Project Management Type period Type period Type period
Project Management Type period Type period Type period Type period Type task Type task Type task
Type task Type task 1 OVERVIEW PROJECT PLANNING and SCHEDULING The purpose of this lesson is to provide you with the knowledge to plan and supervise drafting and surveying activities for construction projects. Type text
Type text Type text Type text Type text Type text Type text 2 LEARNING OBJECTIVES
T.L.O. Provided a project mission, written project specifications, finished design drawings, a completed bill of materials, a scientific calculator, a computer, software applications, a printer, and the references, implement project planning methods detailing all personnel, equipment, and materials necessary to accomplish the mission while establishing a defined duration for each subtask and the overall project / operation and graphically depict the schedule per the references. (13613 SRVY-2004) LEARNING OBJECTIVES
E.L.O. (1). Given written project specifications, and blank writing paper, and references, develop an activities list per the FM 5-412. (1361-SRVY-2004a (2). Given written project specifications, a completed activity list, and blank writing paper, and references, create a logic diagram per the FM 5-412. (1361-SRVY2004b) (3). Given written project specifications, a completed activity list, a completed logic diagram, scientific calculator, and blank activity estimate sheets, and references, 4 LEARNING OBJECTIVES
E.L.O. (4). Given written project specifications, a completed activity list, completed activity estimate sheets, a computer, and automated software application, and references, create a Gantt chart per the FM 5-412. (1361-SRVY-2004d) (5). Given written project specifications, a completed activity list, completed activity estimate sheets, a computer, and automated software application, and references, complete a logic diagram per the FM 5-412. (1361-SRVY-2004e) 5 LEARNING OBJECTIVES E.L.O. (6). Given written project specifications, a completed
activity list, a completed logic diagram, completed activity estimate sheets, scientific calculator, and completed activity estimate sheets, and references, create a completed project schedule per the FM 5-412. (1361-SRVY-2004f) (7). Given a completed project schedule, computer, and automated software application, and references, automate a project schedule per the FM 5-412. (1361-SRVY-2004g) 6 METHOD AND MEDIA LECTURE, DEMONSTRATION, PRACTICAL APPLICATION SLIDE PRESENTATION
DRY-ERASE BOARD HANDOUTS 7 EVALUATION CLOSE-BOOK WRITTEN / PERFORMANCE IRFs 8 SAFETY / CEASE TRAINING BRIEF FIRE
TORNADO 9 QUESTIONS ? 10 CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) CPM is a form of analysis that is used for planning, scheduling, and controlling construction activities for a project from start to finish.
The CPM requires a formal, detailed listing of all work related activities that make up the project. Also referred to as: Construction Management Project Planning and Scheduling Critical Path Analysis 11 PRELIMINARY PLANNING
Preliminary planning is a quick overall picture of the project and the capacity of the unit to accomplish it. Serves as a guide for detailed planning. Includes site recon, preliminary material and equipment estimates, and procurement of critical items. 12 DETAILED PLANNING Develops an accurate estimation of work activities, materials, man-hours, and equipment requirements needed from start to
finish. Detailed planning includes: Reviewing project specifications and drawings. Detailed estimates of resources. Scheduling work activities. Submitted in the form of a Gantt chart, Pert chart, Activity-on-the-Arrow logic 13
Job Directive Format The job directive is the tasking of a unit to perform construction tasks, and draw needed materials to complete the project assigned. Job directives vary in form and content. They are issued in one of two ways: Verbally for simple projects. Written for more complex projects.
14 Stages of Detail Job directives can be in any one of three stages of detail: Contain detailed plans and specifications. The more stable the conditions are, the more detailed the job directive becomes. May simply refer to standardized drawings,
or automated software programs already published. May require preparation of complete plans and project specifications to be approved 15 by higher headquarters. Job Directive Information Mission: Exact assignment with all necessary details. Location: May be given, or left to the unit to select. Time: Starting time and/or required
completion date. Manpower: Additional manpower that is available. Equipment: Additional equipment that is 16 Job Directive Information, cont. Materials: Source of and authority to request materials. Priorities: Single priority for the whole project, or separate priorities for various portions of the project.
Reports: Any required reports. (i.e. Weekly status report) Special Instructions: Any additional information pertaining to the job that is requested. 17 ? In what two forms may job directives be issued? In military construction, the planning process is divided into what two stages?
18 ACTIVITY LISTS (Brainstorming) An activities (task) list is a complete listing of all required work activities that must be performed from start to finish. An activity list can be brief, or as detailed as need be. The guiding factor to how much detail that is required is dictated by size and complexity of the project. An activity list must be developed mentally and on paper to determine actual activities and their interrelationships to each other.
