Chapter 6: Multimedia Networking Chapter goals: Chapter Overview: understand service multimedia networking apps requirements for streaming stored audio and multimedia networking video delay bandwidth loss learn about how to make the best of the best-effort Internet learn about how the Internet might evolve
to better support multimedia RTSP interactive real-time apps Internet phone example RTP H.323 and SIP beyond best effort scheduling and policing integrated services
differentiated services Multimedia in Networks Fundamental characteristics: Typically delay sensitive delay. But loss tolerant: infrequent losses cause minor glitches that can be concealed. Antithesis of data (programs, banking info, etc.), which are loss intolerant but delay tolerant. Multimedia is also called continuous media Classes of MM applications: Streaming stored audio
and video Streaming live audio and video Real-time interactive video Multimedia in networks (2) Streaming stored MM Clients request audio/video files from servers and pipeline reception over the network and display Interactive: user can control operation (similar to VCR: pause, resume, fast forward, rewind, etc.) Delay: from client request until display start can be 1 to 10 seconds
Unidirectional Real-Time: similar to existing TV and radio stations, but delivery over the Internet Non-interactive, just listen/view Interactive Real-Time : Phone or video conference More stringent delay requirement than Streaming & Unidirectional because of real-time nature Video: < 150 msec acceptable Audio: < 150 msec good, <400 msec acceptable Multimedia in networks (3): challenges TCP/UDP/IP suite provides best-effort, no guarantees on delay or delay variation. Streaming apps with initial delay of 5-10 seconds are now commonplace, but performance deteriorates if links are congested (transoceanic) Real-Time Interactive apps have rigid requirements for packet delay and jitter. Jitter is the variability of packet delays within the same packet stream.
Design for multimedia apps would be easier if there were some 1st and 2nd class services. But in the public Internet, all packets receive equal service. Packets containing realtime interactive audio and video stand in line, like everyone else. There have been, and continue to be, efforts to provide differentiated service.
Multimedia in networks (4): making the best of best effort To mitigate impact of best-effort Internet, we can: Use UDP to avoid TCP and its slow-start phase Buffer content at client and control playback to remedy jitter We can timestamp packets, so that receiver knows when the packets should be played back. Adapt compression level to available bandwidth We can send redundant packets to mitigate the
effects of packet loss. We will discuss all these tricks. How should the Internet evolve to better support multimedia? Integrated services philosophy: Change Internet protocols so that applications can reserve end-to-end bandwidth Need to deploy protocol that reserves bandwidth Must modify scheduling policies in routers to honor reservations
Application must provide the network with a description of its traffic, and must further abide to this description. Requires new, complex software in hosts & routers Differentiated services philosophy: Fewer changes to Internet infrastructure, yet provide 1st and 2nd class service. Datagrams are marked. User pays more to send/receive 1st class packets. ISPs pay more to backbones to
send/receive 1st class packets. How should the Internet evolve to better support multimedia? (cont.) Laissez-faire philosophy No reservations, no datagram marking As demand increases, provision more bandwidth Place stored content at edge of network: ISPs & backbones add caches
Content providers put content in CDN nodes P2P: choose nearby peer with content Virtual private networks (VPNs) Reserve permanent blocks of bandwidth for enterprises. Routers distinguish VPN traffic using IP addresses Routers use special scheduling policies to provide reserved bandwidth. Streaming Stored Audio & Video Streaming stored media: Audio/video file is stored
in a server Users request audio/video file on demand. Audio/video is rendered within, say, 10 s after request. Interactivity (pause, repositioning, etc.) is allowed. Media player: removes jitter decompresses error correction graphical user interface with controls for interactivity
Plug-ins may be used to imbed the media player into the browser window. Streaming from Web server (1) Audio and video files stored in Web servers nave approach browser requests file with HTTP request message Web server sends file in HTTP response message content-type header line indicates an audio/video encoding browser launches media player, and passes file to media player
media player renders file Major drawback: media player interacts with server through intermediary of a Web browser Streaming from Web server (2) Alternative: set up connection between server and player Web browser requests and receives a meta file (a file describing the object) instead of receiving the file itself; Content-type header indicates specific audio/video application Browser launches media player and passes it the meta file Player sets up a TCP
connection with server and sends HTTP request. Some concerns: Media player communicates over HTTP, which is not designed with pause, ff, rwnd commands May want to stream over UDP Streaming from a streaming server This architecture allows for non-HTTP protocol between server and media player Can also use UDP instead of TCP.
