Open Source Intelligence: Executive Overview

Open Source Intelligence: Executive Overview

OPEN SOURCE INTELLIGENCE: EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW Robert David Steele President, OSS Inc. 1 PRESENTATION PLAN I n t r o Overview of Open Sources, Software, and Services I n t Src SW

Svcs Over view C M A n a l y s i s C o a l i t

i o n O p e r a t i o n s C e l l O v e r

v i e w C o n c l u s i o n s 2 DEFINITIONS DATA: raw report, image or broadcast INFORMATION: collated data of generic interest and usually widely disseminated INTELLIGENCE: concisely tailored

answer reflecting a deliberate process of discovery, discrimination, distillation, and delivery of data precisely suited to need 3 TIMELINE NEXT SEVEN YEARS: A Very Hard Road LAST SEVEN YEARS: OPEN SOURCE SOLUTIONS Inc. (4000 trained) Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals (6000 members) Community Open Source Program Office (USA) Eighteen governments doing one thing or another WWII AND COLD WAR: Special Librarians Association (14,000 members) External Research & Analysis Funds Lloyds and Janes BBC & FBIS Churchill adept at correspondence LONG AGO: Legal travelers 4

OSINT AND THE IC The Intelligence Community has to get used to the fact that it no longer controls most of the information. The Honorable Richard Kerr Deputy Director of Central Intelligence (USA) 5 OSINT DEFINED From Open World Open sources Open software Open services From Closed World Requirements analysis

Collection Management Source Validation Source Fusion Compelling Presentation 6 WHAT OSINT IS NOT I nothing more than a collection of news clippings. the Internet. a substitute for spies and satellites. 7 WHATS MISSING? SIGINT: Dedicated collectors, processors, exploiters IMINT: Dedicated collectors, processors, exploiters

HUMINT: ALL-SOURCE ANALYST Dedicated collectors, processors, exploiters MASINT: Dedicated collectors, processors, exploiters OSINT: ??? 8 THE ALL-SOURCE SOLUTION Broadcast Monitoring Subject-Matter Experts Commercial Geospacial OSINT

HUMINT SIGINT IMINT MASINT Classified Collection Targeting Support 9 All-Source Analysis Answers NEW INTELLIGENCE GAP I N F O R M

A T I O N Available Information Actionable Intelligence GAP BETWEEN WHAT YOU CAN KNOW AND WHAT YOU CAN USE TIME 10 INFORMATION ARCHIPELAGO

Business Information Information Brokers & Private Investigators Intelligence Mass & Niche Media Schools & Universities Defense Government 11 MORE MORE COMPLEX COMPLEX THREAT THREAT PHYSICAL STEALTH, HIGH TECH

PRECISION BRUTES TARGETING (MIC / HIC) ECONOMIC WAR HIGH TECH CYBER STEALTH, DATABASE TARGETING GUERRILLA WAR MONEY--RUTHLESSNESS POWER BASE KNOWLEDGE--IDEOLOGY

SEERS (C3I WAR) CULTURAL WAR NATURAL LOW TECH STEALTH, BRUTES RANDOM (LIC) TARGETING TERRORISM LOW TECH

SEERS IDEO - (JIHAD) STEALTH, MASS TARGETING 12 FAILING OVERALL A-/B+ OBVIOUS MILITARY WE DO WELL ENOUGH CRIME AND TERROR WE DO BADLY

C-/D+ SIQ CIVILIAN CYBERSPACE WE HAVE DECADES TO GO IDEOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT WE DONT DO AT ALL D-/F+ 13 LEVELS OF ANALYSIS STRATEGIC Integrated Application Military

Sustainability Geographic Location Civil Allies OPERATIONA L Selection of Time and Place Military Availability Geographic Resources Civil Stability TACTICAL Application of Finite Resources Military Reliability Geographic Terrain TECHNICAL

Isolated Capabilities Civil Psychology Military Lethality Geographic Atmosphere Civil Infrastructure Over time and space Channels & Borders Of strategic value Quantities & Distribution Internally available for us Volatility of sectors Training & Maintenance Mobility implications Cohesion & Effectiven Military Systems One by One Climate Manipulation Civil Power, Transport,

Communications, 14 & Finance FAILING IN DETAIL Military Sustainability Geographic Location Civil Allies F- STRATEGIC: What to Build D- OPERATIONAL: When to Fight Military Availability Geographic Resources

