# ME170 Computer Aided Design Engineering Drawing Notes Part

ME170 Computer Aided Design Engineering Drawing Notes Part A - 2D Drawing Principles Instructor: Mike Philpott Emeritus Associate Professor of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Content s 1. 2. 3. Part A 4. 5. 6. Part B 7. 2D Drawing Principles Coordinate Dimensioning & Tolerancing ANSI/ISO Tolerance Designation ANSI/ISO Classification of Limits and Fits Surface Properties Economics of Tolerances/Surface properties Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)

Attention to Detail The engineering drawing is the specification for the component or assembly and is an important contractual document with many legal implications, every line and every comment is important. Part and Assembly Drawings Part Drawings: Detail drawings completely describe a single part with multiview orthographic projections. Should provide all the information necessary to economically manufacture a high quality part. Assembly Drawings: Assembly drawings are used to show the position and functional relationship of parts in an assembly, also via multiview orthographic projections. Generally they have no dimensions on them. Parts are 'balloon' identified and referenced to either detail drawing numbers or catalog numbers, via a Bill of Materials (BOM) Orthographic Views Preferred 3 views form L shape Rear Top Left Front Right

Top Bottom Rear Left Front Right Bottom Title Block The Glass Box Concept The glass box concept theorizes that an object is suspended inside a sixsided glass cube (notice the use of hidden lines on the glass box, depicting lines that would not be visible from the given perspective). As the object is viewed from a specific orientation (perpendicular to one of the sides of the cube) visual rays project from the object to the projection plane. These projectors are always parallel to each other. The objects image is formed on the projection plane by the pierce points of the visual rays. The process is repeated to construct the right side view on the profile plane Similarly, the top

view is projected to the horizontal plane For many three-dimensional objects, two to three orthographic views are sufficient to describe their geometry. The box can be unfolded to show the multiple views in a single x-y plane TOP FRONT Because the observation point is located at infinity, the integrity of feature size and location are maintained, and the views are oriented orthogonally in relationship to each other. RIGHT SIDE TOP FRONT Notice that the projectors or extension lines, are

perpendicular to the folding lines of the glass box. (Fold lines and extension lines are drawn very lightly, when used, and are not part of the finished drawing.) RIGHT SIDE Final Views L format, front, right, top is ANSI and ISO standard for Dimensional Data can then be added to the drawing There are 3 distinct line weights to be aware of: object lines are thick (approximately .030-.040 thick), hidden lines are a medium thickness (.015-.020), and extension, dimension, and center lines are thin (.007-.010). Complete the 3 view drawing (without dimensions for now). Begin by projecting all of the known information between the views. Begin by projecting all of the known information between the views.

Heavy-up all of the object lines that depict visible object lines, and show surfaces that would not be visible in the specific orientation, using dashed/hidden lines. Complete the right side view by projecting all of the relevant lines and points using a 45 degree miter line. Clean up the drawing. Remove the final construction lines to see the finished drawing 2. Coordinate Dimensioning and Tolerancing ANSI standard - ASME Y14.5M - 1994 The collective process of modeling, defining and describing geometric sizes and feature relationships, and providing all of the required technical information necessary to produce and inspect the part is called dimensioning and tolerancing. The National Standard for dimensioning and tolerancing in the United States is ASME Y14.5M DRAWN IN ACCORDANCE WITH ASME Y14.5M - 1994 REMOVE ALL BURRS AND SHARP EDGES ALL FILLETS AND ROUNDS R .06 UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) : ASME Y14.5 - 2009 Dimensioning Scheme deciding what, where, and how to add dimensions to the drawing 20

Line Types Object Lines Hidden Lines Center Lines Phantom Lines Dimension Lines Extension Lines Leader Lines Cutting Plane Line thick thin thin thin thin thick Sections - Hatching Break Lines thin thick Arrowheads Arrowheads are used as terminators on dimension lines. The points of the arrowheads on leader lines and dimension lines must make contact with the feature object line or extension lines which represent the feature being dimensioned. The standard size ratio for all arrowheads on mechanical drawings is 3:1 (length to width). 200

R 8.5 Of the four different arrowhead types that are authorized by the national standard, ASME Y14.2M 1994, a filled arrowhead is the highest preference. 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Dimension Lines and Extension Lines Extension lines overlap dimension lines (beyond the point of the arrowheads) by a distance of roughly 2-3mm There should be a visible gap (~1.5 mm) between the object lines and the beginning of each extension line. 1.75 1.06 Dimensions should be placed outside the actual part outline. Dimensions should not be placed within the part boundaries unless greater clarity would result.

