The spectacular migration pathways of seven migrant bird

The spectacular migration pathways of seven migrant bird

The spectacular migration pathways of seven migrant bird species similar routes are followed by many others The distribution of the worlds bird species by biogeographic realm and country NEARCTIC PALEARCTIC (732 species) (937 species) OCEANIC INDOMALAYAN OCEANIC (187 species) (c.1,700 species) (187 species) NEOTROPICAL AFROTROPICAL

(c.3,370 species) (c.1,950 species) Number of bird species AUSTRALASIAN up to 200 (1,590 species) 201400 401600 601800 8011,000 1,1011,200 1,2011,400 1,4011,600 1,6011,800 ANTARCTIC (c.85 species) Widespread European farmland birds have declined by over a third since the 1960s Population index (1966 = 100)

120 110 100 90 80 70 60 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 In the USA, Red-winged Blackbird populations are declining in 25 out of 38 states 4.0 Population trend 19801999

(%/year) 2.0 0.0 -2.0 -4.0 -6.0 -8.0 -5.0 -4.0 -3.0 -2.0 -1.0 0.0 1.0 2.0

Species richness declined in many parts of eastern Australia between 19771981 and 19982002, particularly in those that have recently lost significant areas of native habitat % change in species richness between atlases Extent of recent habitat clearance (ha) >-25 >20,000 -25 -10 10,00019,999 -1010 5,0009,999 1025 1,0004,999 >25 insufficient data <1,000 no data

In Botswana, the number of woodland raptors recorded during dry-season point counts (n = 984) declined markedly with increasing distance from the core of protected areas 100 90 Abundance index (% of numbers in core) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Core Periphery 0-15 15-30 30-50 Distance from protected-area boundary (km)

>50 More than a third of 346 populations of Anatidae (ducks, geese and swans) for which trends are known are in decline Extinct 4% Fluctuating 2% Increasing 22% Decreasing 37% Stable 35% The number of Gyps vultures recorded along a standard set of road transects in India declined dramatically between 19911993 and 2000 25,000

Number of individuals 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 White-rumped Vulture Indian and Slender-billed Vultures Albatross species breeding at Bird Island (South Georgia) have declined steadily since the 1970s (the graphs show regression lines fitted to the annual census data) Wandering Albatross 1,600 1,400 Number of breeding pairs 1,200 1,000 1975 1980

1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2000 2005 2000 2005 Grey-headed Albatross 500 400 300 200 100 0 1975

1980 1985 1990 1995 Black-browed Albatross 300 200 100 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 The rate of extinctions on islands remains high but appears to be slowing. However, the rate of extinctions on continents is still increasing [totals include bird species listed as Extinct, Extinct in the Wild and Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct)] 18 16

12 10 8 6 4 2 1950 1900 1850 1800 1750 1700 1650 1600 1550 0 1500

Extinctions per 25 years 14 The percentage of 1,081 Australian bird taxa retrospectively assigned to each of the IUCN Red List categories, at 50-year intervals from 1750 to 2000 20 15 Extinct % of bird taxa Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable 10 NearThreatened 5 0 1750 1800 1850

1900 1950 2000 The proportion of bird species remaining (I) in five Kenyan forest fragments plotted against time since isolation. Half the number that are expected to disappear (I = 0.5) have gone by 2380 years after isolation. Red lines represent exponential rates of decline for the smallest (Malava) and largest (Kakamega) fragments Proportion of species remaining (I) 1.0 0.9 0.8 Ikuywa 0.7 Yala 0.6 Kagamega 0.5

0.4 Kisere 0.3 0.2 Malava 0.1 0.0 0 50 100 Years since isolation 150 The number of threatened birds in insular South-East Asia correlates closely with the number of bird extinctions predicted by extent of forest loss (n = 23 island archipelagos). The (red) regression line does not differ significantly from a perfect positive correlation (green line) Number of threatened species 20