Civil Stability C- TACTICAL: What to Use Military Reliability Geographic Terrain B- TECHNICAL: How to Use It Civil Psychology Military Lethality Geographic Atmosphere Civil Infrastructure 15 MIXED REPORTS

Allen Dulles (DCI): 80% Gordon Oehler (D/NPC): 80% Ward Elcock (DG/CSIS): 80% Joe Markowitz (D/COSPO): 40% 16 COSTS OF SECRECY CLIENT ACCESS: too much, too late, too secret--doesnt get due attention TRANSACTION COSTS: 10-100X OSINT OPPORTUNITY COSTS: classification of system deficiencies gives original contractors a lifetime system monopoly FUNCTIONAL COSTS: non-interoperability, operational disconnects 17 PURPOSES OF SECRECY Everybody whos a real practitioner, and Im sure youre not all nave in this regard, realizes that there are two uses to which security classification is put: the legitimate desire to protect secrets, and protection of bureaucratic turf. As a practitioner of the real world,

its about 90 bureaucratic turf; 10 legitimate secrets as far as Im concerned. Rodney B. McDaniel Executive Secretary, National Security Council Senior Director, (White House) Crisis Management Center 18 VALUATION METRICS I TIMING: Is it good enough NOW CONTEXT: Is it good enough over-all, that is, does it provide a robust contextual understanding or is it a tid-bit in isolation? CONTENT: Is it good enough to improve the decision at hand? Can I share it? 19 VALUATION METRICS II RETURN ON EXPOSURE: Does this information, openly available, attract other information that is equally useful? (10X) INCLUSIVENESS: Does this information, openly available, reach those who have a need to know that would not otherwise

have been included in distribution? (20%) 20 OSINT AND REALITY I If it is 85% accurate, on time, and I can share it, this is a lot more useful to me than a compendium of Top Secret Codeword material that is too much, too late, and needs a safe and three security officers to move it around the battlefield. U.S. Navy Wing Commander Leader of First Flight Over Baghdad Speaking at TIG-92, Naval War College 21 OSINT AND REALITY II Post-Cold War political-military issues tend to arise in lower Tier (per PDD-35) nations where U.S. classified capabilities are least applicable or largely unavailable. Warning of these largely Third World crises has not required classified collection. Approach and resolution has required increased reliance on international organizations and non-traditional coalition partners with whom information must be shared and who

are not cleared for sensitive sources & methods. 22 THE BURUNDI EXERCISE COMMISSION ON INTELLIGENCE (USA) ONE MAN, ONE ROLODEX, ONE DAY Flag/CEO POL-MIL Briefs (Oxford Analytica) Journalists on the Ground (LEXIS-NEXIS) World-class academics (Inst. Sci. Info.) 1:100,000 combat charts (Soviets via Eastview) Tribal OOB and historical summary (Janes) 1:50,000 combat imagery (SPOT Image) 23 OPEN SOURCE MARKETPLACE SOURCES

SOFTWARE SERVICES Current Awareness Internet Tools Online Search & Retrieval (e.g. Individual Inc.) (e.g. NetOwl, Copernicus) (e.g. NERAC, Burwell Enterprises) Current Contents Data Entry Tools Media Monitoring (e.g. ISI CC Online)

(e.g. Vista, BBN, SRA) (e.g. FBIS via NTIS, BBC) Directories of Experts Data Retrieval Tools Document Retrieval (e.g. Gale Research, TELTECH) (e.g. RetrievalWare, Calspan) (e.g. ISI Genuine Document) Conference Proceedings Automated Abstracting Human Abstracting (e.g. British Library, CISTI)

(e.g. NetOwl, DR-LINK) (e.g. NFAIS Members) Commercial Online Sources Automated Translation Telephone Surveys (e.g. LN, DIALOG, STN, ORBIT) (e.g. SYSTRAN, SRA NTIS-JV) (e.g. Risa Sacks Associates) Risk Assessment Reports Data Mining & Visualization Private Investigations (e.g. Forecast, Political Risk)

(e.g. i2, MEMEX, Visible Decisions) (e.g. Cognos, Pinkertons, Parvus) Maps & Charts Market Research (e.g. East View Publications) Desktop Publishing & Communications Tools Commercial Imagery Electronic Security Tools Strategic Forecasting (e.g. SPOT, Radarsat, Autometric) (e.g. SSI, PGP, IBM Cryptolopes) (e.g. Oxford Analytica)

