, A) clinician rating, B) time sampling, and C) qualitative recording of classroom functional contingencies A generous time interval is allocated for recording the results of each time sampling interval (27 seconds) Operational definitions of behaviors and time sampling

categories are included in the BASC manual Inter-rater reliabilities for the time sampling portion are high which lends confidence that independent observers are likely to observe the same trends in childs classroom behavior (Lett, N. J., & Kamphaus, R. W. (1997). Differential validity of the BASC Student Observation System and the BASC Teacher Rating Scale. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 13, 1-14) SOS Part A - Treatment/IEP Planning; frequency, range, and disruptiveness of classroom behavior Part B - Treatment/Program evaluation of effectiveness (track change with ADHD Monitor software) Part C - Functional analysis of antecedents, behavior, and consequences (e.g. teacher position) SOS Scales Adaptive Scales Response to teacher Work on school subjects Peer interaction

Transition movement Behavior Problem Scales Inappropriate movement Inattention Inappropriate vocalization Somatization Repetitive motor movements Aggression Self-injurious behavior Inappropriate sexual behavior Bowel/bladder problems Using Part B There is typically no need to select target behaviors to observe (Tallent, 1999)

Schedule the observation period at a time of day and, in a class, where problems are known to be of teacher or parent concern so that problem behaviors can be observed. In addition, the examiner may want to also observe in a class where problems are not present Use an observer who is either already familiar to the school, or introduced to the teacher ahead of time Develop a timing mechanism (BASC POP recommended) SOS Part B Scoring Response to Teacher/Lesson This category describes the students appropriate academic behaviors involving the teacher or class. This category does not include working on school subjects (see Category 3) Peer Interaction This category assesses positive or appropriate interactions with other students Work on School Subjects This category includes appropriate academic behaviors that the student engages in alone, without interacting with others Transition Movement This category is for appropriate and nondisruptive behaviors of children while moving from one activity or place to another. Most are

out-of-seat behaviors and may be infrequent during a classroom observation period. Inappropriate Movement This category is intended for inappropriate motor behaviors that are unrelated to classroom work Inattention This category includes inattentive behaviors that are not disruptive Inappropriate Vocalization This category includes disruptive vocal behaviors. Only vocal behavior should be checked. SOS Part B Scoring (contd) Somatization This category includes behaviors regardless of inferred reason (e.g., a student may be sleeping because of medication, boredom, or poor achievement motivation). Repetitive Motor Movement This category includes repetitive behaviors (both disruptive and non-disruptive) that appear to have no external reward. Generally, the behaviors should be of 15-second duration or longer to be checked, and may be more likely to be checked on Part A than on Part B because of their repetitive nature. They may, however, be checked during either part. Aggression This category includes harmful behaviors directed at another student, the teacher, or property. The student must attempt to hurt another or destroy property for the behavior to be checked in this category. Aggressive play would not be included here.

Self-Injurious Behavior This category includes severe behaviors that attempt to injure ones self. There behaviors should not be confused with self-stimulatory behaviors. This category is intended to capture behaviors of children with severe disabilities who are being served in special classes in schools and institutions. BASC + IDEA Impaired relations = Social Stress, Interpersonal Relations, Social Skills, Relations with Parents, Withdrawal, Atypicality Inability to learn = Learning Problems and any clinical scale elevations Inappropriate behavior = Atypicality, Withdrawal Unhappiness/depression = Depression, Sense of Inadequacy Physical symptoms/complaints = Somatization Optional Content Scales Empirically based scales designed to identify potential problems of particular interest that may warrant further exploration Developed for all levels of TRS/PRS; SRP-A and SRP-COL levels Available only on BASC-2 ASSIST Plus Software Optional TRS/PRS Content Scales Anger Control - The tendency to become irritated and angry quickly and impulsively, coupled with an

