Organs: The leaf

Organs: The leaf

Organs: The leaf Organs and systems Cells differentiate and group together to form tissues. Tissues group together according to function to form organs. Organs group together to form organ systems.

Organ systems group together to form organisms. In plants Organs are: Roots Stems Leaves

Flowers & fruits (only some) Functions Main functions of the leaves: Photosynthesis Gaseous exchange (O2 andCO2) stomata

Transpiration (H2O) stomata External structure Leaf blades called the lamina. Leaf stalk called the petiole (absent in sessile leaves). Monocots sessile Dicots not sessile

Within the angle at which leaves are attached, auxiliary (Lateral) buds are formed The lamina is made up of: Apex Leaf base

Margin may be of many types Midrib (mid-vein) X? Homework Draw Fig 1.5.4 page 123 adding details for a section from Fig 1.5.5 page 124

Add relevant labels and functions Draw on an entire pg A4 Internal structure If we examine a cross section of a dicot leaf, we notice 3 sections: Upper and lower epidermis Mesophyll tissues between epidermal

layers Conducting tissues (xylem & phloem) in veins within mesophyll tissues Epidermis Upper and lower epidermis Contain stomata surrounded by guard cells Mesophyll

tissue: Palisade tissue dorsal (top) Spongy tissue ventral (bottom) Conducting tissue: Within the veins Xylem

Phloem Internal structure of leaf Epidermis: (upper and lower) Made up of epidermal cells and guard cells which are scattered in large number on the lower epidermis and few

in number on lower epidermis. Guard cells are bean shaped cells which contain chloroplasts. They protect the opening that they surround, known as the stoma/stomata. Internal structure of leaf Mesophyll tissues:

The tissues between two epidermal layers Divided into two sections: Palisade mesophyll Spongy mesophyll Palisade mesophyll: Elongated cells Thin walled Closely packed Many chloroplasts Spongy mesophyll:

Thin walled Contain fewer chloroplasts Attached to lower epidermis Irregularly shaped Homework

Act 1.5.1 Pg 128-129 No 1-5 only Internal structure of leaf Conducting tissues: Xylem:

Made up of four types of cells: Xylem vessels Xylem tracheids Xylem sclerenchyma Xylem paranchyma Phloem: also made up of four types of cells: Sieve tubes Companion cells Phloem sclerenchyma Phloem paranchyma

Xylem Xylem sclerenchyma and xylem paranchyma are similar to ordinary sclerenchyma and paranchyma found in roots, stems and leaves. xylem vessels are dead cells. They have the following structure: Long & cylindrical Cross walls are perforated or absent

No cell contents Form a continuous tube from root to leaf Thick walls lignin laid down on primary wall to form secondary wall in various patterns: annular, spiral, scalariform, pitted Xylem trachieds: Have the following structure: Similar to xylem vessels

Ends are tapered Cross walls always present and are perforated Xylem vessels and trachieds have two main functions: Transport of water and minerals Strength and support Phloem

Phloem sclerenchyma and phloem paranchyma are similar to ordianry sclerenchyma and paranchyma found in roots, stems and leaves. Sieve tubes are living cells They have the following structure: Long, cylindrical Cross walls are perforated to form sieve plates Thin walled Contain strands of cytoplasm that run through the sieve plates

Companion cells: Structure: Thin walled Cross walls present Each cell contains well defined nucleus Phloem

has the following functions: Sieve tubes transport manufactured food A sieve Adaptations of the leaf for its functions ADAPTATIONS FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS Adaptations for Light

Flattened Large surface Transparent cuticle light entry Large number of chloroplasts in the palisade cells more photosynthesis Palisade arrangement more fit, length deeper penetration of light and location easy access to light Adaptations for absorption of CO2

Thin walls of palisade and spongy mesophyll easy absorption Large air spaces between spongy mesophyll cells rapid diffusion of gases Presence of stomata allows entry of CO2 Adaptations of the leaf for its functions Adaptations

for transport of water and manufactured food: Presence of xylem from roots up to the leaves Presence of phloem from leaves to rest of the plant Adaptations for gaseous exchange (same as for CO2):

Presence of stomata to allow for rapid diffusion Large air spaces between spongy mesophyll Thin walls of mesophyll (palisade and spongy) cells. Adaptations of the leaf for its functions Adaptations to cut down water loss

through transpiration: Waxy (hydrophobic) cuticle on upper surface Fewer stomata on upper surface (since its exposed to more heat/light) Stomata regulated by guard cells. Can close to stop water loss. Homework Activity

1.5.1 No 6.1-6.5 Page 128

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