(e.g. SIS, Fuld, Kirk Tyson) 24 CURRENT AWARENESS BASICS DOW JONES INTERACTIVE (Media, BBC) DIALOG (Periodicals, Books, Conferences) BRITISH LIBRARY (Conference Papers) World News Connection (FBIS) COPERNICUS (Internet Profiles) LEXIS-NEXIS (Legal/Criminal/Personality) 25 GEOSPACIAL SHORTFALLS AFRICA

ASIA & PACIFIC EUROPE & MED WESTERN HEMISPHERE Algeria Bangladesh Greece Argentina Angola China Turkey Bolivia Djibouti

Indonesia Brazil Ethiopia Kazakhstan Colombia Ghana Kyrgystan Ecuador Kenya Malaysia Grenada Liberia

Myanmar Jamaica Madagascar New Caledonia Mexico Mozambique Papua New Guinea Paraguay Namibia Russia Peru South Africa

Sri Lanka Suriname Sudan Viet-Nam Uraguay Uganda 4 Key Island Groups Venezuela For each of the above countries, less than 25% available in 1:50,000 form, generally old data. 26 MAPS & CHARTS Formerly classified Soviet maps Some 1:50, global 1:100 coverage Contour lines you can hide in. Digital and printed, very low cost

Topographic, Geological, Nautical Gazetteers, Indexes, Translations They got the cable car right. < www.cartographic.com > 27 COMMERCIAL IMAGERY 10 meter imagery is 1:50,000 level and can provide contour lines. Synoptic coverage and two-day revisit available globally on 24 hours notice. Meets critical needs for creating maps, precision targeting, and mission rehearsal. 28 SOFTWARE FUNCTIONALITIES

Monitor, alert Search, browse, gist Cluster, weight, summarize Translate Index, extract, stuff Query, view, structure Visualize, catalogue Facilitate, inspire 29 DATA VISUALIZATION Analysts Notebook -- Link Analysis -- 30 DATA EXPLOITATION SEARCHING True Total Content Access Flexible Retrieval

Dynamic Updating Significantly Reduced Storage In-Built Security RETRIEVAL: Boolean Synonym Sound-Ex Garbled Searching EXPLOITATION : Ranking Clustering Feedback Analysis 31 DATA-ORIENTED SERVICES Online Searchers Source-centric/each system unique Subject-matter competence/learning curve Foreign language competence/full access Document Retrieval Copyright Compliance

Digitization 32 HUMAN-ORIENTED SERVICES Human Collection Specialists Telephone Surveys Private Investigations Market Research Human Processing Specialists Commercial Imagery, Maps, Visualization Data Warehouses, Multi-Source Processing Human Citation Analysis: World Mind Map 33 INFORMATION BROKERS Highly recommended Local knowledge Indexed by location, subject-matter, and foreign language skill www.burwellinc.com

34 GEOSPACIAL VISUALIZATION 1M 10M 20M 2M 30M 5M 1M 2M 5M 10M Ikonos KVR-1000 IRS-1C/D in 3D SPOT Image

8-100M 30M RADARSAT LANDSAT 35 CITATION ANALYSIS KOBAYASHI Y 87 MASTRAGO A 63 TILAK BV 92 36 OSINT ISSUE AREAS Operational Security Understand requirement in all-source context Conceal/protect client identity and interest Copyright Compliance Get used to it

Foreign Language Coverage Source Validation OSINT assures authority, currency, confidence 37 OSINT RULES OF THE GAME 80% of what you need is not online 50% of that has not been published at all 60% of what you need is not in English 90% of the maps you need do not exist but commercial imagery can address overnight 80% of the information is in private sector must leverage distributed private knowledge 38 INTERNET REALITY I (BAD) COSPO (USA) Survey: roughly 1% of Internet is real content, roughly 50 great sites, 500 good sites--the rest is pornography and opinion Internet is a cream puff in comparison to the kind of rich content/value added represented by commercial online services with editors/filters

MCIA/Other Experience: Internet devours analysts--they get lost or they get addicted, either way their productivity is cut in half 39 INTERNET REALITY II (GOOD) Internet is exquisite as a collaborative work environment, and for information sharing Internet has its uses (see OSINT HANDBOOK) Indications & Warning (Tiananmen, Coup vs Gorby) Cultural Context (Bosnia, Islam, Indians in Mexico) Basic Research (card catalogues, lists, web sites) Science & Technology Collection (surprisingly good) Spotting & Assessment (trolling for potential agents) Internet will explode over time--early days yet 40

