Organizational Design, Diagnosis, and Development

Organizational Design, Diagnosis, and Development

Organizational Design, Diagnosis, and Development Session 13 Organizational Diagnosis, III Survey Feedback & Design of Interventions Objectives To understand how data collection and feedback can be used to change behavior in organizations

To examine the data collection feedback cycle To consider steps in feed back data To survey various interventions and data needed for their design MEASUREMENT GENERATES ENERGY

Focuses energy on area of data collection Sanctions and rewards are implied Evaluation enhances performance Explicit rewards may be offered Measurement can be counter productive leads to inaccurate or no information leads to misdirected energy FEEDBACK

Defined -- information regarding actual performance or the results of the activities of a system. Enables correction of errors Not automatic in a social system OD function can facilitate the feedback process HOW DATA COLLECTION EFFECTS BEHAVIOR data collection

perceived accuracy power groups involvement motivation perceptions of data productive

behavior unproductive behavior FEEDBACK MODEL Input Process

Feedback Output MOTIVATING EFFECTS OF FEEDBACK Through disconfirmation Through intrinsic reward expectations Through external reward expectations

Through cueing Through learning IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE Powerful groups need to be included and employees need to perceive this. Data must not be used in a punitive fashion Perception of data must be as accurate and valid

Feedback has to be used in a constructive fashion DATA COLLECTION FEEDBACK CYCLE

Planning to use data Collecting data Analyzing data Feeding back data Following - up EFFECTIVE FEEDBACK

Relevant Understandable Descriptive Verifiable Limited Controllable Comparative

FEEDBACK MEETINGS Process issues Validating data Accepting responsibility Problem solving

APPROACHES TO FEEDBACK MEETINGS Family group Survey guided

Subordinate group Peer group Intergroup EFFECTIVE INTERVENTIONS

Readiness for change Capability for change Cultural context Abilities of the change agent HISTORICAL DATA Background of the organization Immediate circumstances of the problem STRUCTURAL DATA

Formal organization (chart, job descriptions Goals Tasks Technology & environment Financial & personnel information Policies & procedures FUNCTIONAL DATA Communication systems Organizational knowledge -- how do

you get it Organizational culture & climate Reward systems ATTITUDINAL DATA

Leadership Coworkers Customers Work & Organization Competition Suppliers Host community Regulatory bodies

RELATIONAL DATA Time -- view of past, present, future Meaning of work Authority & power Key people & groups

STRATEGIC INTERVENTIONS Necessary data historic structural functional attitudinal relational TECHNO-STRUCTURAL

INTERVENTIONS Necessary data historic structural functional HUMAN RESOURCE INTERVENTIONS Necessary data functional attitudinal

relational HUMAN PROCESS INTERVENTIONS Necessary data attitudinal functional relational Backwards & Forwards Summing up - Todays session reviewed how

to use survey feedback to influence change and the techniques of collecting and feeding back survey data. As a preview for considering interventions, we examined appropriate data for varying types of interventions. Looking ahead - Next time we consider the management of change.

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