1 Lecture 18, 30 Oct 2003 Chapter 12, Circulation (cont) Chapter 13, Respiration, Gas Exchange, Acid-Base Balance Vertebrate Physiology ECOL 437 University of Arizona Fall 2003 instr: Kevin Bonine t.a.: Bret Pasch 2
Vertebrate Physiology 437 1. Circulation (CH12) 2. Blood-Gas Chemistry (CH13) 3. Announcements... 14-34, Vander 2001 See (12-32) 2b Thursday, 30 October -- the ARLDN's 2003 Edmund A. Arbas
Lecturer, Prof. Peter M. Narins from the Dept. of Physiological Science at UCLA, will give his public lecture in Economics 110 at 4:00 pm. The title of his lecture is "Science on Seven: Adventures of an Expeditionary Biologist." Narins is renowned for his elegant work on hearing and auditory communication in frogs and is a world leader in neuroethology, animal behavior, and auditory neurophysiology. He is also a legendary field biologist, having led 39 expeditions to remote and exotic field sites on seven continents over the last quarter century. A masterfully
clear and very entertaining speaker, he has won the most 3 Name that student: Drew Stasiak Chem Minor Elena Costin MCB Gabriel Reinhardt MCB
4 Hemodynamics in Vessels Flow depends primarily on pressure gradient and resistance 14-11, Vander 2001 Vander 2001 Hemodynamic s - Poiseuilles Law:
5 Use to approximate flow Pressure Gradient radius4 Flow rate Q = (P1 P2)r4 8L lengt h
viscosity Small change in radius large change in flow rate 6 Hemodynamic s - From Poiseuilles Law: Pressure Gradient lengt h Resistance
R = (P1 P2) Q Flow rate viscosity = 8L r4 radius4 Small change in radius large change resistance Modifiable if vessel distensible under pressure 7
Summed resistance reduces pressure (12-25) 8 Total Flow Rate same all along Circulatory System (12-23) River
River Lake 9 Shapes of curves slightly different because of RBCs (viscosity) and fact that they tend to flow in middle of lumen (12-24) Peripheral Circulation - Endothelium lining vessels - Middle layer with smooth muscle (esp. arteries)
- Outer fibrous layer Capillaries with ~ only Endothelium 10 11 (12-26) Peripheral Circulation Compliance vs. Elasticity ~ Veins vs. Arteries Volume Reservoir vs. Pressure Reservoir
12 13 Volume Reservoir vs. Pressure Reservoir 14-34, Vander 2001 See (12-32) (12-27) ~Constant P and Q at Capillaries!
Venous System - low pressure (11 mm Hg or less) - thin walled veins with less muscle - more compliant and less elastic - valves - blood moved by skeletal muscle (and smooth) - breathing creates vacuum (low pressure) in chest to aid blood flow to heart 14 15 Microcirculation
- endothelium in capillaries is permeable 1. continuous Less permeable 2. Fenestrated (kidney, gut) 3. Sinusoidal (liver, bone) More permeable - Movement across walls, between walls, in vesicles - Bulk Flow Bulk Flow
Fluid Pressure vs. Osmotic Pressure Faster than diffusion Filtration > Uptake Lymph System to return excess fluid (12-38) 16 Bulk Flow
- Edema Starvation Lungs Kidneys Lymph System - No RBCs; therefore not red - Drains interstitial spaces - has valves and smooth musculature - empties into thoracic duct at vena cavae - transport system for large hormones and
fats into blood stream - filariasis, elephantiasis - Reptiles and Amphibians with lymph hearts 17 Giraffe example pgs. 504-505 Why does blood in the lower extremities of aquatic organisms not pool as it may do in legs of humans, giraffes, etc.?
FISH: Blood tends to pool in tail b/c inertia and compression waves when swimming -Veins in middle of body -Accessory caudal (tail) heart in some species 18 Circulatory System Regulation 1. Feed Brain and Heart First 2. Next Feed Tissues in Need 3. Maintain volume, prevent edema, etc.
Baroreceptors Chemoreceptors Mechanoreceptors Thermoreceptors Info. integrated at Medullary Cardiovascular Center medulla oblongata and pons Depressor Center Parasympathetic Effectors Pressor Center Sympathetic Effectors 19 Circulatory System
Regulation Baroreceptors increase AP firing rate when BP increases (12-43) Sensed at carotid sinus, aortic arch, subclavian, common carotid, pulmonary Usually leads to Sympathetic suppression to decrease BP 20
Circulatory System Regulation Arterial Chemoreceptors in carotid and aortic bodies (More details when discuss ventilation) e.g., low O2, high CO2, low pH leads to bradycardia and peripheral vasoconstriction (diving and not inflating lungs) What about when not diving? 21
Circulatory System Regulation Cardiac Mechanoreceptors and Chemoreceptors Alter heart rate AND blood volume e.g., ANP (Atrial Natruiretic Peptide) released in response to stretch - leads to increased Na+ excretion and therefore greater urine output 22 Circulatory System
Regulation Extrinsic vs. Local Control Neuronal or Hormonal Most arterioles with sympathetic innervation Also respond to circulating catecholamines: -At high levels, alpha adrenoreceptors are stimulated vasoconstriction (to increase BP) -At low levels, beta2 adrenoreceptors are stimulated vasodilation (to increase flow to tissue) -Response depends on tissue type, receptor
type(s), level of catecholamines (epi, norepi), etc. 23 Circulatory System Regulation Extrinsic vs. Local Control Neuronal or Hormonal Neuropeptide Y - Acts by reducing IP3 levels -decreases coronary blood flow -decreases heart contractility
24 25 Circulatory System Regulation Extrinsic vs. Local Control stretch temp. O2 CO2 pH adenosine K+
Decreased O2 levels with opposite effect in lungs Circulatory System Regulation Extrinsic vs. Local Control 26 NO (nitric oxide) Released from vascular endothelium: -Vasodilation
-Relaxation -Viagra acts by blocking breakdown of cGMP (12-45) Circulatory System Regulation Extrinsic vs. Local Control Histamine Released in response to injury of connective tissue and leukocytes: -Vasodilation
27 28 Chapter 13 Gas exchange Acid-base balance 29 Gas composition in air O2 CO2
% of dry air 21 0.03 78 159 0.23 594
pp at 760 mm Hg 380mmHg (at 6000m) 297 Solubility in water (ml/L) 17 79.6 N2 0.11 34
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