NON THERMAL PRESERVATION - Food Science Universe (FSU)

NON THERMAL PRESERVATION - Food Science Universe (FSU)

1 NON THERMAL PRESERVATION TECHNIQUES Zarqa Azam (Roll# 27) Riaheen Shahbaz (Roll# 29) B.Sc. (Hons.) Food Science and Technology Semester 8th Regular FST-609. Food Quality Management Institute of Food Science and Nutrition (IFSN) University of Sargodha, Sargodha 2016. 2 OUTLINE: Introduction Problems Uses Cost of equipments Objectives Types of non-thermal preservation techniques

High pressure processing Irradiation Ozonation Ultrasound 3 CONTI.. Oscillating Pulsed electric field Hurdle technologies Pulsed light processing

Processing Sanitizer Natural magnetic field with E-Beam washes antimicrobials Conclusion 4 INTRODUCTION Method use for processing and preservation.

Keeping the temperature of food to minimum as much as possible. Method use without heat. Destroy pathogens. Keep foods safe to eat . Retaining the sensory attributes.

Nutrient content similar to raw or fresh products. 5 PROBLEMS Problem with the thermal processing : Loss of volatile compounds Nutrients Flavour To

overcome these problems non thermal method came into food industries: To increase the production rate Profit. 6 USES OF NON THERMAL PRESERVATION Used for bulk quantities of foods.

Mainly used in the large scale production. Cost of equipments: Used in the non thermal processing is high then used in thermal processing. After minimizing the investment costs of non thermal processing methods it can also be employed in small scale industries 7 OBJECTIVES Extend shelf life

Good quality Safe food with better nutrition Meet consumer requirements Better financial return to industry 8 TYPES High pressure processing Irradiation Ozonation Ultrasound Oscillating magnetic field

Pulsed electric field Hurdle technologies Pulsed light processing Processing with E-Beam Sanitizer washes Natural antimicrobials 9 HIGH PRESSURE PROCESSING High Hydrostatic Pressure or Ultra High Pressure processing. Method of preserving and sterilizing food Product processed under very high pressure High Pressures applied at short periods of time (20minutes) The high pressure used in HPP kills most microorganisms : By damaging cell components such as cell membranes 10

HOW MUCH PRESSURE? For food processing 200-800MPa pressure is required. For inactivating milk enzymes; Alkaline phosphates and protease about 1000 MPa is needed. 600MPa is the optimum pressure for processing commercial food products. 11 COMPONENTS A pressure vessel and its closure

A pressure generation system A temperature control device A materials handling system 12 PROCESS Food packages are loaded onto the vessel and the top is closed

The pressure medium usually water is pumped into the vessel from the bottom. Once the desired pressure is reached, the pumping is stopped, valves are closed, pressure can be maintained without further need for energy input 13 ADVANTAGES It kills vegetative bacteria and spores Reduced processing time.

Freshness, flavor, nutrients, color, and taste retained Shelf life is increased Low energy consumption Elimination of chemical preservatives 14 APPLICATIONS: Used in pasteurization and sterilization of fruits and fruit products

Tenderization of meat Sterilization of heat sensitive ingredients like shellfish, flavorings, and vitamins 15 OZONATION Powerful sanitizer similar to chlorine or common bleach Ozone can reduce contamination on food and increase storage life. Toxic to humans at very high doses

Should not be used to treat high fat foods. Principle Ozone does not act as a systemic poison to microorganisms, but rather, destroys them by oxidation. Consequently, it is impossible for a microorganism to build up any resistance to oxidation 16 ADVANTAGES OF OZONE Instantly destroys microbes Eliminates chemical storage

Environmentally friendly Does not affect product taste No harmful by-products Can be used in air and water It leaves no residues in food or water. 17 IRRADIATION

Technology that improves the safety and extends the shelf life of food by reducing or eliminating microorganisms and insects. Irradiation can make food safer for the consumer

Irradiation to a dose of between 1 kGy and 10 kGy is an effective method of reducing the microbial load of food. 18 19 ADVANTAGES Extend the shelf life Irradiation may also inactivate enzymes.. Low dose irradiation (less than 1 kGy) is also used to inhibit sprouting (e.g. onion, garlic, potato)

Used for the purpose of insect disinfestations and inactivation 20 ULTRASOUND Form of energy generated by sound waves of frequencies that are too high to be detected by human ear, i.e.16KHz Ultrasound can be propagate in liquid,gasses,solids. Effective for inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes.

Produce intracellular cavitations due to micro mechanical shocks 21 ULTRASOUND IN INDUSTRY Major significant to industry and consumer

Better quality and healthy food High efficiency Saves energy and cost Minimizing of flavor loss 22 OSCILLATING MAGNETIC FIELD A magnetic field is defined as the region in which magnetic

material is able to magnetize the surrounding particles. Magnetic field may be static or oscillating In order to inactivate microorganisms, flux density of 5 to 50 tesla (T) is required, corresponding to very high intensity magnetic fields. 23 CONT.. HOW HIGH INTENSITY MAGNETIC FIELDS ARE GENERATED? Generated by an electric current passing through a coil

Capacitor is charged by high voltage DC power supply By closing the switch An oscillating current is produced inside the capacitor And then an oscillating magnetic field is induced to the food placed inside the magnet coil For high magnetic fields, superconductor coils are used 24

40KA current is required CONTI.. 25 CONTI.. HOW THIS MECHANISM INACTIVATES M/O Magnetic fields alter the growth and reproduction of microorganisms by both genetic and bio chemical phenomena Effect may be due to magnetic field or induced electric field

Depending upon both features of magnetic field and properties of food and microbial: The Or growth of microbial may be inhibited unaltered by this technique 26 CONTI.. APPLICATIONS Some packed liquid foods such as milk, yoghurt, orange juices etc They may be subjected to oscillating magnetic field with a frequency between 5 and 550 kHz.