Placement of Linear Dimensions Order of Preference Arrows in / dimension in 2.562 Arrows out / dimension in 1.250 .750 .500 Arrows in / dimension out Arrows out / dimension out When there is not enough room between the extension lines to accommodate either the dimension value or the dimension lines they can be placed outside the extension lines as shown in the fourth example (use Flip Arrows in ProE). Reference Dimensions Reference Dimension Symbol EXAMPLE Reference dimensions are used on drawings to provide support information only.

2.250 1.000 (.750) (X.XXX) They are values that have been derived from other dimensions and therefore should not be used for calculation, production or inspection of parts. .500 .500 1.250 .500 (.750) The use of reference dimensions on drawings should be minimized. Location of Dimensions Shorter (intermediate) dimensions are placed closest to the outline of the part, followed by dimensions of greater length. Dimensions nearest the object outline should be at least .375 inches (10 mm) away from the object, and succeeding parallel dimension lines should be at least .250 inches (6 mm) apart. 4.375

1.438 .250 (6mm) Minimum Spacing 1.250 1.000 .375 (10mm) Minimum Spacing 1.875 1.062 .688 2.312 Dimensions should be placed outside the actual part outline Basic Dimensioning Good Practice 4.375 1.438 1.250 1.000 1.875 1.062 .688

2.312 Extension lines should not cross dimension lines if avoidable 1.250 1.438 In-line dimensions can share arrowheads with contiguous dimensions 1.000 1.875 1.062 .688 2.312 4.375 BETTER Diameter Dimensions Holes and cutouts 1.375 .625 THRU .250 .62

1.375 .250 x .62 DP Diameter Dimensions Shafts and Holes Whenever it is practical to do so, external diameters are dimensioned in rectangular (or longitudinal) views. Cylindrical holes, slotted holes, and cutouts that are irregular in shape would normally be dimensioned in views where their true geometric shape is shown. .25 THRU 1.25 .75 2.00 Placement with Polar Coordinates To dimension features on a round or axisymmetric component 18 3X 6X .562 .188 18

3.50 .875 18 18 18 18 Radial Dimensions To indicate the size of fillets, rounds, and radii R.312 R14.25 R.750 R.312 R.562 Angular Dimensions: To indicate the size of angular details appearing as either angular or linear dimensions. 92 Length of Chord 35

90 or 103 Length of Arc 2 x 2 or 2 x 45 2 x 45 or 2 x 2 CHAM or 63 63 50 Chamfers 95 Alternate Times and By Symbol: X 8X .250 THRU .12 X 45

CHAMFER The X symbol can also be used to indicate the word by. For instance, when a slot that has a given width by a specified length, or a chamfer that has equal sides (.12 X .12). When used to imply the word by, a space must precede and follow the X symbol. If the same feature is repeated on the drawing (such as 8 holes of the same diameter and in a specified pattern), the number of times the instruction applies is called out using the symbol X. .375 CSK .562 X 82 Section Views A A SECTION A-A Section views are used to clarify internal detail and to avoid

dimensioning to hidden lines The are established by referencing a cutting plane Cutting planes depict the exact location on the part from which the section view will be projected, and should have associated arrowheads, indicating the direction from which the section view will be observed. Cutting planes are constructed as an integral feature of the parent view, and cutting plane arrowheads always indicate the direction for the observers line of sight. Cutting Plane Alpha Characters A - A, B - B, C C*, etc., are used to designate the required section view. The characters are placed near the arrowheads and as a subtitle of the view. There is no standard for the location of the section designators, other than near the cutting plane arrowheadsas the examples below illustrate. When the alphabet has been exhausted, use double characters AA - AA, BB - BB, CC CC*, etc. *Section Designators should NOT include the alpha characters I, O, or Q. A

Cutting plane on reference view Subtitle of actual view SECTION A-A A Crosshatching Section Views Crosshatching, is a repeating graphic pattern which is applied throughout all areas of the part that would be in contact with the cutting plane. Thus, the hole is not crosshatched. The recommended angle for the standard crosshatch pattern is 45, 30, or 60 degrees with horizontal. Similarly, crosshatch lines should be neither parallel nor perpendicular to the outline of the feature in sectionif avoidable (see the examples below). Good Practice Poor Practice Poor Practice Cross Hatch Standards The general purpose cross hatch is used in most individual detail component drawings and in assembly applications where no confusion will result.