15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 Number of predicted extinctions 20 Density of GTBs extirpated from parts of their ranges across South and Central America and the Caribbean Species density 1 21 (a) 1,211 bird species are threatened

with global extinction (b) 179 bird species are classified as Critically Endangered Critically Endangered 179 Extinct in the Wild 4 (<1%) Threatened 1,211 (12%) Near Threatened 774 (8%) Least Concern 7,721 (79%) Data Deficient 78 (<1%) { Threatened Vulnerable Endangered 688 344 Population sizes of GTBs 500

Number of species 400 300 200 100 0 Tiny (<50) Extremely small (50249) Very small (2502,499) Small (2,500 9,999) Mediumlarge (10,000)

Population size (number of individuals) Unknown Population trends of GTBs 600 Number of species 500 400 300 200 100 0 80 5079 3049 % decline per 10 years or three generations

129 Stable Fluctuating Increasing Unknown Range sizes of GTBs 350 300 Number of species 250 200 150 100 50 0 110 11100 1011,000 1,001

10,000 10,001 100,000 Range size (km2) 100,001 1 million >1 million The Red List Index for birds 1992 1996 2000 2004 1988 0 1996 2000

2004 Better 0.00 -0.01 Red List Index -0.02 -0.03 -0.02 -0.03 -0.05 -0.06 -0.04 -0.05 Worse -0.04

Worse Red List Index -0.01 1992 Better 1988 The Red List Index for Critically Endangered birds Species experts judge that almost half of GTBs have declined in status during 20002004, and only 11% have improved Improved 11% Deteriorated 45% No significant change

44% Red List Indices for birds in different regions 1988 0.02 1992 1996 2000 2004 Europe -0.02 -0.04 -0.06 -0.08 -0.10 Worse

Red List Index 0.00 Better Africa Pacific Americas Middle East Asia Red List Indices for birds in different habitats 1992 1996 -0.02 2004 -0.04 -0.06 -0.08 Savanna/shrubland/grassland

-0.10 Forest Wetlands Marine Worse Red List Index 2000 Better 1988 0.00 Red List Indices for selected species-groups 1988 0.00 1992 1996 2000 2004

Pigeons -0.02 -0.06 -0.08 -0.10 -0.12 -0.14 -0.16 Worse Red List Index -0.04 Better Waterbirds Parrots Raptors Gamebirds Seabirds Density map of GTBs across the world Species density

1 9 16-24 Number of GTBs on continents and islands GTBs shared with at least one other continent/island class 700 GTBs restricted Number of Species 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Continents Continental-shelf islands Oceanic

islands Density map of threatened seabirds in the southern oceans Species density 1 10 22 The countries with the highest numbers of GTBs Endemic to country 140 Shared 120 Number of species 100 80 60 40 20 0

Indonesia Brazil Peru Colombia China Ecuador India New Zealand USA Philippines The countries with the most threatened avifaunas (marked in red on a regression of number of GTBs against total number of bird species for each country) Indonesia 6 Number of species 5 Norfolk Island

4 French Polynesia New Zealand Philippines China USA Brazil Peru Cook Islands 3 2 1 0 1 2 3

4 5 6 7 8 The importance of each major habitat type for all bird species and for GTBs Non-threatened Globally Threatened Number of species 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 Forest Artificial Shrubland Grassland Savana Wetlands Coastal

Marine Desert The relative importance of each major habitat type for GTBs Importance Unknown Minor Critical/major 900 Number of species 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Forest Shrubland Artificial Grassland Wetlands Coastal Marine Savanna

Desert The importance of each major forest type for all bird species and for GTBs Non-threatened 4,000 Globally Threatened Number of species 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 Subtropical/ Subtropical/ tropical tropical lowland moist forest montane moist forest

Subtropical/ tropical dry forest Temperate forest Subtropical/ tropical mangrove Boreal forest Tolerance of GTBs to forest degradation Unknown 11% High 3% Low 45% Medium

