Open and Closed Loop Control Once the motor programme is selected the movement needs to be regulated and adapted. This can be done on 2 levels depending on extent the nervous system is involved. -Open loop -Closed loop Open Loop Characteristics
Pre-planned/well learnt movement Without conscious control Why is it not applicable to all skills?
Too many stored movements required for memory capacity Stored as memory trace in long term memory Once initiated no modification (you cant change the movement while being performed) Not all environments are predictable or stable
Cannot accommodate new skills No feedback during movement, only after movement Not applicable to open skills
Very quick/limited time/ballistic movements Carried out in a stable/predictable environment/closed skills. Many skills have time for feedback during performance/allows
corrections. Adams Closed Loop Characteristics Involves feedback Movement initiated by the memory trace Action controlled by the perceptual trace which is used as a model of correctness. Adjusted and strengthened
through practice Why is it not applicable to all skills? Does not account for actions too fast for feedback or limitations of memory Memory and Perceptual Trace Pieces of information used to control movement
Memory trace plan of action/motor programme Based on experience/past performance Initiate movement Perceptual trace Directs/controls the movement Developed through feedback How they work together Memory trace and perceptual trace are compared during movement. If they match- movement goes ahead If they dont match the error is corrected during the performance. Movement is adjusted. Memory trace is adjusted and you have a new memory
trace. Revision -decision making reaction time, simple reaction time, choice reaction time, response time, movement time and the relationship between them anticipation temporal and spatial factors affecting reaction time, Hicks law, psychological refractory period, single channel hypothesis motor programmes and sub routines open and closed-loop control
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