For a total exposure time between 25s and 10ms. Performed at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, resulting in a temperature increase not higher than 5C Therefore a good retention of nutritional and sensory properties of foods is assured. 27 PULSED ELECTRIC FIELD (PEF) Another non-thermal technology that can be use to inactivate bacterial cells at ambient temperatures

More suitable for liquids and semi liquid foods which can be easily pumped Can be used to increase the shelf life of soups, milk, whole liquid eggs and fruit juices 28 CONTI.. HOW THIS PROCESS OCCURS? Process involves placing the food material between two electrodes

And passing pulses of high electric field strength (1-50 kV/cm) Since the pulses are applied for short durations (2s to 1ms) the negative impact on food quality due to heat 29 processing is highly diminished CONTI.. APPLICATION OF PEF RESULTS IN: Cellular death due

to generation of pores (electroporation) in the bacterial cell membrane Without having an effect on enzymes or proteins present in foods 30 CONTI.. EFFECTIVENESS The effectiveness of this technique will strongly depend

upon Treatment time Electric field strength Specific energy of the pulses Although this technique is useful, inactivation has only been achieved in the range of 3-4 logs. 31 CONTI.. ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS

Advantages: Pulse Less applied for shirt period so no generation of heat usage of energy Limitations: Cannot be applied to the foods which cannot withstand high fields And foods that form bubbles 32

HURDLE TECHNOLOGY OR SYNERGISM Hurdle approach or process of using multiple technologies is an effective approach to microbial decontamination in comparison to that of a single technology alone

Deliberate and intelligent combination of preservative treatment can help in maintaining the quality of food and delivering almost similar level of microbial destruction At the same time it warranties to counteract the negative effect of individual technologies on food quality 33 CONTI.. The choice of hurdles will strongly depends on The type of food it is being applied to in addition to the mode of inactivation

For example: Exposure of egg shells contaminated with S.Enteritidis with UV radiation (1500-2500 W/cm) followed by ozone (5 lb/in gauge for 1min) resulted in an inactivation of 4.6 logs or more in a total treatment time of 2 min 34 PULSED LIGHT (PL) PROCESSING

Non thermal technology that uses short, intense pulses of white light which include ultraviolet, infrared, visible light Treatment of foods by PL has been approved by FDA (21 CFRI79.41) PL is like a camera flash but far more intense 35 CONTI.. HOW IT WORKS? When this

light is flashed on foods, it kills microorganisms but has minimal impact on foods Short flashes of this intense light are used to prevent the temperature of the food from increasing Within PL there is ultraviolet light that kills the pathogens by disrupting their DNA. 36

PROCESSING WITH E-BEAM Non-thermal technology where the high energy electrons (close to the speed of light) are aimed at solid or liquid foods Reducing the number of or eliminating pathogens, pests or insects Unlike Gamma radiations this technology uses no 37 radioactive isotopes CONTI.. HOW IT WORKS?

E-beam may work against pathogens such as viruses and bacteria by breaking the linkages in RNA or DNA and by disrupting other parts that are essential to organisms Some Drawbacks include: Limited High penetration depth through food initial cost

38 NATURAL ANTIMICROBIALS Since ancient times spices and herbs have been used for preventing food spoilage and deterioration Also for extending shelf life and food quality The antimicrobial effect of these components is a result of an increase in permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane which leads to the loss of cellular constituents 39 CONTI.. EXTRACTS FROM VEGETABLES,

HERBS Plants secondary metabolites such as essential oils and natural plant extracts have also been reported to have antimicrobial, antifungal and anti-insecticidal properties Extracts from capsicum, seaweeds and green tea have been found to inhibit the growth of Salmonella spp. Tomatoes treated with 100ppm oregano (herb) results in 2.78 log reduction. 40 USING SANITIZER WASHES

Sanitizers like chlorine, are used by the food industry that helps to kill pathogens in food and on equipments/utensil surfaces

FDA regulates the sanitizers to be used by food industry Microorganisms attach to the food, can lower the effectiveness of sanitizer and to address this problem Use of surfactants (components of detergents) is being studied to enhance the effectiveness of sanitizer 41 CONTI.. HOW IT WORKS Combining food grade surfactants with sanitizers Improves the killing effectiveness When applied to surface of food By Loosing microorganisms attachment Allowing the sanitizer to be more potent antimicrobial agent

The combination of sanitizer and surfactants has not yet been commercialized but shows greater potential. 42 HENCE: Non Thermal or Alternative Food Processing Methods Enhance the MICROBIAL SAFETY FOOD QUALITY 43

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