41% The terrestrial biomes of western Eurasia, the Middle East, Africa and Madagascar Biome (number of bird species confined to biome) Eurasian Arctic tundra (60) Eurasian boreal forests/taiga (62) European temperate forests (13) Eurasian high montane (58) Eurasian steppe (18) Mediterranean (24) Irano-Turanian mountains (22) Eurasian deserts and semi-deserts (17) Sahara-Sindian (38) Sahel (16) Sudan-Guinea savanna (54) Guinea-Congo forests (278) Lake Victoria basin (12) Afrotropical highlands (240) Somali-Masai (129) East African coast (36) Zambezian (67) Kalahari-Highveld (13) Namib-Karoo (23) Fynbos (9) West Malagasy (24) East Malagasy (45)

The relationship between restricted-range bird species and GTBs Restricted-range species Widespread species 100 % of species 80 60 40 20 0 All species (n = 9,917) GTBs (n = 1,211) The location of the worlds 218 EBAs Extent and boundary of EBA Central point within EBA The historical and current relationship between numbers of restricted-range species and the area that they occupy Current relationship

Historical relationship Number of restricted-range species Today, 20% of the worlds birds 3,000 are found in natural habitats in just 1% of the land surface 2,000 In 1800, 20% of the worlds birds were confined to natural habitats in 2% of the land surface 1,000 0 0 5 10 Area (million km2) 15 The IBAs of global significance that have already been identified

Areas of the world where the process of IBA identification is still in progress Percentages of sites in Europe, the Middle East and Africa that meet the different IBA criteria IBA criteria Globally threatened Restricted range Biome-restricted Congregatory Europe Middle East 38% 54% 2% 6% Africa 19% 29% 47%

15% 32% 30% 9% 19% The 34 IBAs identified for Blue Swallow cover 8.4% of its estimated total range Important Bird Areas Non-breeding Breeding Range Non-breeding Breeding Eighteen IBAs in Ecuador and Peru capture all 17 restricted-range species of the EcuadorPeru East Andes Endemic Bird Area. Sites are indicated for three of these species COLOMBIA EcuadorPeru East Andes EBA Number of restricted-range species

Bicoloured Antvireo 1114 610 35 ECUADOR 12 Coppery-chested Jacamar PERU White-necked Parakeet In all, 105 IBAs have been identified across 22 countries in Africa to conserve the 54 bird species that are wholly confined to the SudanGuinea savanna biome, and many other species besides Important Bird Area Biome SudanGuinea savanna Transition zone with Guinea-Congo forests The network of wetland IBAs identified for the migratory Eurasian Spoonbill in Europe, the Middle East and Africa covers sites that are important for the species

at different times of the year Important Bird Areas Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident In the Taita Hills of south-east Kenya, forest-dependent birds will fly distances of more than 35 km between forest fragments, across intervening degraded habitat Mbololo (220 ha) Ngangao (92 ha) 0 5km Ronge (4 ha) Yale (2 ha) Vuria (1 ha) Fururu (12 ha) 1 dispersal event

24 dispersal events Macha (3 ha) Mwachora (4 ha) Kichuchenyi (2 ha) Ndiwenyi (4 ha) Chawia (50 ha) 5 dispersal events Sagala (3 ha) The percentage of Ugandan butterfly species represented in Ugandan IBAs in each of six conservation priority categories 100 % of Ugandan species 90 16 80 All species

2 70 60 20 16 73 3 4 5 50 67 40 30 20 10 0 1

2 Conservation priority score 6 Number of taxon groups in addition to birds for which Turkeys 156 IBAs hold internationally significant populations Birds + 5 other groups Birds + 4 other groups 14% 4% Birds only 28% Birds + 3 other groups 14% Birds + 2 other groups 22%

Birds + 1 other group 18% The main threats to GTBs world-wide Unknown impact Low impact High/medium impact Number of GTBs 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 Habitat Exploitation destruction/ degradation Invasive species

Human disturbance Natural disasters Pollution Changes in native species Incidental mortality Persecution Intrinsic factors Agricultural expansion and intensification threaten 50% and 35% of African and European IBAs respectively Africa (853 IBAs for which appropriate threat data are available, out of a total of 1,230) Europe (1,147 IBAs affected by high-impact threats only, out of a total of 3,619) % of IBAs impacted

