Islam Outcomes: The Rise of Islam & Beliefs of Islam Constructive Response Questions How was the development of Islam similar & different to Christianity? 2. Describe the core beliefs of a Muslim:
1. What will we learn? 1. 2. 3. Origin of Islam Core beliefs of Islam Connections to Judaism &
Christianity The Arabian Peninsula The Rise of Islam 1. Setting the Stage: The Arabian Peninsula
a. Connection to 3 Continents i. Africa, Asia, and Europe ii. Mostly desert with few oases for little agriculture iii. Desert inhabited by nomadic Arab herders The Rise of Islam b. Bedouins: Arab nomads organized into tribes and clans
i. Had ideals of courage & loyalty to the family ii. Possessed warrior skills iii. Would become part of Islamic way of life The Rise of Islam c. Mecca: City in Western Arabia (Modern day
Saudi Arabia) i. Kaaba: ancient shrine people came to worship at 1. Black stone- built by Abraham and son Ishmael 2. Contained 360 idols worshipped by many tribes The Kaaba
The Kaaba The Rise of Islam ii. Muhammad 1. Orphaned at age 6 and raised by grandfather and uncle 2. At age 25 Muhammad became a businessman and trader 3. Married Khadijah, a businesswoman
4. Life changes: While meditating in a cave, he is visited by angel Gabriel who proclaims to Muhammad to preach message that there is only one true god 5. Began to preach and spread Islam 6. Not seen as divine (having extra power) The Rise of Islam Islam:
Submission to will of Allah (god) Muslim: One who has submitted The Arabian Peninsula The Rise of Islam iii. Hijrah & Return to Mecca 1. in 622 AD, Mohammad and followers leave Mecca
for Medina and continue to spread Islam known as the Hijrah 2. Becomes year 1 for Muslims 3. First mosque established for Islam 4. 630 AD, Muhammad returns to Mecca and destroys the idols in the Kaaba 5. Kaaba becomes the most sacred site in Islam
6. Muhammad dies 2 years later at age of 62 Great Mosque in Mecca The 5 Pillars of Islam 2. Islam Grows and Expands a. Muhammad did not name a successor or instructed his
followers on how to chose one b. Tribal customs led to the election of Abu-Bakr, a loyal friend of Muhammad to be the successor c. Abu-Bakr became the first caliph or successor or deputy d. Later, disagreements over who should succeed caused a split in Islam i. Shia, or Shiites believe that the caliph needed to be a descendent of Muhammad
ii. Sunni Muslims acknowledge the first four caliphs as rightful successors of Muhammad even though they werent of same blood Beliefs of Islam 3. Five Pillars a. Faith: There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is
b. c. d. e. the messenger of Allah Prayer: Pray 5 times a day towards Mecca Alms: Give alms (money for the poor) Fasting: During holy month of Ramadan, Muslims fast between dawn and sunset
Pilgrimage: Must visit Mecca at one point in lifetime if capable. Known as the Hajj. Beliefs of Islam 4. The Quran a. Islamic holy text b. Allah is the source of authority
c. Written in Arabic, only true version Beliefs of Islam 5. Links to Judaism and Christianity Muslims, Christians, and Jews trace ancestry back to Abraham b. To Muslims, Allah is the same god that is worshipped in
Christianity and Judaism a. c. Quran is the word of Allah as revealed to Muhammad in the same way that Jews and Christians believe the Torah and the Gospels were revealed to Moses and the New Testament writers.
d. All three are people of the book due to their use of a holy book Constructive Response Questions How was the development of Islam similar & different to Christianity? 2. Describe the core beliefs of a
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