Each of the assembled components are depicted with a different crosshatch angle to assist in part differentiation. Specific crosshatch symbols are sometimes used to represent each different material type. Cross Hatch Symbols Cast Iron (General Use) White Metal (Zinc) Sand Steel Magnesium, Aluminum Titanium Felt, Leather, & Fiber Bronze, Brass, etc. Concrete Marble, Slate, Glass, etc. Water, Liquids Wood; Cross Grain With Grain

Half Sections Half section views are the result of cutting planes being positioned on parts in such a manner that only half of the resulting view or projection is shown in section. Half sections are generally used on objects of symmetry, individual cylindrical parts, or assemblies of parts. Half Sections Shown without section: Difficult to dimension without using hidden lines Internal features not as clear Offset Sections Offset sections allow us to provide greater breadth of detail with fewer section views. All of the features are aligned with the cutting plane. D D SECTION D - D Projected Section Views A A SECTION AA

ROTATED 30 CLOCKWISE Drawing Notes Notes should be concise and specific. They should use appropriate technical language, and be complete and accurate in every detail. They should be authored in such a way as to have only one possible interpretation. General Notes DRAWN IN ACCORDANCE WITH ASME Y14.5M - 1994 REMOVE ALL BURRS AND SHARP EDGES ALL FILLETS AND ROUNDS R .06 UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED Local Notes 4X 8.20 M10 X 1.25 82 CSK 10 1.5 X 45 CHAM ASME/ANSI Hole Depth Symbol Depth or Deep Symbol* Features such as blind holes and counterbores, must have a depth called out to fully describe their geometry.

EXAMPLE .625 .375 .625 OR .375 * This symbol is currently not used in the ISO standard. It has been proposed. ASME/ANSI Countersink Symbol Countersink Symbol* EXAMPLE The symbol denotes a requirement for countersunk holes used to recess flathead screws. The height of the symbol is equal to the letter height on the drawing, and the included angle is drawn at 90. Note that this symbol is not used in the ISO (international) standard. .375 .562 X 90 * This symbol is currently not used in the ISO standard. It has been proposed. ASME/ANSI Counterbore Symbol This symbol denotes counterbored

holes used to recess machine screw heads. Counterbore Symbol* EXAMPLE .312 .375 .562 .312 .562 .375 OR * This symbol is currently not used in the ISO standard. It has been proposed. Screw Threads ISO specify metric only: M 16 x 2 M 16 x 2 - 4h - 5H ISO metric designation American Unified Threads: Nominal Diameter

(mm) Class of fit of mating thread (optional) Thread Pitch(mm) Class of fit of this thread (optional) 3/4 - 10 - UNC 3/4 - 10 - UNC - 2A Nominal Diameter (inches) Threads per inch Thread Series UNC = Unified Coarse UNF = Unified Fine Thread Type (optional) A=External B=Internal Class of fit (optional) Note: Use standard screw sizes only Fasteners etc

Many CAD models available on-line from standard catalogs Good idea to use to ensure that you are using a readily available fastener Click to go to McMaster-Carr online site Threads and Screw Fastening Always a 'Clearance Hole' (typically screw major Dia. + 10%) in at least one component in a screw fastened joint. Example Assembly Base 'A' 'A' 3 - M12 Hex. Screws Lid Section 'A'-'A' Threads and Screw Fastening (cont.) 'A' Base Detail 3 Holes 10.3x 25 DP

M12x1.75 x 15 DP MIN EQ SP on 120 PD Section 'A'-'A' 'A' Threads and Screw Fastening (cont.) Lid Detail 'A' 3 Holes 12.7 THRU EQ SP on 120 PD Section 'A'-'A' 'A' Standard Tap and Clearance Drill Sizes Metric Tolerances important to interchangeability and provision for replacement parts It is impossible to make parts to an exact size. The tolerance, or accuracy required, will depend on the function of the part and the particular feature being dimensioned. Therefore, the range of permissible size, or tolerance, must be specified for all dimensions on a drawing, by the designer/draftsperson. Nominal Size: is the size used for general identification, not the exact size.

