NYSED Part D Lab Review Diffusion and Osmosis Designed to help you understand the concepts of Diffusion and Osmosis and how these cell processes effect the cell; Define: diffusion, osmosis, hypertonic, isotonic, hypotonic, saline, selectively permeable, molecule size; Part 1: Diffusion Diffusion: movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration along the concentration gradient.
Example is when you put your Lugols solution into the water and the water began to turn the rust/tea color. Before diffusion occurs After diffusion occurs Part 2: Create a cell Soak 10 inches of dialysis tubing;
Tie knot in one end; Put 10mL of glucose solution in and 20mL of starch solution in; Pinch/clamp closed and put into cellular environment (Lugols and water) for 15 minutes; Observe the changes and infer what happened Insert into cellular environment Wait about 15 minutes and observe.
After 15 minutes, observe What happened to the glucose in the cell? the starch in the cell? the Lugols iodine outside the cell? Why? S G G GS I I I
G I I At the beginning S G I IS G I
After 15 minutes Iodine solution (I) Glucose solution (G) Starch solution (S) And now, the part that makes you cry (ok, not really, but the Red Onion part of the lab) Prepare a wet mount slide of the inner epidermis of a red onion section; Observe the red onion and draw what you see; Add a couple of drops of saline
(salt) solution to the epidermis. Wait 5 minutes; Observe under microscope again, note any changes; Cytoplasm decreased in size Add freshwater to the slide, wait 5 minutes, observe changes again. Cytoplasm increased in size and filled the cell Red Onion Plasmolysis Observation Before and after observations of red onion epidermis under the microscope (400X)
Red onion under in isotonic (normal) solution. Note cell membrane and cytoplasm almost completely fill the boundary of the cell wall. Red onion under in hypertonic (salt) solution. Note cell membrane has withdrawn and the cytoplasm has lost water to the salty environment, making it appear smaller and darker. Questions Base your answers to questions 1 and 2 on the diagrams below and on your knowledge of biology.
1) Describe how to prepare a wet-mount slide of red onion cells with the cell membrane shrinking away from the cell wall, as shown in diagram 1. The following materials are available: microscope slide, pipettes, cover slips, paper towels, water, salt solution, and red onion sections.  2) List the laboratory procedures to follow that would cause the cells in diagram 1 to resemble the cells in diagram 2.  A student places an artificial cell, similar to the one used in the laboratory activity
Diffusion Through a Membrane, in a beaker containing water. The artificial cell contains starch and sugar. A starch indicator is added to the water in the beaker. Explain how the student will know if the starch is able to diffuse out of the artificial cell.  An investigation was set up to study the movement of water through a membrane. The results are shown in the diagram below. Based on these results, which statement correctly predicts what will happen to red blood cells when they are placed in a beaker containing a water solution in which the salt concentration is much higher than the salt concentration
in the red blood cells? (1) The red blood cells will absorb water and increase in size. (2) The red blood cells will lose water and decrease in size. (3) The red blood cells will first absorb water, then lose water and maintain their normal size. (4) The red blood cells will first lose water, then absorb water, and finally double in size. State one factor that influences which molecules can pass through the cell membrane of a human cell.  An indicator for a protein is added to a solution that contains protein and to a solution that does
not contain protein. State one way, other than the presence or absence of protein, that the two solutions may differ after the indicator has been added to both.  A student prepared a wet-mount slide of some red onion cells and then added some salt water to the slide. The student observed the slide using a compound light microscope. Diagram A is typical of what the student observed after adding salt water. Complete diagram B to show how the contents of the red onion cells should appear if the cell were then rinsed with distilled water for several minutes. 
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