Options when using a streaming server Send at constant rate over UDP. To mitigate the effects of jitter, buffer and delay playback for 1-10 s. Transmit rate = d, the encoded rate. Fill rate x(t) equals d except when there is loss. Use TCP, and send at maximum possible rate under TCP; TCP retransmits when error is encountered; x(t) now fluctuates, and can become much larger than d. Player can use a much large buffer to smooth delivery rate of TCP.
Real Time Streaming Protocol: RTSP HTTP Designers of HTTP had fixed media in mind: HTML, images, applets, etc. HTTP does not target stored continuous media (i.e., audio, video, SMIL presentations, etc.) RTSP: RFC 2326 Client-server application layer protocol. For user to control display: rewind, fast forward, pause, resume, repositioning, etc What it doesnt do: does not define how
audio/video is encapsulated for streaming over network does not restrict how streamed media is transported; it can be transported over UDP or TCP does not specify how the media player buffers audio/video RealNetworks Server and player use RTSP to send control info to each other RTSP: out of band control FTP uses an out-of-band control channel: RTSP messages are also sent outof-band: A file is transferred over
The RTSP control messages one channel. Control information (directory changes, file deletion, file renaming, etc.) is sent over a separate TCP connection. The out-of-band and in-band channels use different port numbers. use different port numbers than the media stream, and are therefore sent out-ofband. The media stream, whose packet structure is not defined by RTSP, is considered in-band. If the RTSP messages were to
use the same port numbers as the media stream, then RTSP messages would be said to be interleaved with the media stream. RTSP initiates and controls delivery W eb b ro w s e r H TTP G ET p r e s e n ta t io n d e s c . W eb s e rv e r SETUP
PLAY m e d ia p la y e r m e d ia s t r e a m PAUSE m e d ia s e rv e r TEAR D O W N c lie n t
s e rv e r Client obtains a description of the multimedia presentation, which can consist of several media streams. The browser invokes media player (helper application) based on the content type of the presentation description. Presentation description includes references to media streams, using the URL method rtsp:// Player sends RTSP SETUP request; server sends RTSP SETUP response. Player sends RTSP PLAY request; server sends RTSP PLAY response. Media server pumps media stream. Player sends RTSP PAUSE request; server sends RTSP PAUSE response.
Player sends RTSP TEARDOWN request; server sends RTSP TEARDOWN response. Meta file example
identifier, which is chosen by the server. The client initiates the session with the SETUP request, and the server responds to the request with an identifier. The client repeats the session identifier for each request, until the client closes the session with the TEARDOWN request. RTSP port number is 554. RTSP can be sent over UDP or TCP. Each RTSP message can be sent over a separate TCP connection.
RTSP: exchange example C: SETUP rtsp://audio.example.com/twister/audio RTSP/1.0 Transport: rtp/udp; compression; port=3056; mode=PLAY S: RTSP/1.0 200 1 OK Session 4231 C: PLAY rtsp://audio.example.com/twister/audio.en/lofi RTSP/1.0 Session: 4231 Range: npt=0C: PAUSE rtsp://audio.example.com/twister/audio.en/lofi RTSP/1.0 Session: 4231 Range: npt=37 C: TEARDOWN rtsp://audio.example.com/twister/audio.en/lofi RTSP/1.0 Session: 4231 S: 200 3 OK RTSP: streaming caching Caching of RTSP response messages makes little sense. But desirable to cache media streams closer to
client. Much of HTTP/1.1 cache control has been adopted by RTSP. Cache control headers can be put in RTSP SETUP requests and responses: If-modified-since: , Expires: , Via: , Cache-Control: Proxy cache may hold only segments of a given media stream. Proxy cache may start serving a client from its local cache, and then have to connect to origin server and fill missing material,
hopefully without introducing gaps at client. When origin server is sending a stream through client, and stream passes through a proxy, proxy can use TCP to obtain the stream; but proxy still sends RTSP control messages to origin server. Real-time interactive applications PC-2-PC phone PC-2-phone Dialpad Net2phone videoconference
Webcams Going to now look at a PC-2-PC Internet phone example in detail Internet phone over best-effort (1) Best effort packet delay, loss and jitter Internet phone example now examine how packet delay, loss and jitter are often handled in the context of an IP phone example. Internet phone applications generate packets during talk spurts bit rate is 64 kbps during
talk spurt during talk spurt, every 20 msec app generates a chunk of 160 bytes = 8 kbytes/sec * 20 msec header is added to chunk; then chunk+header is encapsulated into a UDP packet and sent out some packets can be lost and packet delay will fluctuate. receiver must determine when to playback a chunk, and determine what do with missing chunk Internet phone (2) packet loss