50 40 30 20 10 0 Agricultural expansion & intensification Shifting agriculture Aquaculture & fisheries Timber extraction Firewood collection & forest grazing Afforestation, Urbanisation & timber

industrialisation plantations & intensified forest management Commercial deforestation Mining The timing and expansion of agricultural land from 1700 to 1990 1750 1950 1850 1990 Colours indicate the period in which relatively intact habitats were converted to agricultural land Over 300 years substantially more land in EBAs has been converted to cropland and pasture than in the rest of the world EBAs Rest of the world

% cropland and pasture 50 40 30 20 10 0 1700 1800 1900 2000 The global extent of several major tropical crops expanded markedly between 1961 and 2000 % increase in area 19612000 50 40

30 20 10 0 km2 Soya bean 76,297,000 Oil palm 9,707,000 Cocoa 7,156,000 Rice 151,198,000 The total area (km2) cultivated for each crop in 2000 is given under each bar Coffee 10,720,000 Hunting and alien invasive species were the most frequent threats (61% of threats) for Extinct birds whereas for Near Threatened birds, habitat loss through agricultural

expansion is the most frequently listed threatening process (57% of threats) 100 Type of threat Other Alien invasives Over-exploitation % of threats 75 Habitat loss/degradation (other) Habitat loss/degradation (agriculture) 50 25 0 Extinct/ Extinct in the Wild Critically Endangered

Endangered Vulnerable IUCN Red List Category Near Threatened The percentage of IBAs per country that are threatened by agricultural intensification and expansion in Europe Percentage 019 2035 3646 4756 57100 The proportion of 132 IBAs in Turkey that are affected by high-, medium- and lowimpact threats from agriculture High 18% None 56%

Medium 20% Low 4% Unknown 2% Farmland bird declines between 1970 and 1990 have been greatest in EU countries Severity of decline between 1970 and 1990 ? Severe decline ? Moderate decline Small decline ? No data EU Non-EU

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? In Poland, Skylark densities drop as land-use intensifies 12 Pairs/km2 10 8 6 4 2 0 Low Medium

High Farming intensity n = 30 farms in each category; columns show medians with 95% confidence interval Bird species diversity is much lower in intensive full-sun coffee plantations in the Dominican Republic, compared with less intensive shade-plantation systems Columns show the mean number of species recorded at point counts. Thirty-two sites were surveyed in shade plantations and three sites in sun plantations Species richness index 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Shade-coffee farming Intensive coffee farming

Amongst the three major continents with tropical forest, Asia is losing the greatest percentage of its natural forest each year Area of forest logged per year as % of total natural forest area 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Africa Americas Asia By 2000, Indonesia had lost 40% of its forest cover, and the rate of deforestation is accelerating Area of forest remaining (100,000 km2) 18

16 14 12 10 8 0 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 In selectively logged forests, terrestrial and arboreal insectivores are generally less abundant 40 % change in community composition 30 20 10 0 -10

-20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 Terrestrial Arboreal insectivores insectivores Frugivores % of countrys GTBs impacted by infrastructure The ten countries in Asia with the highest percentage of their GTBs impacted by infrastructure development 100 Values indicate total numbers of GTBs affected 80 19 13

26 21 10 60 13 31 15 6 Laos Singapore 24 40 20 0 North Korea

Hong Kong & Macau South Korea Taiwan Sri Lanka Mongolia Japan Vietnam Wetlands of international importance for birds that are threatened by dams, barrages and embankments in Africa, Europe and the Middle East Dam-threatened IBA that overlaps with Ramsar Site Noisy Scrub-bird avoids areas that suffer from frequent fires 20 Index of relative abundance

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 Years after fire 15 20 Number of GTBs affected by over-exploitation Large numbers of parrots, pigeons and pheasants are threatened by over-exploitation Only families with 15 or more species included; % of total number of species affected given above each bar, total number of species in each family given below

60 13% 50 14% 23% 40 30 20 9% 28% 5% 6% 10 0 Parrots 388 Pigeons,

doves 327 Pheasants, quails, francolins 195 Ducks, geese, swans 170 Curassows, guans 53 Hawks, eagles 250 Rails 160 14% 38% Hornbills Megapodes