Actual Size: is the measured dimension. A shaft of nominal diameter 10 mm may be measured to be an actual size of 9.975 mm. General Tolerances: In ISO metric, general tolerances are specified in a note, usually in the title block, typically of the form: "General tolerances .25 unless otherwise stated". In English Units , the decimal place indicates the general tolerance given in the title block notes, typically: Fractions = 1/16, .X = .03, .XX = .01, .XXX = .005, .XXXX = 0.0005, Note: Fractions and this type of general tolerancing is not permissible in ISO metric standards. Specific Tolerances Specific Tolerances indicate a special situation that cannot be covered by the general tolerance. Specific tolerances are placed on the drawing with the dimension and have traditionally been expressed in a number of ways: 40 +0.05 - 0.03 Bilateral Tolerance 40.01 -+0.04 Unilateral Tolerance 40.05 39.97 Limit Dimensions

Limits are the maximum and minimum sizes permitted by the the tolerance. All of the above methods show that the dimension has: a Lower Limit = 39.97 mm an Upper Limit = 40.05 mm a Tolerance = 0.08 mm Manufacturing must ensure that the dimensions are kept within the limits specified. Design must not over specify as tolerances have an exponential affect on cost. Limits and Fits 1. Clearance Fits The largest permitted shaft diameter is smaller than the diameter of the smallest hole Max. Clearance Max. Min. Hole Hole Max. Shaft Min. Shaft Min. Clearance SHAFT HOLE

2. Interference Fits The minimum permitted diameter of the shaft is larger than the maximum diameter of the hole Max. Interference Max. Min. Hole Hole Max. Shaft Min. Shaft Min. Interference SHAFT 3. Transition Fits The diameter of the largest allowable hole is greater than that of the smallest shaft, but the smallest hole is smaller than the

largest shaft HOLE Interference or clearance Max. Min. Hole Hole Max. Shaft Min. Shaft SHAFT HOLE Standard Limits and Fits -- ANSI Extract from Table of Clearance Fits RC 1 Close sliding fits are intended for the accurate location of parts which must assemble without perceptible play. RC 2 Sliding fits are intended for accurate location, but with greater maximum clearance than class RC 1. Parts made to this fit move and turn easily but are not intended to run freely, and in the larger sizes may seize with small temperature changes. RC 3 Precision running fits are about the closest fits which can be expected to run freely, and are intended for precision work at slow speeds and light journal pressures, but are not suitable where appreciable temperature differences are likely to be encountered. RC 4 Close running fits are intended chiefly for running fits on accurate machinery with moderate surface speeds and journal pressures, where accurate location and minimum play are desired. RC 5

Medium running fits are intended for higher running speeds, or heavy journal pressures, or both. RC 6 Basic hole system. Limits are in thousandths of an inch. 0.40 - 0.71 0.71 - 1.19 1.19 - 1.97 1.97 - 3.15 Shaft g4 Hole H6 Shaft g5 0.1 0.45 0.15 0.5 0.2 0.6 0.25 0.75 0.3 0.95 + 0.2 -0 + 0.2

-0 + 0.25 -0 + 0.3 -0 + 0.4 -0 - 0.1 - 0.25 - 0.15 - 0.3 - 0.2 - 0.35 - 0.25 - 0.45 - 0.3 - 0.55 0.1 + 0.25 0.55 -0 0.15 + 0.3 0.65 -0 0.2 + 0.4 0.85 -0 0.25 + 0.4 0.95 -0 0.3 + 0.5

1.2 -0 - 0.1 - 0.3 - 0.15 - 0.35 - 0.2 - 0.45 - 0.25 - 0.55 - 0.3 - 0.7 Limits of Clearance Hole H5 Class RC 3 Standard Limits Hole H7 0.3 + 0.4 0.95 -0 0.4 + 0.5 1.12 -0

0.5 + 0.6 1.5 -0 0.6 + 0.7 1.7 -0 0.8 + 0.8 2.1 -0 Shaft f6 - 0.3 - 0.55 - 0.4 - 0.7 - 0.5 - 0.9 - 0.6 - 1.0 - 0.8 - 1.3 Class RC 4 Standard Limits Hole H8 Shaft f7

0.3 1.3 0.4 1.6 0.5 2.0 0.6 2.3 0.8 2.8 + 0.6 -0 + 0.7 -0 + 0.9 -0 + 1.0 -0 + 1.2 -0 - 0.3 - 0.7 - 0.4 - 0.9 - 0.5 - 1.1 - 0.6 - 1.3 - 0.8 - 1.6