UDP segment is encapsulated in IP datagram datagram may overflow a router queue TCP can eliminate loss, but retransmissions add delay TCP congestion control limits transmission rate Redundant packets can help end-to-end delay accumulation of transmission, propagation, and queuing delays more than 400 msec of
end-to-end delay seriously hinders interactivity; the smaller the better delay jitter consider two consecutive packets in talk spurt initial spacing is 20 msec, but spacing at receiver can be more or less than 20 msec removing jitter sequence numbers timestamps delaying playout Internet phone (3): fixed playout delay Receiver attempts to playout each chunk at
exactly q msecs after the chunk is generated. If chunk is time stamped t, receiver plays out chunk at t+q . If chunk arrives after time t+q, receiver discards it. Sequence numbers not necessary. Strategy allows for lost packets. Tradeoff for q:
large q: less packet loss small q: better interactive experience Internet phone (4): fixed playout delay Sender generates packets every 20 msec during talk spurt. First packet received at time r First playout schedule: begins at p Second playout schedule: begins at p p a c k e ts lo s s p a c k e ts g e n e ra te d
p a c k e ts r e c e iv e d p la y o u t s c h e d u le p - r p la y o u t s c h e d u le p' - r t im e r p p' Adaptive playout delay (1) Estimate network delay and adjust playout delay at the beginning of each talk spurt. Silent periods are compressed and elongated. Chunks still played out every 20 msec during talk spurt. ti timestamp of the ith packet
ri the time packet i is received by receiver pi the time packet i is played at receiver ri ti network delay for ith packet d i estimate of average network delay after receiving ith packet Dynamic estimate of average delay at receiver: d i (1 u )d i 1 u( ri ti ) where u is a fixed constant (e.g., u = .01). Adaptive playout delay (2) Also useful to estimate the average deviation of the delay, vi : vi (1 u )vi 1 u | ri ti d i | The estimates di and vi are calculated for every received packet, although they are only used at the beginning of a talk spurt. For first packet in talk spurt, playout time is: pi ti d i Kvi where K is a positive constant. For this same packet, the play out delay is:
qi pi ti For packet j in the same talk spurt, play packet out at p j t j qi Adaptive playout (3) How to determine whether a packet is the first in a talkspurt: If there were never loss, receiver could simply look at the successive time stamps. Difference of successive stamps > 20 msec, talk spurt begins. But because loss is possible, receiver must look at both time stamps and sequence numbers. Difference of successive stamps > 20 msec and sequence numbers without gaps, talk spurt begins. Recovery from packet loss (1) Loss: packet never arrives
or arrives later than its scheduled playout time forward error correction (FEC): simple scheme for every group of n chunks create a redundant chunk by exclusive OR-ing the n original chunks send out n+1 chunks, increasing the bandwidth by factor 1/n. can reconstruct the original n chunks if there is at most one lost chunk from the n+1 chunks Playout delay needs to fixed to the time to receive all n+1 packets Tradeoff:
increase n, less bandwidth waste increase n, longer playout delay increase n, higher probability that 2 or more chunks will be lost Recovery from packet loss (2) 2nd FEC scheme piggyback lower quality stream send lower resolution audio stream as the redundant information
for example, nominal stream PCM at 64 kbps and redundant stream GSM at 13 kbps. Sender creates packet by taking the nth chunk Whenever there is non-consecutive loss, the from nominal stream and receiver can conceal the loss. appending to it the Only two packets need to be received before (n-1)st chunk from playback redundant stream. Can also append (n-1)st and (n-2)nd low-bit rate chunk Recovery from packet loss (3) Interleaving chunks are broken up into smaller units
for example, 4 5 msec units per chunk interleave the chunks as shown in diagram packet now contains small units from different chunks Reassemble chunks at receiver if packet is lost, still have most of every chunk Recovery from packet loss (4) Receiver-based repair of damaged audio streams produce a replacement for a lost packet that is similar to the original
can give good performance for low loss rates and small packets (4-40 msec) simplest: repetition more complicated: interpolation Real-Time Protocol (RTP) RTP specifies a packet RTP runs in the end structure for packets carrying audio and video data: RFC 1889. RTP packet provides systems. RTP packets are encapsulated in UDP
segments Interoperability: If two Internet phone applications run RTP, then they may be able to work together payload type identification packet sequence numbering timestamping RTP runs on top of UDP RTP libraries provide a transport-layer interface
that extend UDP: port numbers, IP addresses error checking across segment payload type identification packet sequence numbering time-stamping RTP Example Consider sending 64 kbps PCM-encoded voice over RTP. Application collects the encoded data in chunks, e.g., every 20 msec = 160 bytes in a chunk. The audio chunk along with the RTP header form the RTP packet, which is encapsulated into a UDP segment.