57 21 47% Cranes 15 In Indonesia and China, more than 50 GTBs are threatened by over-exploitation Number of GTBs affected by over-exploitation % of total number of GTBs affected given above each bar 80 70 56% 60 61% 50 54% 40 52% 29%

74% 73% 68% 30 60% 29% Malaysia Colombia 20 10 0 Indonesia China India Philippines Brazil

Vietnam Thailand Myanmar Philippine Cockatoo Historical extent of occurrence Recent localities (1980present) Pa la wa n PHILIPPINES BRUNEI Philippine Cockatoo was once widespread, and known from 52 islands, but there are recent records from just eight MALAYSIA ak raw a S

tr ma Su a Kalimantan INDONESIA Straw-headed Bulbul Java Historical extent of occurrence Recent localities (1980present) Straw-headed Bulbul was once widespread in lowland areas of South-East Asia, but recent records are almost all from Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Brunei h ba Sa In the southern Indian Ocean, there is a critical overlap between commercial longline fishing effort and the foraging areas of Wandering Albatross breeding on the Prince Edward Islands

SOUTH AFRICA Prince Edward Islands Albatross foraging areas = blue, with the darkest shades indicating the most intensively used areas Fishing effort areas = red, with the darkest shades indicating the most intensively used areas The major threats contributing to bird extinctions since 1500 70 Number of extinct species 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Invasive species Overexploitation Habitat destruction/ degradation Unknown Natural disasters Persecution Changes in native species Sixty-seven percent of GTBs on oceanic islands are affected by invasive species, a much higher figure than on continental islands or continents GTBs threatened by invasive species GTBs not threatened by invasives Oceanic islands (432 GTBs)

Continental islands (190 GTBs) 67% 17% Continents (620 GTBs) 8% Ninety-five percent of GTBs threatened by invasives are affected by invasive predators Number of GTBs impacted 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Predators Herbivores Plants

Competitors Nature of alien invasive species Pathogens/ parasites Hybridisers Changes in phenology and distribution detected among almost 500 species are overwhelmingly in the direction predicted from climate change Changed in direction predicted from measured climate change Changed opposite to prediction from measured climate change 100 90 80 % of species 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

0 Phenology (n = 484) Distribution (n = 460) The area of forest with medium and low malaria risks for native bird species in forest reserves on three Hawaiian islands is predicted to decrease substantially following a temperature rise of 2C Malaria risk to birds Hanawi Forest (Maui) Low Medium High 3,500 Hakalau National Wildlife Refuge (Hawaii) 2,500 2,000 14,000 1,500

12,000 500 0 Current +2oC Alakai Swamp (Kauai) 10,000 16,000 8,000 14,000 6,000 12,000 4,000 10,000 Area (ha)

1,000 Area (ha) Area (ha) 3,000 2,000 0 Current +2 C o 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 Current +2oC (a) Historic distribution of Worthens Sparrow based on specimen localities (b) Current potential distribution of the species based

on modelling of its ecological niche Darker shades of red indicate greater probability of an area being suitable. (c) Potential distribution in 2055, based on modelled current distribution and global climate change models (d) Potential present and future distribution of the species Darker shades of blue indicate greater probability of an area being suitable. Darker shades of green represent areas that are both presently suitable, and likely to remain suitable under climate change predictions for 2055. Dunlin is predicted to suffer extensive loss of its tundra breeding habitat Breeding areas Tundra, no change Tundra loss Tundra expansion

By 20702099 the range of Cape Longclaw is predicted to contract considerably Current range predicted to be unoccupied in the future Current range predicted to remain suitable in the late twenty-first century With larger temperature rises, the percentage of suitable range predicted to remain for 13 endemic birds decreases rapidly to zero (blue) while the number of extinctions increases rapidly (red) Range of temperature increase predicted for twenty-first century 14 120 12 100 10 80 8 60

6 40 4 20 2 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Temperature increase (C) 6

