Assessing scales of thermal influence in alluvial floodplains

Assessing scales of thermal influence in alluvial floodplains

Assessing scales of thermal influence in alluvial floodplains using Relative Hyporheic Potential (RHP) 1991 2 km 1999 Landsat TM and ETM from the Minthorn Springs node on the Umatilla River, Oregon. Scott ODaniel, University of California Santa Barbara, Geography Department, 200B Acknowledgements NASA Grant #NAG13-02030

Department of Energy Grant # BI2001011-00 Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Grant # 032-51 Collaborators: Alicia Arrigoni, Geoff Poole, Leal Mertes, William Woessner, Steve Thomas, Dan Haug, Jeff Howarth, James Webster and Jeff Mason Outline of the Talk Statement of Problem Hypothesis Objectives Background Methods Interim Results Implications

Hypotheses Geomorphic diversity equals thermal diversity in alluvial rivers. Abrupt thermal change associated with the geomorphic boundaries/features are predictable through a set of DEM derived metrics. Research Objectives Assess the thermal importance of hyporheic exchange at several spatial scales in a semi-arid floodplain.

Develop a DEM derived metric that aids in the identification of categorical lengths of hyporheic flow paths. Calibrate the relationship among thermal variation in the Umatilla River, grain size of particles deposited across alluvial floodplains, and multiple scales of DEM data. Test predictions of hyporheic flowpath length and duration against field and remotely sensed data. Statement of the Problem Waters listed for temperature

limitations on the State 303dlist list -in January, 2002 Waterbodies listed for temperature on Oregon Oregons 303d January of -Presently, stream temperature models are 2 dimensional representations.

-Address floodplain functions as multi-scale hierarchical patch dynamics problem. -High stream temperature is the most pervasive limiting factor for inland Columbia River salmonids (ISC,1996). Independent Scientific Group. 1996. Return to the River: Restoration of Salmonid Fishes in the Columbia River Ecosystem. Document #96-6. Northwest Power Planning Council, Portland, OR. 20 Umatilla River Watershed Hermiston

Mission BBii rrcc hh Kaayy M MccK Extent of 1998 Forward Looking Infrared Radiometer (FLIR) data capture m cchhaam M

Meeaa B Buu tttteerr Pendleton e ors h ld Wi Why the Umatilla River? Excellent opportunity for experimentation on a partially constrained,

partially wild alluvial floodplain Presence of 4 species of Pacific Salmon Opportunity to change existing land use patterns Two decades of salmonid life stage monitoring Drivers of Hyporheic Flow Valley morphology (Trend in Valley Width) Channel morphology Alluvial properties (Slope) Side- and Flood-channels (Floodplain width) Stream-bed undulation (Variance in slope) Sinuosity Methods Primary drivers of hyporheic

exchange 1- Scale of Hyporheic Exchange 2- Channel Morphology 3- Volume of actively exchanging substrate 4- Substrate Properties 5- First order Montgomery and Buffington channel type 6- Flow Regime 7- Stream Size Data Sources Valley morphology Basin area Precipitation regime Stream slope class Lithology

Vegetation Interim Results Implications 1) Lateral floodplain connectivity provides thermal diversity for stream habitat. 2) Sediment inputs and changes in channel or floodplain morphology are potential pathways for degradation of thermal regimes. (Fine Sediments; Channel Engineering; Beaver; Large Wood). 3) Stream temperature management should include restoration of processes that promote historic channel morphology (basin hydrology and LWD), fine sediment control, and, where feasible, removal of engineered structures. 4) 30m DEM floodplain data sets show promise in helping to explain 3 dimensional variability. Next Steps 1)

Complete regressions and sensitivity analysis of mainstem Umatilla River RHP parameters. 2) Develop a unit scale fine grain DEM (<1m) metric to predict hyporheic upwelling at separate, finer scales (10-1-102m). 3) Experiment with robust statistical tools to predict hyporheic flowpath length at multiple scales.

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