The most difficult step is your ability to think logically, and make a mental picture of the project in your mind. 19 Brainstorming is needed with the assistance of the ROUGH ACTIVITIES LISTING PROJECT: ONE LANE GRAVEL ROAD, 1500 FEET LONG, LEADING TO A CONCRETE STORAGE PAD THAT IS 32-0 X 32-0 IN SIZE. Activities Topo project site Lay gravel Order gravel Clear roadway
Prefabricate forms Layout pad batter boards Pour concrete Check pad elevations Remove forms Establish road grades Set road alignments Place concrete forms Clear pad site Create project drawings Excavate pad footings Cure concrete Check Road grades 20 Perform As-built
Sequencing Activities After you have developed your rough activity list in no specific order, you must now put the activities into a "logical" sequence to be performed. The finished activity list is broken down as follows: Activity Number Column Activity Column
"Immediately Proceeded By" (IPB) Column 21 Types of Activities There are five types of activities associated with the development of a finished activities list. Keeping these activities in mind will help you in your logical thinking to develop the activity list on paper.
Starting activities. Preceding activities. Concurring activities. Succeeding activities. 22 Sample Finished Activities List Activity Number 5
10 15 None 20 25 30 35 40 35 45 50 55 60 65 70 75
80 85 Activity "Topo" project site Create project drawings Order gravel __ IPB None 5 Prefabricate forms Clear roadway
Set road alignments Establish road grades Check road grades None 10 25 30 Lay gravel Clear pad site Layout pad batter boards Excavate pad footings Check pad elevations Place concrete forms Pour concrete
Going to Morning Formation 24 ? What is the process called to develop your activities list? : What are the five types of activities that are kept in mind when developing a finished activities list? 25 10 Min Break!
26 PLANNING DIAGRAMS The most important part of the CPM is the planning diagram. The planning diagram graphically shows the interrelationship between project activities. It provides a visual blueprint of the work activities that must be performed during construction. There are four types of diagrams that
can be created. Each serves a specific purpose. 27 GANTT CHART Also known as a bar chart. Gantt charts are "time" oriented. Activities are graphically shown on a calendar time scale, used primarily for small projects. Bars show an activities duration in its
entirety, regardless of its dependency on other activities. 28 GANTT CHART ID 1 Task Name Topo project site 2 Create project drawings 3
Order gravel 4 Prefabricate forms 5 Clear roadway 6 Set road alignments 7
Establish road grades 8 Check road grades 9 Lay gravel 10 Clear pad site 11
Layout pad batterboards April 7 M T W T F April 14 S S M T W T F S April 21 S M T W T F S
29 S GANTT CHART ID 1 2 Task Name TEC 1-99 4, 1998 Qtr 1, 1999 Qtr 2, 1999 Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar
11/3/98 6 Qtr 3, 1999 Apr May Jun 2/5/99 Marine Unique 2/8/99 3/1/99 30 GANTT CHART DISADVANTAGES Does not give you the ability to visualize the
exact progress of the project. Anticipate delays or problems soon enough to correct them. Does not show detailed sequence of activities. Does not show "critical activities". Does not show precise effect of a delay or failure to complete an activity on time. 31 PERT CHART DIAGRAM The Program Evaluation and Review
Technique (PERT) addresses probability, and is "event" oriented. This type of logic diagram is used primarily for research and development projects. 32 PERT CHART Clear roadway Topo project site Create project drawings
1 2d 2 2d 4/9/97 4/10/97 4/11/97 4/14/97
5 2d 4/15/97 4/16/97 Clear pad site 10 1d 4/15/97 4/15/97
33 Activity-On-The-Arrow Format More complex in its creation. Tendency to lead to confusion when trying to interpret it. Least desirable format to use because of these factors. 34 ACTIVITY-ON THE-ARROW CHART
35 Activity-On-The-Node Format Eliminates confusion, and allows you to adjust for problems that may arise during the construction of the project. AON format is "activity" oriented. This is the primary format used for planning military construction, and especially used for large projects. 36 Activity-On-The-Node Uses Construction planning
Maintenance planning Project Design Military combat task planning Logistics planning 37 AON Advantages Reduces risk of overlooking essential tasks. Provides a blueprint for long-range planning. Shows activity interrelationships. Focuses attention on critical activities. Allows you to make timely decisions. Allows you to manage manpower, material,