RTP header indicates type of audio encoding in each packet; senders can change encoding during a conference. RTP header also contains sequence numbers and timestamps. RTP and QoS RTP does not provide any mechanism to ensure timely delivery of data or provide other quality of service guarantees. RTP encapsulation is only seen at the end systems -- it is not seen by
intermediate routers. Routers providing the Internet's traditional besteffort service do not make any special effort to ensure that RTP packets arrive at the destination in a timely matter. In order to provide QoS to an application, the Internet most provide a mechanism, such as RSVP, for the application to reserve network resources. RTP Streams RTP allows each source
(for example, a camera or a microphone) to be assigned its own independent RTP stream of packets. For example, for a videoconference between two participants, four RTP streams could be opened: two streams for transmitting the audio (one in each direction) and two streams for the video (again, one in each direction). However, some popular encoding techniques -including MPEG1 and MPEG2
-- bundle the audio and video into a single stream during the encoding process. When the audio and video are bundled by the encoder, then only one RTP stream is generated in each direction. For a many-to-many multicast session, all of the senders and sources typically send their RTP streams into the same multicast tree with the same multicast address. RTP Header Payload Type (7 bits): Used to indicate the type of encoding that is currently being used. If a sender changes the encoding in the middle of a conference, the sender informs the receiver through this payload type field.
Payload type 0: PCM mu-law, 64 Kbps Payload type 3, GSM, 13 Kbps Payload type 7, LPC, 2.4 Kbps Payload type 26, Motion JPEG Payload type 31. H.261 Payload type 33, MPEG2 video Sequence Number (16 bits): The sequence number increments by one for each RTP packet sent; may be used to detect packet loss and to restore packet sequence. RTP Header (2) Timestamp field (32 bytes long). Reflects the sampling instant of the first byte in the RTP data packet. The receiver can use the timestamps to remove packet jitter and provide synchronous playout. The timestamp is derived from a sampling clock at the sender. As an example, for audio the timestamp clock increments by one for each sampling period (for example, each 125 usecs for a 8 KHz
sampling clock); if the audio application generates chunks consisiting of 160 encoded samples, then the timestamp increases by 160 for each RTP packet when the source is active. The timestamp clock continues to increase at a constant rate even the source is inactive. SSRC field (32 bits long). Identifies the source of the RTP stream. Each stream in a RTP session should have a distinct SSRC. Real-Time Control Protocol (RTCP) Works in conjunction with RTP. Each participant in an RTP session periodically transmits RTCP control packets to all other participants. Each RTCP packet contains sender
and/or receiver reports that report statistics useful to the application. Statistics include number of packets sent, number of packets lost, interarrival jitter, etc. This feedback of information to the application can be used to control performance and for diagnostic purposes. The sender may modify its transmissions based on the feedback.
RTCP - Continued - For an RTP session there is typically a single multicast address; all RTP and RTCP packets belonging to the session use the multicast address. - RTP and RTCP packets are distinguished from each other through the use of distinct port numbers. - To limit traffic, each participant reduces his RTCP traffic as the number of conference participants increases. RTCP Packets Receiver report packets: fraction of packets lost, last sequence number, average interarrival jitter. Sender report packets: SSRC of the RTP stream, the current time, the number of packets sent, and the number of bytes sent.