7 Number of predicted extinctions (red line) Mean % range remaining (blue line) 140 Range shift (overlap of future projected range as % of current range) The percentage overlap and size change of the potential future ranges of ten bird species endemic to Europe, under a climate change scenario 60 Crested Tit 50 40 Red-legged Partridge 30 Collared Flycatcher 20 Rock Partridge Italian Sparrow

Citril Finch 10 Azure-winged Magpie Marmoras Warbler 0 0 50 100 Scottish Crossbill Spanish Imperial Eagle 150 200 250 Range size change (future projected range size as % of current range size) 300

350 The numbers of bird species in each IUCN Red List category that are confined to the developing and developed worlds (based on breeding distributions) 800 700 Solid = developing world Tint = developed world Number of species 600 500 400 300 200 100 Low High 0 Extinct Critically Endangered

Endangered Vulnerable IUCN Red List category Near Threatened The areas of densest human population largely overlap with centres of bird endemism in the tropical Andes region COLOMBIA ECUADOR Areas of dense human settlement and infrastructure Larger towns Centres of past civilisation Significant bird endemism High bird endemism Exceptional bird endemism Mochu Chimu Chavin PERU

Huari Cuzco/Inca BOLIVIA Tiahuanuco Cochabamba/Inca Eighty-five IBAs in central and eastern Europe are potentially affected by EU transport development proposals ESTONIA LATVIA Waterways LITHUANIA Road and rail Proposed Existing Total number of IBAs potentially affected POLAND 25+ 1724 916

SLOVAKIA 18 ROMANIA 0 CZECH REPUBLIC HUNGARY SLOVENIA BULGARIA On average, c.50% of the total economic value of a relatively intact natural habitat is lost following its drastic conversion to a more intense human use, after currently unmarketed benefits are taken into account NPV = Net Present Value, in year-2000 US$ per hectare Tropical forest, Malaysia 14,000 12,000 NPV 10,000

8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 Intact, with reduced impact logging Conventional logging On average, c.50% of the total economic value of a relatively intact natural habitat is lost following its drastic conversion to a more intense human use, after currently unmarketed benefits are taken into account NPV = Net Present Value, in year-2000 US$ per hectare Tropical forest, Cameroon 2,500 2,000 1,500 NPV 1,000 500 Plantation 0 -500 -1,000

-1,500 Intact, with small-scale farming On average, c.50% of the total economic value of a relatively intact natural habitat is lost following its drastic conversion to a more intense human use, after currently unmarketed benefits are taken into account NPV = Net Present Value, in year-2000 US$ per hectare Mangrove, Thailand 70,000 60,000 NPV 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 Intact Shrimp farming On average, c.50% of the total economic value of a relatively intact natural habitat is lost following its drastic conversion to a more intense human use, after currently unmarketed benefits are taken into account

NPV = Net Present Value, in year-2000 US$ per hectare Coral reef, Philippines 3,500 3,000 NPV 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 Intact, with sustainable fishing Destructive fishing Relative annual conservation investment (scaled by the number of bird species in the country) is over 20 times lower in developing countries, which hold the bulk of global biodiversity, than in developed countries Developing (n=56) Relative national conservation investment, scaled by number of bird species (thousands US$/year/bird species) 450

Developing (n=24) 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Columns show means with one standard error Despite differences in approach, Endemic Bird Areas, Terrestrial Biodiversity Hotspots and Global 200 Ecoregions overlap extensively, helping to focus attention on the worlds most important places for biodiversity conservation2,3,4 Number of priority-setting approaches that cover area 1 2 3 In sub-Saharan Africa, the great majority of vertebrate and plant diversity is captured by the network of 22 EBAs identifed in this region % of species captured

100 80 60 40 20 0 Birds Amphibians Mammals Snakes Plants (10% sample) (a) Actions are underway for 67% of GTBs (b) The BirdLife Partnership is contributing to the implementation of actions for 42% of GTBs

17% 62% 25% 33% 16% 17% 5% 25% Partial implementation (732 species) Some contribution (298 species) Complete implementation (57) No contribution (293) Unknown implementation (192) No/unknown action No implementation (205) implemented (397)

