Influence of structure and composition of basement on
Influence of structure and composition of basement on mineral deposits across Montana and Idaho Lund, K., Klein, T.L, ONeill, J.M., Sims, P.K., Taylor, C.D. USGS Headwaters Province project goal: develop understanding of fundamental geologic and metallogenic
controls Geologic maps were produced, acquired, and compiled for a consistently formatted and integrated digital geologic map database Geochemical data (>60,000 samples) were compiled, integrated, and interpreted Mineral deposit studies
included database, regional, and district scale 1:100,000 to 1:250,000 scale maps from USGS, IGS, MBMG sources Aeromagnetic data (NAMAG, 2002) were investigated for clues to basement composition and structure
Information about basement architecture is very limited: Exposures of Archean or Proterozoic crystalline basement Isotopic data primarily from younger plutons Geophysical information Aeromagnetic anomaly map of northwestern United States
Patterns in the aeromagnetic data delimit types of underlying basement. Data show terrane masses, terrane boundary structures, and major structures that deform the amalgamated basement terranes. Geologic map of concealed Archean and Paleoproterozoic crystalline basement, northern Rocky Mountain region Interpreted from exposures, isotopic geochemistry (Bickford and others, 1981; Toth and Stacey, 1992; Foster and Fanning, 1992; Doughty and others, 1998; ONeill, 1999; Mueller and others, 2002), and aeromagnetic data
Structures and components of the Paleoproterozoic, ~1.85 Ga, Great Falls tectonic zone (ONeill, 1999; Dahl and others, 2002; Mueller and others, 2002) NE-striking Archean and Paleoproterozoic basement terranes and GFtz suture belts and structures are cut by conjugate N- and NW-striking wrench zones Both multiply reactivated Trace of Archean and Paleoproterozoic basement
provinces, ~1.85 Ga GFtz, and ~1.5 Ga N-NW shear zones across Montana and Idaho Area evaluated for epigenetic mineral deposits relative to basement geology Mineral deposit studies Large quantities of metals
have been produced from mineral deposits from 1860 to present. The area contains world class deposits and more than 80 other deposits considered economically significant Most of the deposits are epigenetic and associated
with Cretaceous and Eocene granitoids. Debates raged and confusion reigned about the age and genesis of deposits Epigenetic deposit types include: Polymetallic vein
Polymetallic carbonate replacement Epithermal gold veins Disseminated gold Tungsten vein Porphyry copper Porphyry molybdenum Hi-sulfidation Cu veins Breccia pipe precious metal Alkaline-intrusion precious metal Skarn and contact
Metals include Au, Ag, Cu, Mo, Pb, Zn >21 million ounces of Au produced Gold production and resources are predominantly from rocks overlying juvenile magmatic crust and metamorphic-plutonic rocks of the
Paleoproterozoic Great Falls tectonic zone Significant production from areas overlying edges of older terranes especially along N-NW ~1.5 Ga wrench zones ~1 billion ounces of Ag produced
Siver production and resources are predominantly from rocks overlying juvenile magmatic crust and metamorphic-plutonic rocks of the Paleoproterozoic Great Falls tectonic zone 11 million tons of Cu produced Copper production and resources are predominantly from rocks overlying juvenile magmatic crust of the Paleoproterozoic suture zone (Great Falls tectonic zone)
World class Cu deposits at Butte (which also contain significant Mo and other base and precious metals) are the most important of the Cu-bearing deposits. Butte lies at the junction between the Great Falls tectonic zone and the major NW-striking, reactivated basement shear system forming the Lewis and Clark line 1 million tons of Pb produced
Lead production and resources are more widely distributed among the different sectors of the Great Falls tectonic zone 2.5 million tons of Zn produced Zinc production is similar to lead and more widely distributed among the different sectors of the Great Falls tectonic zone Epithermal and porphyry
deposits are mostly confined to the juvenile crust and metamorphicplutonic belts of the Great Falls tectonic zone Significant polymetallic deposits also align along N- and NW-striking basement structures Skarn and replacement deposits extend into
foreland fold-andthrust belt atop the Wyoming province Different distributions in deposit types Idaho-Montana porphyry belt was previously recognized by Armstrong and others (1978) and Rostad (1978) Porphyry Cu and Mo deposits range in age, spanning the major plutonic episodes that affected Idaho and Montana
There is no apparent correlation with depth of melting, type of magmatism, from east to west across the region Regionally, porphyry Cu and Mo deposits clearly correlate with Great Falls tectonic zone Although hosted by plutons, there is no correlation with pluton age,
texture, or composition Idaho-Montana porphyry belt Plutons of the same age, texture, composition, genesis, emplacement level are barren outside of the juvenile crust/metamorphicplutonic belts of the ~1.85 Ga Great Falls tectonic zone
or 1.5 Ga shear zones 1.85 Ga juvenile crust in the GFtz provided metals-endowed source terrain ~1.85 and 1.5 Ga shear zones provided rejuvenated fracture systems for younger plutonism and hydrothermal systems NW shear zones located sediment-hosted deposits--Coeur dAlene, Blackbird Id-Mt belt of basement structure-controlled mineral deposits is
comparable to the Colorado mineral belt of Tweto and Sims (1963) but has: 2X more Mo 3X more Pb 5X more Cu Distribution of different epigenetic deposit types in the Idaho-Montana porphyry belt
Conclusions Great Falls tectonic zone continues across central Montana and Idaho Epigenetic mineral deposits are spatially related to the ~1.85 Ga GFtz, particularly to juvenile crust Metal production from Id-Mt porphyry belt is comparable to the Colorado mineral belt Epigenetic deposits are also related to
intersections between the GFtz and ~1.5 Ga N- and NE-striking shear zones ~1.85 Ga juvenile crust in the GFtz formed metals-endowed source terrain ~1.85 and 1.5 Ga shear zones provided rejuvenated fracture systems for plutonism and hydrothermal systems
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