P416 Comparative Animal Physiology Fall Semester, 2005 Dr. Michael S. Finkler Much of What You Will Learn in This Course Will Someday Prove to Be Incorrect Scientific discovery is limited by what can be perceived. Always a chance that an idea is incorrect.
hypotheses and theories No such thing as a scientific fact Scientific knowledge is constantly revised as new insights into natural phenomena are gained. Scientists must maintain a healthy skepticism and an open mind. What is Physiology? The study of biological function
Physiology is the study of how a living organism stays alive A difficult task! Living organisms have complex, organized structures Second Law of Thermodynamics: Degree of disorder in the universe can only INCREASE Living organisms must maintain order in a universe that tends to move towards disorder.
How does a living organism stay alive? Living organisms maintain order inside their bodies (the internal environment) by increasing disorder in the external environment Maintenance of constant conditions in the internal environment necessary for order (life) to be maintained.
Homeostasis State of constancy within the internal environment of a living organism A dynamic process constant adjustment to counteract changes Central principle of physiology How does an organism maintain
homeostasis? Regulation maintaining different attributes of the internal environment at relatively constant levels Requires a regulatory mechanism: Sensor - Detects changes (disturbances) in the internal environment Effector - Performs an activity that compensates for the change Controller/Integrator - controls activity of the effector based on information from the sensor
Regulatory Mechanisms Work by Feedback Feedback = return of output to the input part of a system The response of the effector influences subsequent output by the effector Types of Feedback Negative Feedback
activity of effectors opposes any deviation of the controlled variable from the regulated level most common type in biology Positive Feedback activity of effectors enhances deviation of controlled variable from the regulated level rare in biological systems, and always part of a larger negative feedback system
Comparative Physiology Compares physiological functions between species to discern physiological and evolutionary patterns Subdisciplines Ecological Physiology a.k.a. Environmental Physiology, Physiological Ecology examines adaptations of organisms to their
environment Evolutionary Physiology seeks understanding of evolutionary relationships based on physiological attributes Adaptation Evolution through natural selection leading to an organism whose physiology, anatomy and behavior are matched to the demands of
its environment. A slow process, over multiple generations Central topic of comparative animal physiology Adaptation is Sometimes Confused With: Acclimatization physiological/biochemical/anatomical change in an individual organism resulting to chronic
exposure to new conditions in the natural environment Acclimation similar changes induced in laboratory settings Differences Acclimation/Acclimatization changes occur in an individual changes are generally reversible
Adaptation changes occur over multiple generations changes not generally reversible A Characteristic is Adaptive If: It confers a maximal probability of survival and successful reproduction in comparison with available alternative states. Qualifiers: Characters are adaptive only in specific
An enterprise-class backup program, such as Symantec NetBackup and CommVault Galaxy Backup and Recovery, offers advanced disaster recovery solutions. Windows 7 has the Backup and Restore program . This program is still available in Windows 10 but the File History...
According to the National Joint Committee for Learning Disabilities (University of Washington), specific learning disabilities are a group of disorders shown by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, writing, reasoning or mathematical abilities.
Acknowledgment This work was financially supported by ADNOC, ADCO, ZADCO, ADMA-OPCO and PI, U.A.E. Analysis of zwitterionic surfactants HPLC profile of MACKAM LAB (0.21 wt% lauryl betaine) and MACKAM CB-35 (0.21 wt% lauryl betaine) with an ELSD detector.
capture Ticonderoga and Crown Point in upper New York. June 1775 colonists capture . Bunker Hill. July 1775 . Olive Branch Petition. professed American loyalty to the crown, begging the king to prevent further hostilities. George III refused reconciliation. August...
Social Media in Academic World: How Can Social Media Contribute to Higher Education. Dr. Hatice Gökçe BİLGİÇ. Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara, TURKEY. Prof. Dr. S. Sadi SEFEROĞLU. Hacettepe University, Ankara, TURKEY. 5th International Symposium on New Issues in Teacher Education....
His divisions of ethos, logos & pathos Credibility is composed of Trustworthiness, or character Authoritativeness, or competence Charisma, or dynamism The "canons" of rhetoric Invention Disposition Style Delivery Memory Kenneth Burke The "dramatistic pentad" (forget this one) The concept of...
Generalized Linear Model. Not to be confused with a general linear model. Allows a linear model to be related to the response variable via a "Link" function. Residuals do not have to be normally distributed. Also requires ? to be...
Private enterprise systems stress profit, competition, laissez-faire, self-interest, private ownership of property, businesses and resources. Public Enterprise System A public enterprise system stresses a plan with heavy government involvement and interference when answering what is to be produced, how much...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!