World War II Liberalism in the Interwar Period Treaty of Versailles (1919) Disillusionment with BOP politics National self-determination: Yugoslavia, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, the Baltic countries
Liberal Idealism: Woodrow Wilson: The Fourteen Points The League of Nations (1920) Collective security principle
Aggression against one is aggression against all (art. 16) Outlaw aggression Pledge to assist victims of aggression Act collectively against aggressor Decisions by unanimity
US did not join the League Treaty of Locarno (1925): allows Germany into the League The Failure of Collective Security Japanese invasion of Manchuria (1931)
Italian invasion of Ethiopia (1935) German annexation of Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia) 1938 Munich Agreement between Hitler and Chamberlein Hitlers Rise to Power National Socialist Party (Nazis) win and becomes chancellor: 1933
National humiliation Economy devastated Hyper inflation Totalitarian state system Fascist and nationalist ideology Expansionist foreign policy
Appeasing Hitler March into Rhineland (1936) Annexation of Austria (1938) The Munich Agreement over Czechoslovakia (1938) Treaty between Germany and USSR Blitzkrieg and Over-reach
Germany invades Norway, Holland, Belgium, France, pushes back the British Germany invades USSR (1942) Japan and the US get involved (1941) Germany defeated: 1945 The Nuremberg Trials (1945-1949)
Causes of WWII? Structural Causes Post WWI peace unstable: Treaty of Versailles Failure of institutions and collective security Failure to balance German power
Domestic Politics Rise of fascism in Germany, Spain, Italy Isolationism in the US Imperialism in Japan The Great Depression and economic collapse Internal divisions in liberal democracies The Role of Individuals
Hitlers war? Poor judgment on the part of Neville Chamberlain? Miscalculation of by Japanese leadership? Wrong lessons learned from WWI? Was World War II inevitable? What factors contributed most to this event?
Lessons of WWII Appeasement leads to larger conflicts Nationalism taken to extreme dangerous Disillusionment with collective security and international institutions The Holocaust: Never Again!
War and Its Causes Frequency of war: 5500 years of recorded history: 14,500 wars. 278 from 1480 to 1940. 224 from 1816 to 1980 Several causes of war (Farnsworth, 1992): Human nature Balance of power theory: imbalances cause war, equilibrium causes
peace Arms races and security dilemma Number of states in system - both directions: some argue more equal powers equals less war; others like Waltz that fewer is better Demands of domestic system - capitalist economies battle over rights to resources; competing economic/political systems; colonial wars; Nationalism Bad leadership and policy choices
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This problem is made complex by missing parts (gaps) in the curve segments, by erroneous junctions between unrelated segments, by jaggedness in segments, and by other forms of noise and clutter. Only the principal coronal loops are desired from this...
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