Class RC 5 Standard Limits Class RC 6 Hole H8 Shaft e7 Limits of Clearance 0.24 - 0.40 Standard Limits Limits of Clearance 0.12 - 0.24 Class RC 2 Limits of Clearance - 0.12

Standard Limits Limits of Clearance 0 Class RC 1 Limits of Clearance Nominal Size Range in Inches 0.6 1.6 0.8 2.0 1.0 2.5 1.2 2.9 1.6 3.6 + 0.6 -0 + 0.7

-0 + 0.9 -0 + 1.0 -0 + 1.2 -0 - 0.6 - 1.0 - 0.8 - 1.3 - 1.0 - 1.6 - 1.2 - 1.9 - 1.6 - 2.4 0.6 2.2 0.8 2.7 1.0 3.3 1.2 3.8 1.6 4.8 Standard Limits

Hole H9 + 1.0 -0 + 1.2 -0 + 1.4 -0 + 1.6 -0 + 2.0 -0 Shaft e8 - 0.6 - 1.2 - 0.8 - 1.5 - 1.0 - 1.9 - 1.2 - 2.2 - 1.6 - 2.8 ISO Tolerance Designation The ISO system provides for: 21 types of holes (standard tolerances) designated by uppercase letters A, B, C, D, E....etc. and 21 types of shafts designated by the lower case letters a, b, c, d, e...etc.

These letters define the position of the tolerance zone relative to the nominal size. To each of these types of hole or shaft are applied 16 grades of tolerance, designated by numbers IT1 to IT16 - the "Fundamental Tolerances": ITn = (0.45 x 3 D +0.001 D) Pn where D is the mean of the range of diameters and Pn is the progression:1, 1.6, 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, 10, 16, 25......etc. which makes each tolerance grade approximately 60% of its predecessor. For Example: Experience has shown that the dimensional accuracy of manufactured parts is approximately proportional to the cube root of the size of the part. Example: A hole is specified as: 30 H7 The H class of holes has limits of ++ x0 . i.e. all tolerances start at the nominal size and go positive by the amount designated by the IT number. IT7 for diameters ranging 30- 50 mm: Tolerance for IT7 = (0.45 x 3 40 +0.001x 40) 16 = 0.025 mm Written on a drawing as 30 H7 +0.025 +0 Graphical illustration of ISO standard fits Hole Series H hole Standard

Selection of Fits and the ISO Hole Basis system From the above it will be realized that there are a very large number of combinations of hole deviation and tolerance with shaft deviation and tolerance. However, a given manufacturing organization will require a number of different types of fit ranging from tight drive fits to light running fits for bearings etc. Such a series of fits may be obtained using one of two standard systems: The Shaft Basis System: For a given nominal size a series of fits is arranged for a given nominal size using a standard shaft and varying the limits on the hole. The Hole Basis System: For a given nominal size, the limits on the hole are kept constant, and a series of fits are obtained by only varying the limits on the shaft. The HOLE SYSTEM is commonly used because holes are more difficult to produce to a given size and are more difficult to inspect. The H series (lower limit at nominal, 0.00) is typically used and standard tooling (e.g. H7 reamers) and gauges are common for this standard. ISO Standard "Hole Basis" Clearance Type of Fit Fits

Loose Running Fits . Suitable for loose pulleys and the looser fastener fits where freedom of assembly is of prime importance Hole Shaft H11 c11 Free Running Fit. Where accuracy is not essential, but good for large temperature variation, high running speeds, heavy journal pressures H9 d10 Close Running Fit. Suitable for lubricated bearing, greater accuracy, accurate location, where no substantial temperature difference is encountered. H8 f7 Sliding Fits . Suitable for precision location fits. Shafts are expensive to manufacture since the clearances are small and they are not recommended for running fits except in precision equipment where the shaft loadings

are very light. H7 g6 Locational Clearance Fits . Provides snug fit for locating stationary parts; but can be freely assembled and disassembled. H7 h6 ISO Standard "Hole Basis Transition Fits Type of Fit Hole Shaft Locational Transition Fits . for accurate location, a compromise between clearance and interference H7 k6 Push Fits . Transition fits averaging little or no clearance and are recommended for location fits

where a slight interferance can be tolerated for the purpose, for example, of eliminating vibration. H7 n6 ISO Standard "Hole Basis" Interference Fits Type of Fit Hole Shaft Press Fit . Suitable as the standard press fit into ferrous, i.e. steel, cast iron etc., assemblies. H7 p6 Drive Fit Suitable as press fits in material of low modulus of elasticity such as light alloys. H7 s6 ISO Clearance Fits Nominal Sizes Over

mm To mm 3 3 6 6 10 10 18 18 30 30 40 40 50

50 65 65 80 80 100 100 120 120 140 140 160 160 180 180 200

200 225 225 250 250 280 280 315 315 355 355 400 400 450 450 500

Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance H11 0.001 mm c11 0.001 mm H9 0.001 mm d10 0.001 mm H9 0.001 mm e9 0.001 mm H8