inability to regulate affect and control during such periods Bullying - The tendency to be intrusive, cruel, or threatening toward others, or to use force in order to be manipulative or to get want is wanted Optional TRS/PRS Content Scales Developmental Social Disorders - The tendency to display behaviors characterized by deficits in social skills, communication, interests, and activities. Such behaviors may include self-stimulation, withdrawal, and inappropriate socializations Emotional Self-Control - The ability to regulate ones affect and emotions in response to environmental changes Optional TRS/PRS Content Scales Executive Functioning - The ability to control behavior by planning, anticipating, inhibiting, maintaining goal-directed activity, and reacting appropriately to environmental feedback in a purposeful, meaningful way Negative Emotionality - The tendency to view everyday interactions or events in an overly negative or aversive way and to react negatively to any changes in plans or routines Resiliency - The ability to access support systems, both internal and external, to alleviate stress and overcome adversity or difficult circumstances

Optional SRP-A/COL Content Scales Anger Control - The tendency to become irritated and angry quickly and impulsively, coupled with an inability to regulate affect and control during such periods Ego Strength - The expression of a strong sense of ones identity and overall emotional competence, including feelings of self-awareness, self-acceptance, and perception of ones social support network Optional SRP-A/COL Content Scales Mania - The tendency to experience extended periods of heightened arousal, excessive activity (at times with an obsessive focus), and rapid idea generation without the presence of normal fatigue Test Anxiety - The tendency to experience irrational worry and fear of taking routine structured school tests of aptitude or academic skills regardless of the degree of preparation or study or confidence in ones knowledge of the content to be covered Morgan Chronic depression and anxiety Morgan is an 8th grade student referred for determination of ADHD and Learning Disabilities. Previous diagnoses included Major Depression and

Generalized Anxiety Disorder, for which she is on medication. Morgans current medications include Prozac and Respiradol for depression and Zantac for stomach pain. She is currently engaged in psychotherapy. Concentration problems have been particularly evident since grade 7. Reportedly, Morgan requires absolute quiet to complete assignments and she has difficulty remaining on task. Morgans mother denied complaints of inattention and concentration problems when Morgan was in elementary school. With regard to academic attainment, Morgan has evidenced academic difficulties since grade 2. In the past 1 1/2 years her marks have significantly decreased. Morgans mother indicated that Morgan exhibits considerable oppositional defiant behavior with temper outbursts when denied a request. Morgans mother also noted that she is quite emotional with frequent crying outbursts. Morgans BASC Results

Scale Parent Rating Hyperactivity Aggression Conduct Problems Anxiety 45 Depression Sense of Inadequacy Somatization Social Stress Atypicality Locus of Control

Withdrawal Attention Problems Adaptability ADL 51 FCom 55 Social Skills Leadership Attitude to School Attitude to Teachers Sensation Seeking Relations with Parents Interpersonal Relations Self-Esteem Self-Reliance Teacher (English) 52 55 57 49 70 60 63 61 100 67

72 70 77 63 68 61 73 84 79 70 40 50 55 49 38 38 34 33 71 74 60 30 54 26 32 Self-Report

48 80 65 55 67 Development of the BASC2 Items selected based on: Standardized item loading in SEM analyses Item-total correlation Item bias statistics (5 items removed) Construct relevance Approximately 1/3 new items on TRS/PRS forms Item Development Sample Form TRS-P TRS-C TRS-A

PRS-P PRS-C PRS-A SRP-C SRP-A SRP-COL Items 185 252 248 243 306 284 198 256 270 Sample Size 1,023 2,010 1,536 1,368 2,231 1,886 2,033 3,180

705 BASC2 Standardization Sample General normative sample was be stratified by: Sex by race/ethnicity Sex by region Sex by mothers education level TRS General Norm Sample Form TRS Ages Female Male Total N % N