OSINT IS A PROCESS DISCOVERY--Know Who Knows Just enough from just the right mix of sources DISCRIMINATION--Know Whats What Rapid source evaluation and data validation DISTILLATION--Know Whats Hot Answer the right question, in the right way DELIVERY--Know Whos Who Its not delivered until right person understands 41 INTEGRATED OSINT CONCEPT Internet Stream Q A Commercial Online Feeds Commercial

Maps & Images DIRECT ACCESS: OSS-SRA TOOLKIT WITH TAILORED SOURCE ACCESS MEDIATED ACCESS: OSS EXPERTS WITH PROPRIETARY SOURCE METADATABASE CLIENT Offline Stream (Gray Literature) Human Experts On Demand PROCESSING TOOLKIT PLUS OSS EXPERT ANALYSTS PRODUCTION TOOLKIT PLUS OSS

EXPERT ANALYSTS FEEDBACK LOOP OSS INTEGRATED ONE-STOP SHOPPING PROCESS Call Center -- Multi-Level Security -- Umbrella for Unified Billing 42 COLLECTION MANAGEMENT I TIP-OFF Wires, Janes help more than they know TARGETING/CONSERVATION Narrow the field for clandestine/covert assets CONTEXT/VALIDATION Ideal for double-checking human assets/story COVER Protects classified sources & methods 43

COLLECTION MANAGEMENT II Do not send a spy where a schoolboy can go. The problem with spies is they only know secrets. ALL-SOURCE ANALYSIS IMINT HUMINT SIGINT MASINT OPEN SOURCE INTELLIGENCE OPEN SOURCE INFORMATION 44 CM III/ALL-SOURCE ANALYSIS I OLD LINEAR PARADIGM NEW DIAMOND PARADIGM

Customer Customer Analyst Analyst Collector Collector Source Source ACME OF SKILL IN 21ST CENTURY: Putting Customer with a Question in Touch with Source Able to Create New Tailored Knowledge in Real Time45 ALL-SOURCE ANALYSIS II All-Source Analysts Role Must Change

Manage Network of Overt Sources Manage Resources to Fund Overt Sources Manage Classified Collection in Context Manage Clients Incoming Open Sources Manage Clients Needs for Open Intelligence Myopic Introverts Need Not Apply. 46 ALL-SOURCE ANALYSIS III STRATEGIC Integrated Application Military Sustainability Geographic Location Civil Allies OPERATIONA L Selection of

Time and Place Military Availability Geographic Resources Civil Stability TACTICAL Application of Finite Resources Military Reliability Geographic Terrain TECHNICAL Isolated Capabilities Civil Psychology Military Lethality Geographic

Atmosphere Civil Infrastructure Over time and space Channels & Borders Of strategic value Quantities & Distribution Internally available for us Volatility of sectors Training & Maintenance Mobility implications Cohesion & Effectiven Military Systems One by One Climate Manipulation Civil Power, Transport, Communications, 47 & Finance THREAT ANALYSIS LIBYAN TANK EXAMPLE (1992)

Technical Level (Lethality): VERY HIGH Tactical Level (Reliability): LOW Operational Level (Availability): MEDIUM Strategic Level (Sustainability): LOW We can no longer afford worst-case systems acquisition (and such systems are largely useless against 3 of 4 modern day threats) 48 STRATEGIC GENERALIZATIONS Port utility

Half Cross-country mobility Zip Bridge loading limitations 30T Intervisibility <900M Aviation temperature averages HOT Naval gunfire challenges 5 dies Language requirements Heavy 49 COALITION OPERATIONS I the concept of UN intelligence promises to turn traditional principles on their heads. Intelligence will have to be based on information that is collected primarily by overt means, that is by methods that do not threaten the target state or group and do not compromise the integrity or impartiality of the UN. Hugh Smith as cited by Sir David Ramsbotham 50 COALITION OPERATIONS II Assure minimal common appreciation of situation including terrain and civil factors