0.001 mm f7 0.001 mm H7 0.001 mm g6 0.001 mm H7 0.001 mm h6 0.001 mm +60 0 + 75 0 + 90 0 + 110 0 + 130 0 + 160 0 + 160 0 + 190

0 +190 0 +220 0 +220 0 +250 0 +250 0 +250 0 +290 0 +290 0 +290 0 +320 0 +320 0 +360 0 +360 0 +400 0 +400 0

-60 -120 -70 -145 -80 -170 -95 -205 -110 -240 -120 -280 -130 -290 -130 -330 -150 -340 -170 -390 -180 -400 -200 -450 -210 -460 -230 -480 -240 -530 -260 -550

-280 -570 -300 -620 -330 -650 -360 -720 -400 -760 -440 840 -480 -850 +25 0 +30 0 +36 0 +43 0 +52 0 -20 0 -30 -78 -40 -98

-50 -120 -65 -149 +25 0 +30 0 +36 0 +43 0 +52 0 -14 -39 -20 -50 -25 -61 -32 -75 -40 -92 +14 0 +18 0 +22

0 +27 0 +33 0 -6 -16 -10 -22 -13 -28 -16 -34 -20 -41 +10 +12 0 +15 0 +18 0 +21 0 -2 -8 -4 -12 -5

-14 -6 -17 -7 -20 +10 0 +12 0 +15 0 +18 0 +21 0 -6 0 -8 0 -9 0 -11 0 -13 0 +62 0 -80

-180 +62 0 -50 -112 +39 0 -25 -50 +25 0 -9 -25 +25 0 -16 0 +74 0 -100 -220

+76 0 -60 -134 +46 0 -30 -60 +30 0 -12 -34 +30 0 -19 0 +87 0 -120 -260 +87 0

-72 -159 +54 0 -36 -71 +35 0 -12 -34 +35 0 -22 0 +100 0 -145 -305 +100 0 -84

-185 +63 0 -43 -83 +40 0 -14 -39 +40 0 -25 0 +115 0 -170 -355 +115 0 -100 -215

-72 0 -50 -96 +46 0 -15 -44 +46 0 -29 0 +130 0 -190 -400 +130 0 -190 -400 +130 0

-110 -240 +81 0 -96 -108 +52 0 -17 -49 +140 0 -210 -440 +140 0 -135 -265 +89 0 -62

-119 +57 0 -18 -54 +57 0 -36 0 +155 0 -230 -480 +155 0 -135 -290 +97 0 -68 -131

+63 0 -20 -60 +63 0 -40 0 Nominal Sizes ISO Transition Fits Over mm To mm 3 3 6

6 10 10 18 18 30 30 40 40 50 50 65 65 80 80 100

100 120 120 140 140 160 160 180 180 200 200 225 225 250 250 280 280 315

315 355 355 400 400 450 450 500 Tolerance H7 0.001 mm k6 0.001 mm H7 0.001 mm n6 0.001 mm +10 0 +12

0 +15 0 +18 0 +21 0 +6 +0 +9 +1 +10 +1 +12 +1 +15 +2 +10 0 +12 0 +15 0 +18 0 +21 0 +10 +4

+16 +8 +19 +10 +23 +12 +23 +15 +25 0 +18 +2 25 0 +33 +17 +30 0 +21 +2 +30 0 +39 +20

+35 0 +25 +3 +35 0 +45 +23 +40 0 +28 +3 +40 0 +52 +27 +46 0 +33 +4 +46

0 +60 +34 +52 0 -32 - +52 0 +36 +4 +57 0 +40 +4 +57 0 +73 +37 +63 0

+45 +5 +63 0 +80 +40 Nominal Sizes ISO Interference Fits Over mm To mm 3 3 6 6 10

