Origins of Islam - blogs

ORIGINS OF ISLAM 600s, city of Mecca - important stopping point for religious pilgrims, who visited a religious site dedicated to the worship of Abraham ORIGINS OF ISLAM Muhammad was born in Mecca

became a businessman married a wealthy woman named Khadijah

interested in religion & spent a lot of time in prayer and meditation ORIGINS OF ISLAM Muslim belief - one night while Muhammad was meditating, an angel appeared & told him that he was a chosen messenger of god, Allah

The Arabic word for god is Allah. ORIGINS OF ISLAM Muhammad began to teach that Allah was the only god. People who followed Muhammad were called Muslims & practiced the religion of Islam, meaning submission to Allah.

BASIC RELIGIOUS BELIEFS PAGE 267 The 5 Pillars: 1. Faith All Muslims make a testament of faith, that there is only one god, Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger. 2. Prayer Face to Mecca and pray 5 times each day. 3. Alms Give money to the poor. 4. Fasting Do not eat during daylight hours in the holy month of Ramadan.

5. Pilgrimage Travel to Mecca at least once in your life if you are physically and financially able. BASIC RELIGIOUS BELIEFS The Quran is the holy book of Islamic belief. Only the Arabic language is spoken in

Muslim prayer. ISLAMIC SPLIT In 656, a Muslim caliph named Uthman was murdered. His successor, Ali was also murdered. A family named the Umayyads came to power. They Moved the capital of the Islamic empire from Mecca, to Damascus.

ISLAMIC SPLIT A group of Muslims who did not like the rule of the Umayyad family broke away from them. This split Muslims into two groups: GROWTH OF THE ISLAMIC EMPIRE

Abu-Bakr became the caliph, or religious leader, of the Muslims after Muhammads death in 632. Abu-Bakr declared jihad (religious war), against people who did not follow Islam. Jihad used to expand the Islamic empire. A disciplined military & expert commanders aided the Islamic empire in

conquest. Muslims allowed all conquered people to retain religious freedom. GROWTH OF THE ISLAMIC EMPIRE

Abassids (Islamic group) came to power in 750 moved the capital of Islam to Baghdad (Iraq) developed a strong bureaucracy to help manage affairs of the empire had separate government departments for the treasury, the management of the military, & foreign affairs created taxes to help fund their empire TRADE ROUTES

Arabian Peninsula - crossroads between Africa, Asia, & Europe New capital at Baghdad had easy access to Mediterranean, Indian Oceans, & Silk Road trading route that connected Europe w/ China Arabian Peninsula used a common language, Arabic, & a common currency ISLAMIC SCHOLARS Muhammad believed strongly in the power for learning:

(Medicine) Ibn Sina began working as a doctor at age 18 & became one of Islams leading medical scholars. He wrote several books, the most famous of which are The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine (Geography) Ibn Battuta was a famous Muslim explorer. He traveled throughout the known world (farther even than Marco Polo). He recorded his journeys in his book Rihla (meaning voyage)

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