% N 23 200 50 200 50 400 45 325 50 325 50 650

67 300 50 300 50 600 811 600 50 600 50 1,200 1214

400 50 400 50 800 1518 500 50 500 50 1,000 PRS General Norm Sample Form PRS

Ages Female Male Total N % N % N 23 250 50 250 50

500 45 350 50 350 50 700 67 300 50 300 50 600

811 600 50 600 50 1,200 1214 400 50 400 50 800 1518 500

50 500 50 1,000 SRP General Norm Sample Female Form SRP Male Total Ages N % N %

N 811 750 50 750 50 1,500 1214 450 50 450 50 900

1518 500 50 500 50 1,000 Clinical Norm Samples Offered Conditions All Clinical Conditions (Ages 4-18), Combined, Female, Male Learning Disability (Ages 6-18) , Combined, Female, Male ADHD (Ages 6-18) , Combined, Female, Male Age ranges 4-5 6-11 12-18 TRS Reliabilities: Median & Range Level Alpha

TestRetest P .86 (.75.92) .83 (.72.92) C .88 (.78.94) .88 (.65.92) A .87 (.80.95) .79 (.66.91) PRS Reliabilities: Median & Range

Level Alpha TestRetest P .81 (.70.88) .76 (.66.88) C .85 (.73.88) .84 (.65.87) A .85 (.72.88)

.82 (.72.87) SRP Reliabilities: Median & Range Level Alpha TestRetest C .80 (.72.86) .73 (.64.82) A .80 (.67.88) .75 (.63.84) Effects of Child Sex and Culture

Parent ratings are invariant in level across 12 countries with consistent patterns for age and child sex (e.g. China, Sweden, India, U.S. etc.; Crijnen, Achenbach, & Verhulst, 1999) Teacher and Parent ratings for BASC were invariant in level between Medellin, Colombia and U.S. with consistent patterns for age and child sex (Kamphaus & DiStefano, 2001) Cluster analyses across metropolitan, rural, and Medellin samples reveal a similar structure of behavioral adjustment (DiStefano, Kamphaus, Horne, & Winsor, 2003; Kamphaus, DiStefano & Lease, 2003; DiStefano & Kamphaus, 2001; Kamphaus, Huberty, DiStefano, & Petoskey, 1997). Effects of Culture 12 10 8 Colombian White African-Am U.S. Hispa 6 4 2 0

PRS Hyp TRS Hyp PRS Att TRS ATT PRS Con TRS Con Effects of Child Sex 14 12 10 8 Girls Boys

6 4 2 0 PRS Hyp TRS PRS Att TRS Hyp ATT PRS Con TRS Con Its as Easy as ABC (i.e., ASEBA, BASC-2, CRS-R): A Comparison (2005, National Assoc of School Psychologists, Atlanta) Rob Altmann, MA AGS Publishing Cecil Reynolds, PhD Texas A&M University

Sample for PRS Studies PRS-P PRS-C PRS-A CBCL CBCL CPRS-R CBCL CPRS-R Sex F, M 29, 24 31,34 30, 30

35, 32 29, 26 Race AA, H, O, W 3, 7, 1, 42 13, 12, 2, 38 7, 5, 5, 43, 13, 6, 4, 44 11, 4, 3, 37 Region NE, NC, S, W

10, 16, 11, 16 2, 28, 16, 19 6, 28, 18, 8 15, 12, 20, 20 8, 14, 17, 16 Mothers Ed. 3, 25, <11, HS/GED, 22, 15 1-3 yrs., 4+ yrs. 3, 25, 22, 15 1, 19, 21, 19

3, 28, 21, 14 4, 19, 20, 12 PRS-P with CBCL 1 -5 60 55 BASC-2 50 CBCL 45 40 Int. Prob. Ext. Prob. Total Prob. Anxiety Somat. Atn. Prob. Aggression PRS-C with CBCL 6-18

60 55 BASC-2 50 CBCL 45 40 Int. Prob. Ext. Prob. Total Prob. Anxiety Somat. Depression Prob. Cond. Atn. Prob. Aggression PRS-A with CBCL 6-18 60

