ATMOSPHERIC EMITTED RADIANCE INTERFEROMETER - CURRENT AND FUTURE

ATMOSPHERIC EMITTED RADIANCE INTERFEROMETER - CURRENT AND FUTURE TROPOSPHERIC APPLICATIONS W. F. Feltz, #D. Turner, H. B. Howell, R. Dedecker, *W. L. Smith and H. Woolf 6th ISTP Leipzig, Germany 14-20 September 2003 University of Wisconsin CIMSS/SSEC *NASA LaRC, # Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI OVERVIEW Instrument Overview Some current AERI Applications Advancements in Temperature and Moisture Retrieval (IHOP and CRYSTALFACE) Conclusions Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003

AERI INSTRUMENT OVERVIEW ABB IR Detector Dewar with Cooler Cold Finger Stirling Cooler Compressor HBB Bomem Interferometer Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI

AERI SPECIFICATIONS Spectral Resolution better than 1 cm-1 wavenumber from 520-3000 cm-1 (3 - 20 um) Calibrated to 1% ambient radiance (better than 1 K ambient temperature) Automated and environmentally hardened Time resolution: 6 - 10 minutes (adjustable) Ground-based and portable Surface viewing mode and uplooking mode Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI Experiment GAPEX CRSPE WISP PT SUR 1991 SPECTRE

Location Denver,CO Madison, WI Platteville, CO Monterey, CA Coffeyville, KS Date October 1988 Nov-Dec 1989 March 1991 May 1991 Nov-Dec 1991 STORMFEST PT SUR 1992 ARM SGP VOCAR CAMEX

OTIS CAMEX II CSP WVIOP96 WINCE WVIOP97 SHEBA WA LLOPS98 CAMEX3 WINTEX WA LLOPS99 WISC-T2000 WVIOP2000 AFWEX TX-2001 CLAMS IHOP CRYSTAL-FACE TX-2002

Seneca, KS Monterey, CA Lamont, OK Pt Mugu, CA Wallops Island, VA Gulf of Mexico Wallops Island, VA R/V DISCOVERER Lamont, OK Madison, WI Lamont, OK Arctic Ice Pack Wallops Island, VA Andros Island Madison, WI Wallops Island, VA Madison, WI Lamont, OK

Lamont, OK Lamont, OK Wallops Island, VA OK Panhandle Everglades, Florida Lamont, OK Feb-Mar 1992 May 1992 Mar 1993-Jun 1995 Aug-Sep 1993 Sep-Oct 1993 Jan 1995 Aug-Sep 1995 Mar-Apr 1996 Sep 1996 Jan-Feb 1997 Sep-Oct 1997 Sep 1997-Aug 1998

Jul 1998 Aug-Sep 1998 Mar-Apr 1999 Aug 1999 Feb-Mar 2000 Sep-Oct 2000 Nov-Dec 2000 Mar-Apr 2001 Jun-Jul 2001 May-Jun 2002 Jul-Aug 2002 Nov-Dec 2002 Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI Instrument ID HIS HIS, GB-HIS

GB-HIS GB-HIS GB-HIS, AERI Prototype AERI Prototype AERI Prototype AERI Prototype AERI-01 (LN2) AERI-01 (LN2) AERI-01 (LN2) AERI Prototype AERI Prototype AERI Prototype AERI Prototype AERI Prototype AERI-00U AERI Prototype AERI Prototype AERI Prototype

AERI Prototype AERI Prototype AERI Prototype AERI Prototype AERI Prototype AERI Prototype AERI-03 AERI-03 AERI-03 UW AERI - 2 (AERIBAGO, SSEC) DOE AERI - 8 (Kansas/Oklahoma, Alaska, S. Pacific) U-Miami M-AERI - 3 (Florida) Bomem AERI -8 (Italy, California, Maryland, Canada) U Idaho P-AERI - 1 (Antarctica) Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI

Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI AERI APPLICATIONS Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI Real-time Thermodynamic Retrievals Six AERI systems (including Madison, WI) are currently processing PBL retrievals in near real-time, allowing on the fly validation: Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI AERI Cloud Phase Detection: Sample Results Credits: Dr. David Turner Pacific Northwest National Laboratories Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003

AERI INTERCOMPARISON OF TWO MARINE AERIS MEASURING SST 16 Day Cruise Hawaii New Zealand Track of the R/V Roger Revelle 28 Sept. - 14 Oct. 1997 Largest Daily Mean Difference: 0.020 K Ten Day Mean Difference: 0.005 K Credits: Dr. Peter Minnett U of Miami RSMAS Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI Marine-AERI Cruises Conducted by U of

Miami Since 1996 to Obtain Ocean Surface Skin Temperature and Emissivity Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI AERI THERMODYNAMIC RETRIEVAL SPECTRAL REGIONS Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI AERI Thermodynamic Retrieval Flow Chart Radiosonde Climatology Regression Data Base T,Q Surface to 3 Km

AERI Radiance Hybrid First Guess Cloud Base Height (if present) Physical Retrieval NWP Model/Satellite T,Q Profile 2 Km Tropopause Temperature/ Moisture Profile Surface Moisture Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI

AERIplus Retrieval Description Two step retrieval, construct optimal first guess than conduct physical retrieval Statistical retrieval is a combined regression and NWP profile Physical retrieval used is iterative onion peel technique Temperature and water vapor mixing ratio profiles retrieved from high resolution AERI spectra up to 3 km Temporal resolution ~ ten minutes (increasing to < 1 minute) Vertical resolution improved in lowest kilometer from 100 m to 50 m Fast model update based on LBLRTM with HITRAN 2000 trans. coeffs Constraints: AERI retrieval only possible in clear sky or below cloud base to 3 kilometers Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI

AERIplus, RUC, GOE-8 Profile Statistics Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI Examples of the updated AERIplus temperature retrieval improvement during the IHOP field experiment. The red profile was calculated with old algorithm while the green profile uses the new LBLRTM based fast model with improved vertical resolution and spectroscopy as compared to radiosonde (thick black line) Double inversion resolved with new algorithm Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI

IHOP AERIplus Retrieval RMS Statistics Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI AERI THERMODYNAMIC RETRIEVALS Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI IHOP AERIplus Retrieval RMS Statistics Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI Hillsboro Vici

Lamont Purcell Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI 3 June 0230 UTC Morris AERI West East AERI water vapor cross sections during IHOP Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI

Total Precipitable Water Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI AERIPLUS COUPLED WITH NOAA WIND PROFILER MOISTURE DIVERGENCE/ADVECTION Storm Reports from 30 April 2003 Moisture Divergence Calculation Credits: Robin Tanamachi U of Oklahoma Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI Example: Crystal Rapid-sampling AERI data Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003

AERI 2.0 15 1.5 1.0 10 0.5 315 m 0 5 17 Time (UTC) 5

21 AERI WV (g/kg) Perturbations: 315 m 0 40 s Perturbation 5 min. Running Mean -5 17 Time (UTC) Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI 21

Mixing Ratio (g/kg) Altitude (km) Applications of High Temporal Resolution AERI Data: Boundary Layer Roll Detection during 20 g/kg 40-s Profiles:CRYSTAL 17-21 UTC Applications of High Temporal Resolution AERI Data: Boundary Layer Roll Detection during CRYSTAL Perturbation Power Spectrum 17-25 min period at 99 % significance

AERI Boundary Layer Depth: 700 meters Boundary Layer Rolls Roll Wavelength: ~ 5 km, Updraft Width: ~1.5 km Roll Orientation: 120, Motion: 135 GOES-8 1 km Visible: 1925 UTC, 7/29/02 GOES Derived Roll Periodicity: 23 Mecikalski J.M., K. M. Bedka, D. minutes D. Turner, and W.F. Feltz: Evidence for the Presence of Roll Structures in the Convective

