Our Genetic Code - Wilson's Web Page

Our Genetic Code - Wilson's Web Page

Our Genetic Code Genetic code It is the sequence of bases (code) that determines what

protein is made. A sequence of bases that code for a protein is called a gene. A gene can be a few hundred bases to more than 2 million

bases (portion of a DNA molecule) Genes Please add to your notes A gene is a short section of the DNA molecule that contains

the instructions to make a specific protein. An organisms genome is its complete set of genes The Human Genome Project Mapped three billion base pairs in the human genome

Aim to identify all the genes in the human genome To develop faster methods for sequencing DNA finished in 2001 The project involved scientists from 18 different countries

Karyotype A Karyotype is the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism. What is the importance of proteins?

Proteins are molecules that all the cells of the body need in order to work properly: Proteins determine the characteristics of the organism. Eg. Hair and eye colour. Some proteins carry out cell functions: enzymes, hormones

Other proteins are parts of cell structures: cell membrane. Humans have as many as 100 000 proteins. Where are proteins made? Proteins are made in the cytoplasm of the cell by ribosomes.

Ribosomes are made in the nucleolus and then move to the cytoplasm. How does the code become protein? Gene Expression: DNA Transcription and Translation

Video Amoeba Sisters Protein Synthesis https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h5mJbP23Buo

Gene Expression is the process of translating of our genetic code into protein. Occurs in two steps: Transcription and Translation Transcription

Proteins are made in the cytoplasm by ribosomes but DNA never leaves the nucleus. How does the message get to the cytoplasm? By a process called transcription.

DNA TRANSCRIPTION When a particular protein is needed, the section of DNA that codes for that protein (gene) is copied and taken out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm to the ribosomes. This process is called Transcription. Transcription is the first step in gene expression (creating a protein).

DNA Transcription: Copying the message in 3 steps 1. 2.

3. The section of DNA containing the gene of interest unwinds The message is copied by mRNA (messenger RNA) mRNA then leaves nucleus and carries the message to the ribosomes

in the cytoplasm. What is RNA? RNA is ribonucleic acid Like DNA, it is also a strand of nucleic acids

except: it is single-stranded, instead of thymine it uses Uracil to pair with adenine. Its sugar is ribose instead of deoxyribose

mRNA is called messenger RNA because it takes the copied message out to the ribosomes to make protein.

Video Amoeba Sisters RNA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Elo-zX1k8M Transcription: the process of copying the

message How does the message become a protein?

Translation is the process in which the sequence of bases on the RNA is read by ribosomes to build a protein. Translation is the second step in gene expression (protein formation). Genetic Code

The nitrogenous bases are arranged in groups of 3. The group of three bases is called a codon. Each codon codes for a specific amino acid Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Different sequences of amino acids form different proteins.

Translation Once the RNA is in the cytoplasm, a ribosome binds to the RNA and reads the sequence codons (3 bases). The ribosome moves down the RNA strand, adding an amino acid for

each corresponding codon, creating an amino acid chain. Homework CYU p47 # 8-15

Gene Expression DNA is in our chromosomes Recall that DNA exists as thread-like material called chromatin but condenses into visible chromosomes just before a cell is ready to

divide. Chromosomes are long, coiled strands of DNA molecules that contain all or part of an organisms genetic material. How is DNA related to

chromosomes? Chromosomes exist in pairs Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes When an organism reproduces, copies of its chromosomes (DNA) are transferred

to the offspring. Karyotype A Karyotype is the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism.

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