10 18 18 30 30 40 40 50 50 65 65 80 80 100 100 120

120 140 140 160 160 180 180 200 200 225 225 250 250 280 280 315

315 355 355 400 400 450 450 500 Tolerance Tolerance H7 0.001 mm p6 0.001 mm H7 0.001 mm s6 0.001 mm

+10 0 +12 0 +15 0 +18 0 +21 0 +12 +6 +20 +12 +24 +15 +29 +18 +35 +22 +10 0 +12 0 +15 0 +18 0 +21

0 +20 +14 +27 +19 +32 +23 +39 +28 +48 +35 +25 0 +42 +26 +25 0 +59 +43 +30 0 +51 +32 +35

0 +59 +37 +40 0 +68 +43 +46 0 +79 +50 +52 0 +88 +56 +57 0 +98 +62 +63 0

+108 +68 +30 0 +30 0 +35 0 +35 0 +40 0 +40 0 +40 0 +46 0 +46 0 +46 0 +52 0 +52 0 +57 0 +57 0 +63

0 +63 0 +72 +53 +78 +59 +93 +78 +101 +79 +117 +92 +125 +100 +133 +108 +151 +122 +159 +130 +169 +140 +198 +158 +202 +170 +226 +190 +244 +208

+272 +232 +292 +252 Flanged Sintered Bronze Plain Bearing http://www.McMasterCarr.com On-line Interactive Catalogs http://www.skf.com/group/products/bearings-units-housings/product-tables.html Ball Bearing Design Considerations Allow float for thermal expansion and reduced axial tolerance requirements Click on pic to select SKF catalog page Roller Bearing Design Considerations Roller Bearing provides float for thermal expansion and reduced axial tolerance requirements Taper Roller Bearings for high axial and radial loads Preload to remove all axial clearance/play in the bearing

Tolerance Calculation - 'Worst Case Method' for correct fit in all cases, if manufactured to specification Allowance The minimum allowable difference between mating parts: Allowance = Smallest Hole Size - Largest Shaft Size Clearance The maximum allowable difference between mating parts: Clearance = Largest Hole Size - Smallest Shaft Size The 'Tolerance Build-up Problem' Where the combined dimension of several mating parts results in an unacceptable condition: generally non-functional (e.g. rotating or sliding action impaired), or parts will not assemble, or aesthetically unacceptable (e.g. inconsistent gaps around car doors) 'Shaft in hole' Terminology Hole Shaft Shaft in Hole Example Worst Case Tolerancing B A 1. Allowance = Smallest Hole Size (A) Largest Shaft Size (B)

2. Clearance = Largest Hole Size (A) Smallest Shaft Size (B) A If dimension with tolerance is 10 Lid on Box Example + 0.125 - 0.125 Largest feature size = 10.125 Smallest feature size = 9.875 The Tolerance is 0.250 i.e. the normalized overall range B Tolerance Calculation - Tensioner Assy. Example 76 +.25 +.16A +.15 B76 +0 AxialClearance Clearance Axial by by design Design mustmust be be .25 >0.01

=> 0.01but but =< 0.25 <0.25 Worst Case Tolerancing: X 1. Allowance = Smallest Hole Size (76.16) Largest Shaft Size (76.15) = 0.01 2. Clearance = Largest Hole Size (76.25) Smallest Shaft Size (76.00) = 0.25 Tolerance Calculation - Tensioner Assy. Example Hole 76 +.25 A +.16 +.15 B76 +0 AxialClearance Clearance Axial by by design Design mustmust be be .25 >0.01

=> 0.01but but =< 0.25 <0.25 X Shaft = Sum of 3 individual dimensions Worst Case Tolerancing: 1. Allowance = Smallest Hole Size (76.16) Largest Shaft Size (76.15) = 0.01 2. Clearance = Largest Hole Size (76.25) Smallest Shaft Size (76.00) = 0.25 Lecture Class Assignment #11 Axial Tolerances, Fits and Limits Note: This is the type of analysis I want you to do for your design projects (See Design Project Appendix 3. Tolerance Analysis) Name: Section: Axial Fit - Tolerance Analysis Allowance: the minimum allowable difference between mating parts Clearance: the maximum allowable difference between mating parts Axial Fit (gap) Allowance = Smallest Hole Largest Shaft Clearance = Largest Hole Smallest Shaft Allowance: Smallest Hole = _____ Largest Shaft = 1.5 + _____ + 1.5 = 83.83 = _____ A