AERI Derived Roll Periodicity: 17-25 Boundary Layer using Thermodynamic Profiling Instruments. J. mins Geo. Res., In Preparation Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI Future Research Plans Updated AERIplus retrieval algorithm implemented at for DOE ARM at PNNL, all AERI data from SGP with be reprocess with RUC analysis at first guess High temporal resolution (< 1 minute) AERI radiance measurements were collected at Crystal and Texas 2002 to test improvement in gathering cloud and thermodynamic information,

all DOE ARM AERI systems will be in rapid sample mode in near future Experimenting with SHEBA and NSA data using ECMWF analysis as first guess (no RUC available) for PBL LES (Dr J. Pinto and Dr J. Curry) Test new physical retrieval methodology will be tested to allow error bars and error covariance matrixes to be calculated for mesoscale model assimilation (working with Dr. D. Turner PNNL) Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI Future Research Plans

A five year period of a five AERI system network with collocated with exist for study of moisture temporal and spatial gradients (students working in this direction) New research in determination of cloud properties (starting with cloud phase) using emissivity observations derived from AERI data (Dr. D. Turner presentation) Working with several groups outside the DOE ARM science team on PBL and atmospheric stability research using the AERI thermodynamic data Coupled with the Raman Lidar and wind profilers at the central

SGP facility near Lamont, Oklahoma there is a long-term treasure chest of temperature, moisture, wind, and aerosol tropospheric profile information which is underutilized for tropospheric research (See Dr. R. Ferrare presention) Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI AERI Information: References: Feltz, W. F., J. R. Mecikalski, 2002: Monitoring High Temporal Resolution Convective Stability Indices Using the Ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) During the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma/Kansas Tornado Outbreak. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 445-455. Feltz, W. F., H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. M. Woolf, and H E. Revercomb, 2003: Near Continuous

Profiling of Temperature, Moisture, and Atmospheric Stability using the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). J. Appl. Meteor., 42, 584-597. Minnett, P. J., R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, O. B. Brown, 2001: The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: A High-Accuracy, Seagoing Infrared Spectroradiometer. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 18, 994-1013. Tobin, D.C., and coauthors, Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA ice station: water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 um. JGR, 104, 2081-2092. Turner, D. D., W. F. Feltz, R. Ferrare, 2000: Continuous Water Vapor Profiles from Operational Groundbased Active and Passive Sensors. Bull. Amer. Soc., 81, 1301-1317.

Turner D. D., S. A. Ackerman, B. A. Baum, H. E. Revercomb, and P. Yang, 2003: Cloud phase determination using ground-based AERI observations at SHEBA. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 42, 701-715. AERI HOMEPAGE: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/aeri/ EMAIL: [email protected] Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI Statistical Retrieval Description Synthetic EOF Regression ~1100 clear radiosondes from DOE ARM central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma for 1994-1996

Forward calculations using 60-level fast model based on AER LBLRTM EOF regression conducted relating each radiosonde spectrum (562 channels) pair Regression data set is very robust since a wide variety of weather is experiences in northern Oklahoma throughout the year Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI Hybrid First Guess Statistical retrieval achieved during clear sky conditions (no update until a clear scene is present) Statistical retrieval errors grow rapidly with altitude above one kilometer Satellite profiles and NWP can be used to constrain the first guess through a simple linear

interpolation between 1-2 km This improved first guess constrains the physical retrieval and improves PBL retrieval profile Currently combination of hourly RUC analysis/AERI statistical retrieval used over United States used to optimize the retrievals Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI Physical Retrieval Description Onion peel retrieval methodology Physical iterative recursive retrieval solution of the infrared radiative transfer equation During each iteration the temperature and water vapor mixing ratio profile adjustments are made to minimize the difference between observed and calculated spectra To correctly account for forward model spectroscopy and regression errors a static bias

is used for water vapor (not needed for temperature retrieval spectral regions), currently bias is static but dynamic bias ties to water vapor is being considered with goal to be bias free Tropospheric Profiling Meeting 2003 AERI

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