and equipment resources more effectively. 38 AON Disadvantages The AON format does not solve engineering problems that may occur. Does not make planning decisions for you. Does not provide anything substantial to the actual construction of the project itself. 39
ACTIVITY-ON-THE-NODE 40 LOGIC DIAGRAM ELEMENTS After the activity relationships are identified, they are applied to a logic diagram. The standard format for a logic diagram is the "Activity-on-the-Node". The four basic elements are: Activity Nodes Start Nodes Finish Nodes Precedence Arrows 41
ACTIVITY NODE 42 PRECEDENCE ARROWS 43 START AND FINISH NODES 20 Duration in days 44
? What type of planning diagram is event oriented? What type of planning diagram is time oriented? What type of planning diagram is activity oriented? 45 LOGIC DIAGRAMS Shown as a Critical Path Method (CPM) logic diagram. Shows accurate, timely, and easily
understood picture of the whole project. Easier to plan, schedule, and manage the sequence of required work activities. Graphically shows the interrelationship of each work activity as they relate to the completion of the whole project. 46 CPM DIAGRAM LOGIC RULES Which activities start at the beginning of the project? (Starting) Which activities must be finished before
the start of another? (Preceding) Which activities can start or finish at the same time as another? (Concurring) Which activities cannot begin until another is finished? (Succeeding) 47 DEMONSTRATION Going to Morning Formation 48 PRACTICAL
EXERCISE 49 ? What logic rules are used to create a logic diagram? What must all finishing nodes tie into? 50 10 Min Break! 51
ACTIVITY ESTIMATES Estimating each activities required resources and duration times. Estimated resources are: Materials Personnel Equipment Man-hours Equipment-hours 52
MATERIAL ESTIMATES Work Items Materials Quantities Waste Factors Total Material Requirements Bills of Materials
53 EQUIPMENT/PERSONNEL ESTIMATES Work Items. (Activities) Material Quantities. (Units of work) Work Rate. (Man-hour Tables) Standard Work Effort (Labor). (Quantity x Work Rate) Efficiency Factor. (Represented as a Percentage) Troop Effort (Total Labor Hours). (Standard Effort / Efficiency)
Duration (Hours, Days, Weeks, or Months). (Troop Effort / Crew Size) 54 DURATIONS Durations are calculated based on: Amount of Material Handled Amount of effort put into using manpower Duration Guidelines: Increasing equipment or Personnel = Reduced duration time of Activity. Decreasing equipment or Personnel = Increased
duration time of Activity. Increasing length of workday = Reduced duration time of Activity. Decreasing length of workday = Increased duration time of Activity. Working on the weekend = Reduced duration time of the entire project. 55 ? What are the two types of estimates? What effect does increasing equipment quantities have on the duration of an activity? 56
EARLY/LATE EVENT TIMES After all duration's have been computed, you are now able to calculate each activities Early and Late event times. (Forward Pass and Backward Pass) Early Start (ES): The earliest time a activity can logically start.
Early Finish (EF): The earliest an activity can finish without delaying follow on activities. (ES + Duration) Late Finish (LF): The latest an activity can finish without delaying the entire project. Late Start (LS): The latest time an activity can start without delaying the entire project. (LF - Duration) 57 ACTIVITY LIST WITH ESTIMATED DURATION'S Activity Number Duration 5 days 10
days 15 days 20 day 25 days 30 day 35 day 40 days 45 2 days 50
35 2 Lay gravel 15,40 58 Clear pad site 10 CRITICAL PATH & CRITICAL ACTIVITIES
After completing the event times, you can determine the "critical path" of the project and all of the "critical activities" by simple observation using the following guidelines: The ES for an activity is the same as its LS. The EF for an activity is the same as 59 its LF.
DEMONSTRATION EARLY/LATE EVENT TIMES 60 PRACTICAL EXERCISE 61 ? What are some of the types of resources that must be estimated for an activity? What is the term that is used to calculate the early event times for a project?
What is the term that is used to calculate the late event times for a project? 62 10 Min Break! 63 EARLY START SCHEDULES An early start schedule, when joined with the logic diagram, graphically shows all of the planning information that is needed to manage the construction project from start to finish.