Significant contribution (198) Actions have directly benefited 24% of GTBs Some benefit (229 species) Significant benefit (51) 20% Unknown benefit (204) No benefit (305) No/unknown action 33% implemented (397) 4% 17% 26% About 50% of high priority actions for GTBs in Europe were undertaken between 1996 2001 14% No or little work carried out (1,991 actions)

Some work underway, but significant work still to be done (784) Action well advanced, but further action needed (668) Action nearly/fully completed (557) 17% 49% 20% Actions proposed for globally threatened pheasants (19951999 compared to 20002004) 1995-1999 45 2000-2004 40 35 % of projects 30 25 20 15

10 5 0 Taxonomic research Surveys Ecological studies Applied ecology Interventions Monitoring Intensive management has led to the recovery of both Black Robin and Rarotonga Monarch Black Robin Rarotonga Monarch 300 Number of individuals 250 200

Recovery plan initiated 150 100 Cross-fostering programme begun 50 0 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 As a result of intensive habitat management, the breeding population of Kirtlands Warbler more than tripled between 1990 and 2000

Number of singing males 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

Seabird bycatch drops to zero and fish catch increases by over 30% with the use of an advanced bird-scaring line Columns show means with one standard error Birds Number of birds per 1,000 hooks Fish 1.5 15 1.0 10 0.5 5 0 0 No mitigation measure Advance bird-scaring line

The Spanish population of White-headed Duck has recovered spectacularly since the 1970s following targeted conservation action (recent fluctuations are linked to levels of spring rainfall) 5,000 Number of individuals 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

2005 Thirty-two IBAs in Africa hold one or more GTBs that presently lack protection at any site Number of unprotected GTBs at IBA 1 2-5 9 Designation of IBAs as SPAs in the European Union in 1989 and 1999 1989 (n = 1,681) 1999 (n = 2,342) 30% 46% 54% 70% Part or all of IBA designated as SPA No designation of IBA One of the outcomes of a five-year project in Africa is that 50 IBAs across 10 countries have been given legal protection

1998 (n = 472) 2002 (n = 472) 55% 35% 65% 45% Protected Unprotected Many East African IBAs are highly threatened, including those covered by protected areas 70 60 % highly threatened 50 40 30 20 10 0

IUCN Protected Area (n = 56) Other (n = 33) Protection status Unprotected (n =70) Priorities for conservation action among IBAs in Uganda SUDAN Protection status IUCN: all or part is an IUCNrecognised Protected Area (e.g. National Park) Other: all or part is an unclassified reserve (e.g. Forest Reserve) Unprotected Priority for action Star = Critical DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO

UGANDA Diamond = Urgent Circle = High KENYA Lake Victoria TANZANIA The single most appropriate and important responses for the 30 IBAs in Uganda IUCN or other protected area (n = 21) Better Protected Area management within site Better Protected Area management outside site 47% Other measures (e.g. community management) Unprotected (n = 9) Establishing or upgrading legal status Other measures (e.g. community management) 27% 3% 3%

20% In the last decade there has been a conspicuous increase in the amount of forest cover on Mount Oku Study area 200 Reserve Forest area (km2) 160 120 80 Project initiated 1987 40 0 1955 1965 1975

1985 1995 2005 Thanks to effective community action, the forest on Mount Oku IBA is now regenerating, after decades of deforestation 1958-1984 1984-1988 1988-1995 1995-2001 Forest lost during period indicated Forest gained period indicated Forest throughout period indicated In principle, the governments of most countries have agreed to work together to conserve biodiversity and protect the biosphere Number of contracting parties to convention

WHC As of November 2003, 191 countries are member states of the United Nations CITES 200 Ramsar UNCLOS 180 CMS CBD 160 UNFCCC UNCCD 140 120 100 80 60

40 20 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 During the past 25 years, under CITES and CMS, governments have agreed to take special conservation measures for an increasing number of bird species Number of bird species listed on Appendices CITES Appendix I CITES Appendix II 1400 CMS Appendix I CMS Appendix II 1200