Enable information-sharing at unclassified level across national and civil-military lines Significantly enhance information integration within own forces Protect sensitive sources & methods 51 COALITION OPERATIONS III JOINT OSINT CELL 52 COALITION OPERATIONS IV OSINT NET G-2 PROVOST MARSHAL COMBAT ENGINEERS G-3

PSYOP CINC CIVIL AFFAIRS PAO POLAD 53 OSINT CELL I Functions should include Current awareness briefs/tip-off bundles Rapid response reference desk Primary research Strategic forecasting

OSINT is a starting point for both the intelligence producer and the consumer 54 OSINT CELL II Click for full text MEXICAN INSURGENCY Wednesday, 3 September 1997 Mass Media Stories (Commercial Online Services, Edited Content) 01 02 03 Rough translation optional 02 03 Abstract may be

online; copy can be ordered via email. CHIAPAS INSURGENCY CONTINUES Associated Press 1500 Words, The Chiapas Insurgency continues to escalate, with 13 Mexican soldiers CHIAPAS LEADERSHIP VISITS GENEVA Los Angeles Times 1631 Words, The leaders of the Chiapas insurgencies YUKATAN KIDNAPPING OF U.S. BUSINESSMAN El Tiempo, 764 Words, Ayer en el sur de Mejico, un empresario Norte Americano fue sequestrado por Journals (Peer Reviewed Journals, Mostly Off-Line) 01 02 03 Click for full list in section EXPAND MOST RELEVANT NEW ARTICLE

A Comparative Approach To Latin American Revolutions (Wickham-Crowley, INT J COMP, July 19 MOST HEAVILY CITED RECENT ARTICLE Environmental Scarcity and Violent Conflict: The Case of Chiapas, Mexico (Howard, Philip and MOST RELEVANT NEW FOREIGN LANGUAGE ARTICLE Tierra, Pobreza, y Los Indios: La Situacion Revolucionaria en Mejico (Gonzalez, Juan Fernando, Internet (Caution: Content Not Subject To Editorial Review) 01 EXPAND NEW SITE MATCHING PROFILE, EZLN INCREASED ACTIVITY, OVER 1000 HITS YESTERDAY New Major Document, ChiapasEl Pueblo Adelante! (14 pages) Documents can be provided; sites are pointers for client to access. EXPAND Number of lines per entry can be changed

55 OSINT CELL III REQUIREMENTS OFFICER/ COLLECTION MANAGER INTERNET SPECIALIST PRIMARY RESEARCH SPECIALIST COMMERCIAL ONLINE SPECIALIST EXTERNAL SERVICES SPECIALIST EDITOR/ANALYST PRESENTATION MANAGER 56 OSINT CELL IV

Must be national in approach Centralized coordination Decentralized processing Problems will persist Security, funding, cultural barriers Training & education vacuum Concepts & doctrine vacuum Foreign language inadequacies 57 OSINT BUDGET (GENERIC) Bottom line: 1% of OPS or 5% of INTEL budget Recommended national defense OSINT allocations (%): Commercial Imagery Acquisition JOINT VISION Ground Stations NATO/Regional OSINT Architecture Joint, Service, and Command OSINT Cells Defense OSINT Training Program

Yr Defense Internet Seeding Program Yr OSINT Analysts at Embassies with Funds Yr OSINT Direct Support Program Yr Contingency/Crisis OSINT Surge Program Yr .166/Yr .033/Yr UN/ .066/Yr .100/Yr .016/ .016/ .033/ .550/ .016/ 58 OSINT BUDGET (USA) Bottom line: 1% of OPS or 5% of INTEL budget Recommended national defense OSINT allocations (USA)*:

Commercial Imagery Acquisition 250M/Yr JOINT VISION Ground Stations ([email protected]$5M) 50M/Yr UN/NATO/Regional OSINT Architecture 100M/Yr Joint, Service, and Command OSINT Cells ([email protected]$10M) 150M/Yr Defense OSINT Training Program 25M/Yr Defense Internet Seeding Program 25M/Yr OSINT Analysts at Embassies with Funds ([email protected]$500K) 50M/Yr OSINT Direct Support Program 825M/Yr Contingency/Crisis OSINT Surge Program 25M/Yr * Supports 50,000 SI/TK analysts and 250,000 action officers 59 CONCLUSION MILITARY CANT DO IT ALONE Need Resources from Business, Academia Need to Integrate Needs of Policy, Police MILITARY CAN TAKE THE LEAD Has the Discipline and Command Structure Has the Budget Flexibility Has Best Trans-National Relationships