55 BASC-2 50 CBCL 45 40 Int. Prob. Ext. Prob. Total Prob. Anxiety Somat. Depression Prob. Cond. Atn. Prob. Aggression PRS-C with CPRS-R

60 55 BASC-2 50 CPRS-R 45 40 Shy Inatn. Anxiety/ Hyperact. AtnxiousAtn.Cog. Prob./ Prob.Aggression/ Oppositional Psycosom. Somatization/ Hyp. Atn. Inatn. Hyp./DSM Prob./DSM PRS-A with CPRS-R 60 55

BASC-2 50 CPRS-R 45 40 Inatn. Hyperact. Anxiety/ Atn.Cog. Prob./ Prob.Aggression/ Oppositional Psychosom. Anxious-Shy Somatization/ Hyp. Atn. Inatn. Hyp./DSM Prob./DSM TRS-P with TRF 1 -5 60 55 BASC-2

50 TRF 45 40 Prob. Int. Prob. BSI/ Total Ext. Prob. Somat. Anxiety/ Anx. Dep. Atn. Prob. Aggression TRS-C with TRF 6-18 60 55 BASC-2 50 TRF

45 40 Prob. Int. Prob. Ext. Prob. BSI/ Total Dep. Dep. Somat. Rule Brk. Anx./ Anx. Atn. Prob. Cnd. Prb./ Dep./ With. Aggression TRS-A with TRF 6-18 60 55 BASC-2 50 TRF

45 40 Prob. Int. Prob. BSI/ Total Ext. Prob. Dep. Dep. Somat. Rule Brk. Atn. Prob. Cnd. Prb./ Anx./ Anx. Aggression Dep./ With. TRS-C with CTRS-R 60 55 BASC-2 50

CTRS-R 45 40 Cog. Anxiety/ Opposit. Anx.-Shy Aggress./ Atn. Prob./ Prob.-Inatt.Hyperact. Hyp. Atn. Inatn. Hyp./DSM Prob./DSM TRS-A with CTRS-R 60 55 BASC-2 50 CTRS-R

45 40 Inatt. Opposit. Anx.-Shy Hyperact. Anxiety/ Aggress./ Atn.Cog. Prob./ Prob.- Hyp. Atn. Inatn. Hyp./DSM Prob./DSM Development of PRS and SRP Spanish Forms Firm experienced in translating psychological tests completed initial translation Bilingual psychologists from across US reviewed the materials Additional rounds of changes made to develop standardization item sets

Psychometric properties of Spanish items were evaluated prior to making final item selections Forms completed by Spanish speakers were included in the norming samples A Comparative Study Using Parent Behavior Rating Scales, Spanish Editions (2005, National Association of School Psychologists, Atlanta) Rob Altmann, MA AGS Publishing Randy W. Kamphaus, PhD University of Georgia AGS Publishing gratefully acknowledges Yahaira Marquez for her assistance with this project. Method Participants: 83 parents from Puerto Rico and 167 parents from the United States Measures: Parent Rating Scales-Child (Ages 6-11) Child Behavior Checklist 6-18 (Ages 6-18) Procedure: Parents in Puerto Rico were asked to voluntarily complete a PRS-C form as part of a larger dissertation project; parents in the United States voluntarily completed the PRS-C form as part of the BASC-2 standardization project; all parents

were paid a nominal amount for their participation Results Table 1. Sample Characteristics United States Puerto Rico 167 83 Median Age (Years) 9 9 Sex (Female, Male) 76, 91 41, 42 Race (Hispanic, White, Other) 167, 0, 0

62, 10, 3 Rater (Mother, Father, Other) 138, 27, 2 77, 3, 3 122, 31, 5, 9 10, 30, 24, 17 Sample Size Rater Education (< HS, HS/GED, 1-3 yr. college*, 4+ yr. college) Note.* 1-4 yr. college for Puerto Rico sample. Table 2. Alpha Reliabilities Composite United States Puerto Rico PRS-C PRS-C CBCL 6-18 Externalizing Problems .90 .89 .88 Internalizing Problems .78 .82 .77 Adaptive Skills .91 .92