Any activity not on the "Critical Path" will contain some float. Float is any extra time that is available to complete an activity beyond its actual duration, without effecting the entire project. 64 EARLY START SCHEDULE FORMAT 65 FLOAT Total Float (TF): The entire amount of time that an
activity can be delayed without delaying the entire project completion time. TF = LS - ES or LF - EF Interfering Float (IF): Time that is available to delay an activity without delaying the projects entire completion time, but may delay the start of one or more non-critical activities. IF = LF -ES of following activity. (Use the smallest ES time) Free Float (FF): Time that is available to delay an activity without delaying the start of any other activity, or the entire projects completion time. 66
Early Start Schedule Plotting Start by listing all activity numbers and their succeeding activities. Draw time brackets: Length is equal to LF-ES. (This will include total float if any) Note: ES times for starting activities will be day 1. All other ES will begin on the morning of the succeeding day. Label resource quantities in each appropriate time bracket. Only label the blocks for the activitys normal duration. 67 RESOURCE ABBREVIATIONS SQUAD = SQ
DT 68 Early Start Schedule Plotting (Cont.) Interfering Float: When plotting IF work right to left starting at the ending bracket, shown as a X. IF will be plotted first. Any remaining blank/open blocks will be Free Float. Free Float: FF will fall automatically into position after the IF is marked. Note: All finishing activities will only have FF and that the critical path will NOT have any float. The final step is to total all resources for each
day and list them at the bottom of the schedule. 69 DEMONSTRATION EARLY START SCHEDULE 70 71 10 Min Break! 72 PRACTICAL
EXERCISE 73 ? What is float? What is interfering float? What is free float? 74 10 Min Break! 75 MICROSOFT PROJECT
Automated Program Planning and Scheduling Does not make decisions for you! You provide inputs Activities Resources Duration Project Beginning Finish 76 MS PROJECT INITIAL SETTINGS Date, Time, Duration Settings TOOLS Menu
OPTIONS Dialogue Box View Tab Date Format Calendar Tab Day of the week work begins Time of the day work begins and ends Hours work / day and week Schedule Tab DAYS set Activity Duration, time unit format HOURS set Work Duration NOTE: Slack time = 0; allows MS Proj ect to calculate FLOAT TIMES 77
MS PROJECT INITIAL SETTINGS Date, Time, Duration Settings, cont. Tools Menu Change Working Time Set Working Days Set Non-Working Days Weekends automatically considered Holidays 78 MS PROJECT RESOURCE SETTINGS T/O (Manpower) T/E (Equipment)
VIEW Menu RESOURCE SHEET Resource Name Resource Initials Maximum Units Unit, Company, Platoon, Section GANTT CHART 79 MS PROJECT ACTIVITY INFORMATION PROJECT ACTIVITY INFORMATION INPUT VERTICAL DISPLAY DIVIDER Pick, Drag all the way to the right to view entire Activity sheet
Type Name of first Activity Left Arrow Key Column Duration Column Starting Date Column (Left Arrow Key x2) Predecessors 80 MS PROJECT ACTIVITY INFORMATION, cont. PROJECT ACTIVITY INFORMATION INPUT Resource information leave blank Repeat previous procedures for the remaining
Activities in your list. Skip STARTING DATES, they will be automatically calculated due to IPB INSERT Menu Resource Assignment Dialogue box Type of Resource Quantity Units Repeat for all Activities Close 81
MS PROJECT EDITING PLANNING DIAGRAMS Activity Information Inputs = Automatic Planning Diagram Creation GANTT Chart Pick, Drag Vertical Divider all the way to the left so the entire GANTT Chart can be viewed Pick FORMAT Menu Select BAR STYLES Option NAME Column Pick PROGRESS Pick CUT ROW (eliminates clutter for printout) Do not delete TASK INFORMATION Display Format
82 Pick TASK Name MS PROJECT EDITING PLANNING DIAGRAMS, cont. PERT Chart Chart created is not in logical sequence Drag and Drop Activity Node so the Precedence Arrow Logically connect each node Begin Arranging Starting Activities first then remaining Activities to the last Note: PERT Chart does not have a Start or Finish Node 83
MS PROJECT PROJECT REPORTS Supplements Planning Diagrams with: Pick VIEW in the Menu Bar RESOURCE USAGE RESOURCE GRAPHS REPORTS OVERVIEW Top-Level Tasks Critical Tasks Working Days CURRENT ACTIVITIES Unstarted Tasks ASSIGNMENTS Who does what
Who does when 84 DEMONSTRATION 85 PRACTICAL EXERCISE 86 ? How does Microsoft Office Project calculate float times?
Does a PERT Chart have a Start and Finish Node? 87 SUMMARY Critical Path Method in project planning and scheduling Activities List Brainstorming Sequencing CPM Logic Diagram Activity Resources Early Start Schedule MS Project Production 88
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