Source description packets: e-mail address of the sender, the sender's name, the SSRC of the associated RTP stream. Packets provide a mapping between the SSRC and the user/host name. Synchronization of Streams RTCP can be used to synchronize different media streams within a RTP session. Consider a videoconferencing application for which each sender generates one RTP
stream for video and one for audio. The timestamps in these RTP packets are tied to the video and audio sampling clocks, and are not tied to the wall-clock time (i.e., to real time). Each RTCP sender-report packet contains, for the most recently generated packet in the associated RTP stream, the timestamp of the RTP packet and the wall-clock time for when the packet was created. Thus the RTCP senderreport packets associate the sampling clock to the real-time clock.
Receivers can use this association to synchronize the playout of audio and video. RTCP Bandwidth Scaling RTCP attempts to limit its traffic to 5% of the session bandwidth. For example, suppose there is one sender, sending video at a rate of 2 Mbps. Then RTCP attempts to limit its traffic to 100 Kbps. The protocol gives 75% of this rate, or 75 kbps, to the receivers; it gives the remaining 25% of the rate, or 25 kbps, to the sender.
The 75 kbps devoted to the receivers is equally shared among the receivers. Thus, if there are R receivers, then each receiver gets to send RTCP traffic at a rate of 75/R kbps and the sender gets to send RTCP traffic at a rate of 25 kbps. A participant (a sender or receiver) determines the RTCP packet transmission period by dynamically calculating the the average RTCP packet size (across the entire session) and dividing the average RTCP packet size by its allocated rate. H.323
Overview H.323 terminal H. 323 encoding Gatekeeper Gateway Audio codecs Video codecs Overview (1) Foundation for audio and video conferencing across IP networks. Targets real-time communication (rather than on-demand) Umbrella recommendation from the ITU. Broad in scope: stand-alone devices (e.g., Web phones, )
applications in PCs point-to-point and multipoint conferences H.323 specification includes: How endpoints make and receive calls. How endpoints negotiate common audio/video
encodings. How audio and video chunks are encapsulated and sent over network. How audio and video are synchronized (lipsync). How endpoints communicate with their respective gatekeepers. How Internet phones and PSTN/ISDN phones communicate. Overview (2) Telephone calls Video calls Internet Conferences Whiteboards
"Ethernet" phone MS Netmeeting NetSpeak WebPhone All terminals supporting H.323 Overview (3) Gatekeeper Internet PSTN Gateway H.323 SS7, Inband H.323 Endpoints Must Support:
G.711 - ITU standard for Q.931 - A signalling speech compression RTP - protocol for encapsulating media chunks into packets H.245 - Out-of-band control protocol for controlling media between H.323 endpoints. protocol for establishing and terminating calls. RAS (Registration/Admission/S tatus) channel protocol Protocol for communicating with a gatekeeper (if
gatekeeper is present) H.323 Terminal H.323 Encoding Audio: H.323 endpoints must support G.711 standard for speech compression. G.711 transmits voice at 56/64 kbps. H.323 is considering requiring G.723 = G.723.1, which operates at 5.3/6.3 kbps. Optional: G.722, G.728, G.729 Video Video capabilities for an H.323 endpoint are
optional. Any video-enabled H.323 endpoint must support the QCIF H.261 (176x144 pixels). Optionally supports other H.261 schemes: CIF, 4CIF and 16CIF. H.261 is used with communication channels that are multiples of 64 kbps. Generating audio packet stream in H.323 Audio Source Encoding: e.g., G.711
or G.723.1 RTP packet encapsulation UDP socket Internet or Gatekeeper H.245 Control Channel H.323 stream may Principle tasks: contain multiple channels for different media types. One H.245 control channel per H.323 session.