B A Shaft Hole C B C Clearance: Largest Hole = _____ Smallest Shaft = _____ + 80.50 + _____= _____ = _____ A B C 1. What is the axial allowance between the wheel subassembly and the shaft ___________ 2. What is the axial clearance between the wheel subassembly and the shaft ____________ Surface Properties Texture and Hardness Surface Finish Basic Surface Texture Symbol 0.4

2 Material Removal by Machining With Roughness Value (Typically Ra m or ) With Machining Allowance Hardness Harden = HDN - may see symbol Heat Treat = H/T Rockwell = HRC, HRA etc or Ra or Rc Brinell = BNL 0.4 HDN to 65 HRC 0.125 DP Comparative Roughness Values Roughness Ra Typical Processes 25 m (1000 ) Flame Cutting 12.5 m (500) Sawing, sand casting, 6.3 m (250)

forging, shaping, planing 3.2 m (125) die casting Rough machining, milling, rough turning, drilling, 1.6 m (63) Machining, turning, milling, die and investment casting, injection molding, and stamping 0.8 m (32) Grinding, fine turning & milling, reaming, honing, injection molding, stamping, investment casting 0.4 m (16) Diamond Turning, Grinding, lapping, honing 0.2 m (8) Lapping, honing, polishing 0.1 m (4) Superfinishing, polishing, lapping and Some Common Steel, Hardness and Surface Finish Specs. Common Steel Specs: (10xx series: xx = % carbon)

Common Types Mild steel (low carbon = up to 30 %): Low cost general purpose applications, 1020 typ. hardening not required Medium Carbon (up to 60%): requiring higher strength; e.g. gears, axles, con-1040, rods etc. 1060 High Carbon (> 60%): High wear, high strength; e.g. cutting tools, springs etc. Ground Bearing Shaft Examples: General Purpose 1060: Surface HDN to 55 HRC 0.125 mm deep min.; 0.4 m (16 ) 303 Stainless: (natural surface hardness 5 HRC ); 0.4m (16 ) Better Finish, Longer Life 1020: Case HDN to 65 HRC 0.25 mm deep min.; 0.2m (8 ) 440 Stainless: (natural circa 15 HRC); 0.2m (8 ) 1080 Specifying Welds on Drawings Weld all Around 6 Weld on other side 30-50 Pitch Length Weld on arrow side Width of weld

20 6 = Weld 6mm fillet weld this side only 6 = Weld 6mm fillet weld both sides 6 20-10 3 = = 10 20

## Recently Viewed Presentations

• -The 12 lines are divided into three quatrains with 4 lines each.-In the three quatrains the poet establishes a theme or problem-Poet resolves the problem in the final 2 lines, called the couplet-The rhyme scheme of the quatrains is ababcdcdefef....
• ABC Holdings Ltd. ABCZa deposits in Botswana. Placement. Cash and cash equi. Botswana deposit in Moz. Stanchart in ABCH. Intragroup investments. Profit share made in Sec Noms. Notes scenarios. Natural Currency. Branch. Industry Sector. Line of Business. ABC Group Structure....
• GraphPlan (you don't have to know anything about this, but I put it here to point out that there are many clever approaches to try to find plans more efficiently; another would be OBDD, ordered binary decision diagrams)
• Folktales have many common features that help you understand the story. Folktales usuallyâ€¦ Have no time frame, but most are thought to have happened in the past Start with Once upon a time, or Long, long ago Usually teach a...
• Word Choice Painting pictures with words! Definition Good writing contains strong, power words, including specific nouns and verbs. Power words help paint a picture for the reader. Word choice is about the use of rich, colorful, precise language that communicates...
• Fission Nuclear Chain Reaction Fission Fission produces large amounts of heat energy and it is this heat that is captured by nuclear power plants to produce electricity. Fusion is a nuclear reaction whereby two light atomic nuclei fuse or combine...
• Silverstein (1974) "I cannot go to school today," Said little Peggy Ann McKay. "I have the measles and the mumps, A gash, a rash and purple bumps. My mouth is wet, my throat is dry, I'm going blind in my...
• Cell Organelles Eukaryotic Cells Cell Parts Cells - the basic unit of life Organelles - small structures inside a cell with specific functions. Analogy - Town of Stevensville A) Cell Membrane/Plasma Membrane Analogy - Stevensville city limits Function: Regulates materials...