Origins of Agriculture, Culture, & Civilization

Origins of Agriculture, Culture, & Civilization

The Earliest Humans Outcome: Rise of Civilization & Mesopotamia Constructive Response Questions 3. What are the characteristics that make up a civilization? 4. Describe the geography of Mesopotamia. What will we learn?

1. Villages grow into cities. 2. The 5 Characteristics that make up a civilization 3. Mesopotamia & Sumer Cornell Notes Lecture, reading/chapter/novel/article during class, power point, movies (if need to collect info.)

Name: ___________________________________ Topic:_______________________ Date: ____________________________ Unit: _________________ Day: ________ Questions/Main Ideas: Notes:

Summary: Rise of Civilization & Mesopotamia 1. Setting the Stage a. How did Agriculture change life for humans? i. Began dwelling in larger, more organized communities ii. Cities gradually grew iii. Economics began to matter

Rise of Civilization & Mesopotamia 2. Villages Grow into Cities a. Farming became easier due to advances in technology and domestication of animals b. Bigger harvests also resulted from better technology c. Fact: The more food you have in supply, the bigger the population that can be supported d. As cities grew, so did responsibilities ---> not everyone farmed

anymore e. The wheel and the sail allowed trade to occur over longer distances f. No currency yet g. Social Classes began to emerge h. Religion became more organized Rise of Civilization & Mesopotamia 3. How Civilization Develops

a. A Civilization is a complex culture with 5 characteristics i. Advanced Cities 1. Size alone does not distinguish a city from a village 2. Must be a center for trade Rise of Civilization & Mesopotamia ii. Specialized Workers 1.Specialization: the development of skills in a specific

kind of work 2.Artisans: skilled workers who make goods by hand Rise of Civilization & Mesopotamia iii. Complex Institutions 1.Institution: a long-lasting pattern of organization in a community 2. Ex: Government, religion, and the economy Rise of Civilization &

Mesopotamia iv. Record Keeping 1. Ex. Tax collecting, passage of laws, storage of grain 2. Around 3000 B.C. Sumerian scribes (professional record keepers) invented a writing system called cuneiform. 3.Cuneiform: wedge shaped point pressed into wet clay to make symbols. P. 21 Rise of Civilization &

Mesopotamia v. Advanced Technology 1. Ex: Ox drawn plows, potters wheel, using bronze 2. Melt copper and tin together = bronze (more durable and malleable) Ancient Mesopotamia/Sumer Friday 9/2 Objective: Describe Sumerian religious beliefs, social structure, and technology. Explain the influence of Sumer on later civilizations.

Warm-Up Question: How did the Nile shape the lives of the ancient Egyptians Agenda: PPT/Notes: Mesopotamia/Sumer Read: Hammurabis Code. Answer questions that follow. Map Activity Homework: Map Activity: Due Friday 9/9

DBQ Activity: Ancient Egypt: Due Tuesday 9/6 Goal Sheet, Unit 1 & 2: Due Tuesday 9/13 TEST, Unit 1 & 2: Due Tuesday 9/13 Mesopotamia Also known as The Fertile Crescent Why was the Fertile Crescent called the Crossroads of the World?

Mesopotamia/Sumer 4.Geography of Mesopotamia a. Located in modern day Iraq b. Rich land and curved shape led scholars to call it the Fertile Crescent c. Tigris and Euphrates Rivers run through region d. Rivers unpredictably flood yearly leaving thick layer of mineral rich silt e. Periods of no rain could cause desert conditions.

Solution: irrigation. f. No natural barriers in Mesopotamia for protection. Solution: they built walls g. Natural resources were scarce. Solution: trade networks were established. Sumer Mesopotamia/Sumer

5. Sumerians Create City-States/Religion a. The Sumerians exemplified the 5 characteristics of a civilization b. Sumerians developed city-states: city that functioned like an independent country c. Early government was controlled by temple priests d. Ziggurat was a place of worship and like a town hall e. In some cases, military leaders became full-time

rulers and passed powers to sons f. Dynasty: series of rulers from same family line g. Cultural Diffusion: ideas or products spread from one culture to another through conquest and trade Ziggurat Writing/Main achievements They developed the first system of writingcuneiform. Wedge-shaped symbols . Early writing consisted of pictographs-symbols of the object or what

they represented. Written on clay tablets. Mesopotamia/Sumer Culture/Social Structure/Religion 6. Sumerian a. Sumerians were polytheistic: belief in more than one god

b. When you died you went to the land of no return, a dismal and gloomy place c. Sumerians had social classes (see pyramid) d. Sumerian women had more rights than many later Civilizations Mesopotamia/Sumer Advanced Technology/Math/ Science 1. Ex: Ox drawn plows, potters wheel, sail, using bronze

2. Melt copper and tin together = bronze (more durable and malleable) 3. Developed a number system in base 60 (modern units for measuring time; 60 seconds = 1minute and 360 degrees of circle). Mesopotamia/Sumer f. Sargon of Akkad conquered Sumer in 2350 B.C. g. Sargon created the worlds first empire: the bringing together of several peoples or nations

under the control of one ruler. h. Babylonian ruler Hammurabi came up with Hammurabis Code i. Hammurabis Code: first written, uniform, set of laws engraved in stone to help unify diverse groups within his empire READ HAMMURABIS CODE

Hammurabis Code: Was it Just? Task: With a partner, talk through the two cases below and write down answers to the questions in your notes. In each case, you will consider justice in three ways: Is the outcome fair to the accused? Is the outcome fair to the victim? Is the outcome in the best interest of the general society? Case A: Eddie is caught shoplifting a cell phone from Radio Shack. Eddis is 15 years old. It is his first offense.

The police call his parents, and Eddie returns the phone. There will be no criminal record. ASK: Is it fair to Eddie? Is it fair to Radio Shack? Is it in the best interest of society? Case B: JD is caught shoplifting a cell phone from Radio Shack. JD is 19

years old. This will be his 3rd felony charge, all for shoplifting. Due to the Three Strikes Laws, his state requires that he serves a minimum of 10 years in prison with no chance at parole. ASK: Is it fair to JD? Is it fair to Radio Shack? Is it in the best interest of society?

Hammurabis Code: Was it Just? Property Laws Document D: 21: If a man has broken through the wall to rob a house, they shall put him to death and pierce him, or hang him in the hole in the wall which he has made. 23: If the robber is not caught, the man who has been robbed shall formally declare whatever he has lost before a god, and the city and mayor in whose territory or district the robbery has been committed shall replace for him whatever he has lost 48: If a man has borrowed money to plant his fields and a storm

has flooded his field or carried away the crop, in that year he does not have to his creditor. 53,54: If a man has opened his trench for irrigation an the waters have flooded his neighbors field, the man must restore the crop he has caused to be lost Hammurabis Code: Was it Just? Personal Injury Laws Document E: 196: If a man has knocked out the eye of a free man, his eye shall be knocked out.

199: If he has knocked out the eye of a slave he shall pay half his value. 209: If a man strikes the daughter of a free man and causes her to lose the fruit of her womb, he shall pay 10 shekels of silver. 213: If he has struck the slave-girl of a free man and causes her to lose the fruit of her womb, he shall pay 2 shekels of silver. 218: If a surgeon has operated with a bronze lancet on a free man for a serious injury, and has caused his death, his hands shall be cut off.

Rise of Civilization & Mesopotamia f. Hammurabis Code -What is the significance of have a written set of laws?

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