-- Behavioral Symptoms Index/Total Problems .92 .91 .89 Table 2. Alpha Reliabilities (cont.) Scale United States Puerto Rico PRS-C PRS-C CBCL 6-18 Hyperactivity/ADHD .74 .80

.78 Attention Problems .76 .82 .84 Aggression .79 .75 .89 Conduct Problems/Rule Breaking, Conduct Prob. .76 .81 .50, .67

Oppositional Defiant Prob. -- -- .78 Anxiety/Anxiety-Dep., Anxiety Prob. .61 .71 .72, .63 Depression/Affective Prob. .79 .74 .54 Table 2. Alpha Reliabilities (cont.)

United States Puerto Rico Scale PRS-C PRS-C CBCL 6-18 Som./Som. Cmp., Som. Prb. .68 .75 .55, .61 Atypicality/Thought Problems .74 .75 .68 Withdrawal/Withdrawn-Dep. .65 .69

.58 Adaptability .67 .71 -- Social Skills/Social Problems .74 .82 .61 Leadership .75 .75 -- Activities of Daily Living

.68 .70 -- Functional Communication .76 .79 -- Median (All Scales) .74 .75 .65 Table 3. PRS-C and CBCL 6-18 Correlations CBCL 6-18 BASC-2

Ext. Prob. Int. Prob. Total Prob. Ext. Prob. .72 .31 .63 Int. Prob. .30 .63 .48 Adt. Skills -.48 -.33 -.60

BSI .69 .52 .78 Figure 1. PRS-C and CBCL 6-18 Mean Score Comparisons 60 55 BASC-2 CBCL 50 45 40 Prob. Int. Prob. BSI/Total Ext. Prob.

Dep. Atn. Prob. Somat./ Agg. Beh. Rule Brk. Wdl. Dep. Aggression/ Depression/ Anxiety/ Anx. Som. Comp. Cond. Prob./ PROCESO DE ADAPTACIN 1- Traduccin de los cuestionarios. 2- Revisin de la traduccin. 3- Elaboracin de 2 tems nuevos para cada escala. 4- Revisin de los cuestionarios. 5- Aplicacin del S2 y S3 a 170 sujetos de diferentes niveles socioeconmicos para comprobar la comprensin de los tems. 6- Modificacin de la redaccin de algunos tems. 7- Seleccin tems en funcin de: ndice de atraccin, consistencia interna, correlacin y saturacin. 8 Muestra total 1.900 aprox.

9 Fiabilidad: Test retest 3 meses. Mayor puntuacin en varones T Mayor puntuacin en varones Mayor puntuacin en mujeres *** *** ** P Mayor puntuacin en mujeres Diferencias en funcin del sexo T y P *** Agresividad

*** *** *** Hiperactividad *** *** *** Problemas de conducta *** *** *** *** *** Problemas de atencin *** Problemas de

aprendizaje *** *** * *** * * *** ** Atipicidad ** Ansiedad *** *** Retraimiento **

T3 T2 *** Depresin * T1 *** *** *** Somatizacin * Adaptabilidad *** ** ***

Habilidades sociales *** *** ** ** Liderazgo Habilidades de estudio *** *** -10 -5 0 5 10

-10 -5 0 5 10 BASC Contacts/Information includes sample cases, research bibliography, and discussion centers for BASC users Randy Kamphaus, [email protected] or Cecil Reynolds, [email protected] AGS, 4201 Woodland Road, P.O. Box 99, Circle Pines, MN 55014-1796 1 800 328 2560 PSYCAN Corporation,12-120 West Beaver Creek Road, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 1L2, 1 800 263 3558 Reynolds, C.R. & Kamphaus, R.W. (2002). A clinicians guide to the BASC. Guilford Publications, TEA Ediciones, Madrid, Manual Moderno, Mexico City

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