H.245 control channel is a reliable (TCP) channel that carries control messages. Open and closing media channels. Capability exchange: before sending media, endpoints agree on encoding algorithm Note: H.245 for multimedia conferencing is analogous with RTSP for media streaming Information flows Call Control Channel
Call Signaling Channel H.323 Terminal Media Control Channel H.323 Terminal Media Channel 1 Media Channel 2 TCP UDP H.323 terminals
Gatekeeper 1/2 Internet Router RAS Gatekeeper LAN = Zone The gatekeeper is optional. Can provides to terminals: address translation to IP addresses bandwidth management: can limit amount of bandwidth consumed by real-time conferences Optionally, H.323 calls can be routed through gatekeeper. Useful for billing. RAS protocol (over TCP) for terminal-gatekeeper communication. Gatekeeper 2/2 H.323 terminal must
register itself with the gatekeeper in its zone. When the H.323 application is invoked at the terminal, the terminal uses RAS to send its IP address and alias (provided by user) to the gatekeeper. If gatekeeper is present in a zone, each terminal in zone must contact gatekeeper to ask permission to make a call. Once it has permission, the terminal can send the gatekeeper an e-mail address, alias string or phone extension. The
gatekeeper translates the alias to an IP address. If necessary, a gatekeeper will poll other gatekeepers in other zones to resolve an IP address. Process varies by vendor. Gateway PSTN H.323 terminals Gateway Router Internet RAS
Gatekeeper LAN = Zone Bridge between IP Zone and PSTN (or ISDN) network. Terminals communicate with gateways using H.245 and Q.931 Audio codecs Codec Bandwidth [kbit/s] MOS Complexity [MIPS] Packetization (framesize) [ms]
G.711 64 4.5 - - G.721 (ADPCM) 32 4.4 6.5 - GSM
13 3.8 4 20 G.729 8 4.1 15 10 G.723
6.4/5.3 4.0 20 30 MOS (Mean Opinion Score) Video codecs H.261 (p x 64 kbit/s) Video over ISDN Resolutions : QCIF, CIF H.263 (< 64 kbit/s) Low bit rate communication Resolutions: SQCIF, QCIF, CIF,4CIF, 16CIF SQCIF QCIF CIF 4CIF 16CIF (128 x 96) (176 x 144) (352 x 288) (704 x 576) (1408 x 1152) Real-Time Protocol (RTP) Provides standard packet format for real-time application Typically runs over UDP
Specifies header fields below Payload Type: 7 bits, providing 128 possible different types of encoding; eg PCM, MPEG2 video, etc. Sequence Number: 16 bits; used to detect packet loss Real-Time Protocol (RTP) Timestamp: 32 bytes; gives the sampling instant of the first audio/video byte in the packet; used to remove jitter introduced by the network Synchronization Source identifier (SSRC): 32 bits; an id for the source of a stream; assigned randomly by the source RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) Protocol specifies report packets exchanged between sources and destinations of multimedia information
Three reports are defined: Receiver reception, Sender, and Source description Reports contain statistics such as the number of packets sent, number of packets lost, inter-arrival jitter Used to modify sender transmission rates and for diagnostics purposes RTCP Bandwidth Scaling If each receiver sends RTCP packets to all other receivers, the traffic load resulting can be large RTCP adjusts the interval between reports based on the number of participating receivers Typically, limit the RTCP bandwidth to 5% of the session bandwidth, divided between the sender reports (25%) and the receivers reports (75%) Improving QOS in IP Networks
IETF groups are working on proposals to provide better QOS control in IP networks, i.e., going beyond best effort to provide some assurance for QOS Work in Progress includes RSVP, Differentiated Services, and Integrated Services Simple model for sharing and congestion studies: Principles for QOS Guarantees Consider a phone application at 1Mbps and an FTP application sharing a 1.5 Mbps link. bursts of FTP can congest the router and cause audio packets to be dropped. want to give priority to audio over FTP PRINCIPLE 1: Marking of packets is needed for router to
distinguish between different classes; and new router policy to treat packets accordingly Principles for QOS Guarantees (more) Applications misbehave (audio sends packets at a rate higher than 1Mbps assumed above); PRINCIPLE 2: provide protection (isolation) for one class from other classes Require Policing Mechanisms to ensure sources adhere to bandwidth requirements; Marking and Policing need to be done at the edges: Principles for QOS Guarantees (more) Alternative to Marking and Policing: allocate a set portion of bandwidth to each application flow; can lead to inefficient use of bandwidth if one of the flows does not use its allocation PRINCIPLE 3: While providing isolation, it is desirable
to use resources as efficiently as possible Principles for QOS Guarantees (more) Cannot support traffic beyond link capacity PRINCIPLE 4: Need a Call Admission Process; application flow declares its needs, network may block call if it cannot satisfy the needs Summary Scheduling And Policing Mechanisms Scheduling: choosing the next packet for transmission on a link can be done following a number of policies; FIFO: in order of arrival to the queue; packets that arrive to a full buffer are either discarded, or a discard policy is used to determine which packet to discard among the arrival and those already queued
Scheduling Policies Priority Queuing: classes have different priorities; class may depend on explicit marking or other header info, eg IP source or destination, TCP Port numbers, etc. Transmit a packet from the highest priority class with a non-empty queue Preemptive and non-preemptive versions Scheduling Policies (more) Round Robin: scan class queues serving one from each class that has a non-empty queue Scheduling Policies (more) Weighted Fair Queuing: is a generalized Round Robin in which an attempt is made to provide a class with a differentiated amount of service over a given period of time
Policing Mechanisms Three criteria: (Long term) Average Rate (100 packets per sec or 6000 packets per min??), crucial aspect is the interval length Peak Rate: e.g., 6000 p p minute Avg and 1500 p p sec Peak (Max.) Burst Size: Max. number of packets sent consecutively, ie over a short period of time Policing Mechanisms Token Bucket mechanism, provides a means for limiting input to specified Burst Size and Average Rate. Policing Mechanisms (more) Bucket can hold b tokens; token are generated at a rate of r token/sec unless bucket is full of tokens. Over an interval of length t, the number of packets that are admitted is less than or equal to (r t + b).