1000 800 600 400 200 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Many IBAs qualify as Wetlands of International Importance, according to the criteria of the Convention on Wetlands, but many have not yet been nominated for this designation by governments Africa (586 IBAs) Middle East (122 IBAs) 14% 86%

Europe (2,083 IBAs) 25% 75% 24% 76% None of IBA designated All or part of IBA designated At least 871 sites of global importance for migratory waterbirds remain unprotected within the AEWA region IBAs in Central Asia and west Siberia not yet documented (due by 2005) How well is the conservation of GTBs and IBAs addressed by 36 NBSAPs? GTBs IBAs 14% 22% 28% 25% 61%

50% Weakly Moderately Effectively Rough representation of the relative costs and benefits of conserving biodiversity (e.g. at a particular Important Bird Area) at the local, national and global scales COSTS Local National Global Active costs e.g. establishing and managing a National Park Passive costs e.g. loss of potential farmland BENEFITS Consumptive uses e.g. provision of medicinal plants Nature-based tourism e.g. visits by birdwatchers Localised ecosystem services e.g. dry-season waterflows

Dispersed ecosystem services e.g. carbon storage Option, existence and bequest values e.g. genetic reservoir The size of the circles illustrates the approximate relative size of the benefit or cost Trends since 1970 for common birds in the UK show severe declines in both farmland and, less dramatically, woodland species Woodland species (33) Farmland species (19) All species (106) Population index (1970 = 100) 120 100 80 60 0 1970 1974

1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 Predicted expansion of agricultural land to 2050 under GEO3 scenario: Security First Security First 2000 2030 2050 Colours indicate the period in which habitats that have been little modified by human activity will be converted to agricultural land Predicted expansion of agricultural land to 2050 under GEO3 scenario: Sustainability First Sustainability First 2000 2030

2050 Colours indicate the period in which habitats that have been little modified by human activity will be converted to agricultural land Differences in the future expansion of agricultural land under four global development scenarios are much greater within EBAs than for the world as a whole Security First Endemic Bird Areas Policy First Markets First 1400 Sustainability First % land under agriculture 1200 1000 Rest of world 800 600 400

200 0 1990 2010 2030 2050 The membership of Ligue pour la Protection des Oiseaux, the BirdLife Partner in France, has grown 10-fold in the last 20 years 40,000 35,000 Number of members 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 1980 1985 1990

1995 2000 2005 Recent growth in membership of NatureUganda, the BirdLife Partner in Uganda 700 600 Number of members 500 400 300 200 100 0 1992 1994

1996 1998 2000 2002 2004

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    Design and technology at GCSE, or a Foundation or Higher Diploma in Engineering or Construction and the Built Environment, can also be useful subjects to demonstrate to employers/universities your technical ability and interest.
  • HOW BALANCED IS YOUR WHEEL? - Steilacoom

    HOW BALANCED IS YOUR WHEEL? - Steilacoom

    HOW BALANCED IS YOUR WHEEL? To Figure out how balanced your wheel is… Take your totals from each category on your wellness wheel and put them on the data table just like this….
  • Diapositive 1 - ac-reunion.fr

    Diapositive 1 - ac-reunion.fr

    Risk of burnout. working long hours for consecutive days in a row. leaving employees susceptible to errors. slow down productivity in the workplace. moody behavior towards co-workers
  • Pipelining - EECS at UC Berkeley

    Pipelining - EECS at UC Berkeley

    Pipelining is Natural! Sequential Laundry Pipelined Laundry: Start work ASAP Pipelining Lessons The Five Stages of Load Note: These 5 stages were there all along! Pipelining Basic Idea Graphically Representing Pipelines Conventional Pipelined Execution Representation Single Cycle, Multiple Cycle, vs....
  • Biological Influences on Learning

    Biological Influences on Learning

    Activation of the MFB reinforces behavior. Watching erotic films leads to stimulation of the MFB and sexual activity. Also has been shown to eliminate pain in cancer patients. Produces a strong euphoria that lasts several hours. * Hypothesis #1: Hedonia,...