60 IO BIG PICTURE All-Source Intelligence (Spies, Satellites, and Secrets) OSINT as Input OSINT as Output INFORMATIO N OPERATIONS Information Information Warfare Peacekeeping Dont send a bullet where a byte will do. 61 VIRTUAL GLOBAL INTELLIGENCE

Intelligenc e Communit y Government Knowledge National Distributed Knowledge Global Distributed Knowledge 1B 10B 100B 1 TRILLION 62 STRIKING A NEW BALANCE TECHNICAL $$ LIFERS HUMINT $$ MID-CAREER

HIRES TS SECRET OSINT $$ 1-179 DAY/YR TEMPORARY EXPERTS IC MANNING IC DOLLARS UNCLASSIFIED IC PRODUCTION 63 Four Threats, Four Defense Forms SOLIC/LEA UNCONVENTIONAL LOW INTENSITY CONFLICT AND GANG

WARFARE HIC/MRC STRATEGIC NUCLEAR AND CONVENTIONAL MILITARY WAR INFOWAR/ ECONOMIC ESPIONAGE IW/ECON INFORMATION WAR/ CRIME & ECONOMIC ESPIONAGE PROLIFERATION/ MIGRATION JIHAD/ GREENPEACE TERRORISM/ GLOBAL CRIME MINDWAR

RELIGIOUS, POLITICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL REFUGEES 64 INFORMATION STRATEGY Military must work with rest of Nation Four elements of information strategy: 1) Connectivity 2) Content access & validation nodes 3) Coordination of standards & investments 4) C4 security across the board OSINT, at root, is about creating a smart nation within which smart organizations can thrive and be effective at their mission--OSINT is the enabling net. OSINT impacts national security and competitiveness. 65 OSINT BUILDING BLOCKS Policy Intelligence Law Enforcement Intelligence

Coalition Intelligence Military Intelligence Business Intelligence/OSINT Mass & Niche Media Intelligence Citizen Intelligence--Intelligence Minuteman Basic, Advanced, & Corporate Education Robert Steele, OSS NOTICES 31 May 1995, with Alvin Toffler; the concept of Intelligence Minuteman was developed by Alessandro Politi at OSS 92, and independently put forth and enhanced by Anthony Fedanzo in OSS READER. 66 NEW GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS DOCTRINE National Economic Council Civilian Leaders Convention

al Military (High-Tech) Transnationa Information l and Driven Domestic Special Government Law Operations Operations Enforcement (Low-Tech) Operations Diplomatic and Other Information Information Peacekeeping Warfare Corps National Electronic Security Operations 67

& Counterintelligence REFERENCES I Open Source Intelligence: Private Sector Capabilities to Support DoD Policy, Acquisitions, and Operations" (Defense Daily Network, 4 March 1998) at Open Source Intelligence: HANDBOOK (Joint Military Intelligence Training Center, October 1996) at Open Source Intelligence: READER (OSS Inc., 1997) at Concept Paper: Creating a Bare Bones Capability for Open Source Support to Defense Intelligence Analysts (OSS Inc., 18 August 1997) at Open Source Intelligence: An Examination of Its Exploitation in the Defense Intelligence Community (Major Robert M. Simmons, Joint Military Intelligence College, August 1995) 68 REFERENCES II Virtual Intelligence: Conflict Resolution and Conflict Avoidance Through Information Peacekeeping, Proceedings of the Virtual Diplomacy Conference of 1-2 April 1997 in Washington, D.C. (U.S. Institute of Peace) at Intelligence and Counterintelligence: Proposed Program for the 21 st Century

(OSS Inc., 14 April 1997 at ) Information Peacekeeping: The Purest Form of War in CYBERWAR: Myths, Mysteries, and Realities (AFCEA, 1998) at Other references including self-study OSINT lessons at . 69 OSINT TRAINING PacInfo 98 OSINT and Complex Peacekeeping Ops 7-9 December 1998, Monterey, California EuroIntel 99 OSINT and Terrorism, Crime, & Proliferation 9-11 March 1999, The Hague, The Netherlands OSS 99 OSINT Sources & Methods 24-26 May 1999, Washington, D.C. 70 A LITTLE FUN Baaaa*

*Sheep Liethe official motto (and button) of CIA Mid-Career Course 101 71

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