Token bucket and WFQ can be combined to provide upper bound on delay. Integrated Services An architecture for providing QOS guarantees in IP networks for individual application sessions relies on resource reservation, and routers need to maintain state info (Virtual Circuit??), maintaining records of allocated resources and responding to new Call setup requests on that basis Call Admission Session must first declare its QOS requirement
and characterize the traffic it will send through the network R-spec: defines the QOS being requested T-spec: defines the traffic characteristics A signaling protocol is needed to carry the R-spec and T-spec to the routers where reservation is required; RSVP is a leading candidate for such signaling protocol Call Admission Call Admission: routers will admit calls based on their R-spec and T-spec and based on the current resource allocated at the routers to other calls. Integrated Services: Classes Guaranteed QOS: this class is provided with firm bounds on queuing delay at a router;
envisioned for hard real-time applications that are highly sensitive to end-to-end delay expectation and variance Controlled Load: this class is provided a QOS closely approximating that provided by an unloaded router; envisioned for todays IP network real-time applications which perform well in an unloaded network Differentiated Services Intended to address the following difficulties with Intserv and RSVP; Scalability: maintaining states by routers in high speed networks is difficult sue to the very large number of flows Flexible Service Models: Intserv has only two classes, want to provide more qualitative service classes; want to provide relative service distinction (Platinum, Gold, Silver, ) Simpler signaling: (than RSVP) many
applications and users may only w ant to specify a more qualitative notion of service Differentiated Services Approach: Only simple functions in the core, and relatively complex functions at edge routers (or hosts) Do not define service classes, instead provides functional components with which service classes can be built Edge Functions At DS-capable host or first DS-capable router Classification: edge node marks packets according to classification rules to be specified (manually by admin, or by some TBD protocol) Traffic Conditioning: edge node may delay and then forward or may discard Core Functions
Forwarding: according to Per-Hop-Behavior or PHB specified for the particular packet class; such PHB is strictly based on class marking (no other header fields can be used to influence PHB) BIG ADVANTAGE: No state info to be maintained by routers! Classification and Conditioning Packet is marked in the Type of Service (TOS) in IPv4, and Traffic Class in IPv6 6 bits used for Differentiated Service Code Point (DSCP) and determine PHB that the packet will receive 2 bits are currently unused Classification and Conditioning It may be desirable to limit traffic injection rate
of some class; user declares traffic profile (eg, rate and burst size); traffic is metered and shaped if non-conforming Forwarding (PHB) PHB result in a different observable (measurable) forwarding performance behavior PHB does not specify what mechanisms to use to ensure required PHB performance behavior Examples: Class A gets x% of outgoing link bandwidth over time intervals of a specified length Class A packets leave first before packets from class B
Forwarding (PHB) PHBs under consideration: Expedited Forwarding: departure rate of packets from a class equals or exceeds a specified rate (logical link with a minimum guaranteed rate) Assured Forwarding: 4 classes, each guaranteed a minimum amount of bandwidth and buffering; each with three drop preference partitions Differentiated Services Issues AF and EF are not even in a standard track yet research ongoing Virtual Leased lines and Olympic services are being discussed Impact of crossing multiple ASs and routers that are not DS-capable