Selecting, Defining, and Measuring Behavior Week 2: Seeing is Believing Behavioral Assessment Comprehensive multi-method of data collection to identify and define behavioral targets for change Purposes of Behavioral Assessment Screening Defining problems and/or desired achievement criteria Pinpointing target behavior to be treated Monitoring Progress Follow up
Consider Social Significance of the Behavior Habilitation? Maximize Reinforcement & minimize Punishment Prerequisite to learning New behavior? Increase Access to learning new behavior? Facilitate Social Interaction? Getting rid of aggression, increasing compliments Social Significance Considerations Behavioral Cusp? Reading Pivotal Behavior? Response Class
Age appropriate Playing with a doll Is this a real behavior of interest? On Task, Losing Weight? Replacement behavior needed? Prioritizing Behaviors
Danger to self or other How severe? How long has the problem been occurring? Increase higher rates of R+? Relative Importance? Reduce Negative Social Interaction? Behavior Produce R+ for others? Likelihood of change? Lit., experience, environment, resources? How much will it cost? SEE Figure 3.5 on prioritizing potential target behaviors
Methods of Assessment RIOT Record Review Interviews/Checklists Observations Tests Record Review School Record Permanent Products Work Samples Report Cards Determining Whether Permanent Product Is Appropriate
Is real time measurement needed? Can the Behavior Be measured by Permanent Product? Will obtaining contrived (if planned; e.g. tape recording) permanent product affect behavior? How much will it cost? Interviews Reliability is a concern Can be used to generate hypotheses Get direct data (i.e. independent observation) to corroborate Interviews Continued What, When, where and How questions? No WHY?
What does the behavior look like? When does it occur? What happens before the behavior? What happens after the behavior? Where does the behavior occur? Who is around? What gets the behavior to stop? When is the behavior likely NOT to occur? How long does the behavior occur? How frequently does the behavior occur? Rating Scales & Checklists More reliable than verbal report Used only as a screener DO NOT USE ALONE FOR INTERVENTION OR DIAGNOSIS!
E.g. Behavioral Assessment System for Children E.g. Diagnostic Inventory System for Children E.g. RCMAS, CDI, Observations This is not an anecdotal report of what someone observed for a class period General guidelines for observations:
Dont be intrusive. Agree upon a clearly defined and observable behavior first. Observe across days/times/settings to increase reliability. Use with other forms of assessment to increase validity. Carefully consider the goal of the observation before selecting an observation tool. Always note the environmental context of the behavior. Observe students in their natural environments. Always observe peers for a comparison. TRY TO REDUCE REACTIVITY! Observation Systems
Save your money Very limited Use direct behavioral systematic observation methods Direct Behavioral Observations ABC Logs Frequency Tabulation Logs Systematic Interval Recording Examples of Direct Observations ABC Recording Antecedents - what occurs right before the behavior. Behavior - problem behavior (observable and defined) Consequences - what happens right after the behavior
Advantages of ABC Log Frees up Practitioner Allows for measurement that is inconvenient or inaccessible May be more accurate/complete Examples of Direct Observations Frequency Count (RATE MEASURE!) A measure of how often a clearly defined behavior occurs within a given period of time.
Examine the frequency of the behavior by tallying or counting the behavior as it occurs. Use this when the behavior is discrete (has an obvious beginning and ending) and does not occur at very high rates. This information is helpful at ALL steps of the problem solving process ALWAYS MEASURE AS RATE WHEN POSSIBLE!!!! Examples of Direct Observations Systematic Data Recording Examine percentage of target behavior by: Recording when the selected student is engaging in target behavior during 10-second intervals for 15 minutes. Peers are observed in the same way as a comparison. Requires more training than the other observation tools.
This information is helpful at all steps of the problem solving process Systematic Direct Behavioral Observations: Interval Recording Partial Interval Recording: Occurs anytime within interval Whole Interval Recording: Occurs majority of Interval Momentary Time Sampling: Within 3 seconds Planned Activity Check: Frequency count of students at moment Duration Recording: How long behavior occurs Target Child
Behavior 1 1 A 2 TO X 3
OT X 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 X X X
X X X X X 5 6 7 14
15 16 17 18 19 20 X X
X X X X X X X X X
X X X X Composite Child 1 2 3 4
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19 20 Behavior 1 A
X 2 TO X 3 OT X X X
X X X X X X X X
X X X X X X X X
X Measurement Issues Frequency Rate when possible If acquisition both accuracy and error rates Duration Total Per Occurrence Latency: S to R Interresponse Time: R to R Intensity
Derived & Definitional Measures Percentages 40% of intervals observed Trials to Criterion 10 consecutive correct trials Topography: Form/Shape Magnitude: Force/Intensity Psychometrics of Behavioral Measurement Validity Reliability Accuracy How to maximize valid and accurate data
collection Measure behavior continuously Measure behavior the same time/place across observations Measure with solid system Train observers then train them again later Minimize reactivity Assess Accuracy of Measurement: Answer Key Assess Reliability: IOA on 25-33% of sessions 80-90% IOA: Event Recording Total Count: (Smaller/Larger ) x 100 Mean Count Per interval
( N IOA)/ n intervals Exact Count Per Interval (# Intervals of 100% IOA)/(n intervals) Trial by Trial (# Trials with Agreements/ Total number of Trials) x 100% IOA: Timing Total Duration (Shorter Duration/Longer Duration) x 10 Mean Duration (IOA Rn/ N responses )* 100 IOA: Interval Recording
Interval by Interval (Agreements/Agreements + Disagreements) *100% Scored Interval Calculate only when one of the two scorers scored something Unscored Interval Calculate only when one of the two scorers scored something Did not occur
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