Copyright 2008 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Objectives Describe perception in terms of the social information processing model Give examples of how social perception affects organizational behavior Explain how individuals formulate causal attributions Discuss why diversity is important in todays organizations
Summarize organizational practices for managing diversity 2-3 Social Perception: A Social Information Processing Model Figure 4-1 2-4
Figure 2-1 A Social Information Processing Model of Perception Perception the process of interpreting ones environment. 2-5 A Social Information Processing
Model of Perception Social perception involves a four-stage information processing sequence 1. Selective attention/comprehension 2. Encoding and simplification 3. Storage and retention 4. Retrieval and response 2-6 Stage 1: Selective
Attention/Comprehension Attention being consciously aware of something or someone Salient something that stands out from context 2-7 Stage 2: Encoding and
Simplification Cognitive categories mental depositories for storing information Schema mental picture of an event or object 2-8 Question? What is a belief about the characteristics of
a group? A. Consensus B. Stereotype C. Personality D. Trait 2-9 Stage 2: Encoding and Simplification Stereotype
belief about the characteristics of a group Not always negative May or may not be accurate 2-10 Stage 2: Encoding and Simplification Stereotypes
Can lead to poor decisions Can create barriers for older individuals, people of color, and people with disabilities Can undermine loyalty and job satisfaction 2-11 Stereotyping Process 1. Categorize people into groups according to various criteria 2. Infer that all people within a category
possess the same traits 3. Form expectations of others and interpret their behavior according to our stereotypes 2-12 Stereotyping Process 4. Stereotypes are maintained by:
2-13 Overestimating the frequency of stereotypic behavior exhibited by others Incorrectly explaining expected and unexpected behaviors Differentiating minority individuals from oneself Common Perceptual Errors
2-14 Stage 3: Storage and Retention Event memory information about both specific and general events Semantic memory general knowledge about the world, mental dictionary of concepts
Person memory 2-15 information about a single individual or groups of people Stage 4: Retrieval and Response Decisions are based: On the process of drawing on, interpreting, and integrating categorical information
stored in long-term memory Retrieving a summary judgment that was already made 2-16 Cultural Influences: Perceptions of Time Monochronic time preference for doing one thing at a time because time is limited, precisely
segmented, and schedule driven Polychronic time preference for doing more than one thing at a time because time is flexible and multidimensional 2-17 Managerial Implications: Hiring Interviewers make hiring decisions based on their impression of how an applicant
fits the perceived requirements of a job Inaccurate impressions in either direction produce poor hiring decisions 2-18 Managerial Implications: Performance Appraisal Important for managers to accurately identify the behavioral characteristics and
results indicative of good performance Characteristics serve as the benchmarks for evaluating employee performance 2-19 Managerial Implications: Leadership Good leaders exhibit the following behaviors:
2-20 Assigning specific tasks to group members Telling others they had done well Setting specific goals for the group Letting other group members make decisions Trying to get the group to work as a team Maintaining definite standards of performance Managerial Implications:
Leadership Poor leaders exhibit the following behaviors: 2-21 Telling others they had performed poorly Insisting on having their own way Doing things without explaining themselves Expressing worry over the group members suggestions
Frequently changing plans Letting the details of the task become overwhelming Causal Attributions Causal Attributions suspected or inferred causes of behavior 2-22
Kelleys Model of Attribution Internal factors personal characteristics that cause behavior External factors environmental characteristics that cause behavior 2-23 Question?
What involves comparing a persons behavior on one task with the behavior from other tasks? A. Consensus B. Distinctiveness C. Consistency D. Personality 2-24 Kelleys Model of Attribution Consensus
involves a comparison of an individuals behavior with that of his peers. Distinctiveness involves comparing a persons behavior on one task with the behavior from other tasks. Consistency 2-25
determined by judging if the individuals performance on a given task is consistent over time. Kelleys Model of Attribution Consensus relates to other people Distinctiveness relates to other tasks Consistency relates to time 2-26
Attributional Tendencies Fundamental attribution bias ignoring environment factors that affect behavior Self-serving bias taking more personal responsibility for success than failure 2-27
Managerial Implications Managers tend to disproportionately attribute behavior to internal causes Attributional biases may lead to inappropriate managerial actions An employees attributions for his own performance have dramatic effects on subsequent motivation, performance, and self-esteem 2-28
Defining and Managing Diversity Diversity the host of individual differences that make people different from and similar to each other 2-29 Four Layers of Diversity 2-30
Figure 2-2 Defining and Managing Diversity Affirmative action voluntary and involuntary efforts to achieve equality of opportunity for everyone Managing diversity creating organizational changes that enable all people to perform up to their maximum
potential 2-31 Diversity in the Workforce 1. Women and minorities are experiencing a glass ceiling 2. Racial groups are encountering perceived discrimination 3. There is a mismatch between workers educational attainment and
occupational requirements 4. The workforce is aging 2-32 Diversity in the Workforce Glass ceiling invisible barrier blocking women and minorities from top management positions
2-33 Glass Ceiling See an article on Breaking the Glass Ceiling by Wirth 2-34 Diversity in the Workforce
Underemployment the result of taking a job that requires less education, training, or skills than possessed by a worker 2-35 Impact of Diversity on Organizations 2-36
Two recommendations to help organizations adapt to an aging workforce: 1. Firms should help employees deal with personal issues associated with eldercare 2. Employers need to make a concerted effort to keep older workers engaged and committed and their skills current
Barriers and Challenges 1. 2. 3. 4. Inaccurate stereotypes and prejudice Ethnocentrism Poor career planning An unsupportive and hostile working environment for diverse employees
5. Lack of political savvy on the part of diverse employees 2-37 Barriers and Challenges 6. Difficulty in balancing career and family issues 7. Fears of reverse discrimination 8. Diversity is not seen as an organizational priority
9. The need to revamp the organizations performance appraisal and reward system 10. Resistance to change 2-38 Specific Diversity Initiatives Accountability practices focus on treating diverse employees fairly Development practices focus on preparing diverse employees for
greater responsibility and advancement Recruitment practices attempts to attract qualified, diverse employees at all levels 2-39
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