Passenger Rail Service - University of Kentucky College of ...

Passenger Rail Service - University of Kentucky College of ...

Passenger Rail Service REES 2014 Module F Bill Sproule Professor Michigan Tech University Passenger Rail Service Intercity

High Speed Rail Commuter Rail Heavy Rail Rapid Transit Light Rail Transit Others Cable Systems, Monorails, Automated

Guideway (Guided) Transit, others Railway Operations Intercity, High Speed Rail, and Commuter Rail Basically operated over portions of the North American freight rail network or on

dedicated passenger lines that are contiguous to this network Use AREMA technical standards for trackwork and AAR technical standards for vehicles Railway Operations Tend to operate at higher speeds and on

longer routes but with lower frequencies Use equipment that is either completely or largely compatible with freight equipment Subject to regulations of the FRA Transit Operations Heavy Rail Rapid Transit and Light Rail Transit

Operate on tracks that are dedicated to passenger service (no freight operations) Trackwork and vehicle standards may be AREMA and AAR based, but more typically reflect transit practice with use of sharper track curvature and lighter vehicles Transit Operations

Tend to operate at lower speeds and shorter routes but with higher frequencies Typically managed and operated by a local or regional transit agency or department The transit agency will typically manage and operate an extensive network of buses as part of the local transit system Federal and State governments will provide

funding and technical assistance INTERCITY PASSENGER RAIL Travel by Train The Golden Age of Intercity Passenger Rail Late 19th and early 20th century rail was the primary passenger transportation mode for

medium and long distances Famous passenger trains, stations, hotels, and resorts 1916 over 250,000 rail track miles in the U.S. 1920 passenger rail travel in U.S. reached an all-time high with 1.2 million passengers per day Travel by Train

1920s automobiles and highway networks; intercity bus and air travel begin 1930s Streamliner era - Burlington Zephyr Late 1940s early

1950s continued decline of passenger rail travel in the U.S. Travel by Train 1956 Federal Aid Highway Act Interstate highway

system 1960s growth in air travel and continued decline in passenger rail service and passengers 1970 Rail Passenger Service Act

Intercity Passenger Rail in U.S. Today Operated by Amtrak (National Railroad Passenger Corporation) Amtrak began operation in 1971 Amtrak Board of Control sets policy and oversees management appointed by President Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) administers

grants to Amtrak www.amtrak.com Amtrak Today provides national intercity passenger rail service over 30 million annual

passengers 20,000 employees also operates some commuter rail systems Amtrak Rail Network Amtrak network has over 21,000 route miles 70% of miles traveled by Amtrak trains are

on tracks owned by other railroads - host railroads BNSF is the largest host railroad for Amtrak Amtrak pays host railroads for use of their track and resources to operate the trains Amtrak Rail Network

Northeast Corridor (NEC) Amtraks busiest route Last year, Amtrak trains in the Northeast Corridor (WashingtonBoston) carried over 10 million passengers www.amtrak.com

Intercity Passenger Rail in Canada operated by VIA Rail (similar to Amtrak) Tourist/Excursion Railroads Several operating railroads and museums very

popular in U.S. Tourist Railway Association www.traininc.org Association of Railway Museums www.railwaymuseums.org

HIGH SPEED RAIL What is high speed rail? A passenger rail line and service that operates significantly faster than normal rail traffic Several definitions European Union

124 MPH for upgraded lines 155 MPH for specifically built high speed lines U.S. Department of Transportation 125 MPH Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) 110 MPH

High Speed Rail (HSR) Japanese introduced the first high speed trains in the mid 1960s Shinkansen (Bullet Train) today high speed rail lines are common in France, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, China, and many other countries

Current world high speed rail record French (modified) TGV 357 mph (575 km/hr), April 2007 French TGV (Train a Grande Vitesse) High Speed Rail Design

Features integral trainsets light axle loads exclusive rights-of-way grade separated high design speed low grades, long horizontal curves

sophisticated train control train suspension - tilting trains extensive maintenance High Speed Rail in the U.S. High Speed Ground Transportation Act,

1965 develop a high speed train for the Northeast Corridor Metroliner Operated between Washington and New York City

High Speed Rail in the U.S. Acela Express Operates in the Northeast Corridor between Washington and Boston (since 2000) Top speed of 150 mph

on a portion of its route Last year Acela Express carried over 3 million passengers Another High Speed Train U.S. Holder of the U.S. high speed rail record

M-497 Black Beetle 183 mph Speed record made in NE Indiana (Butler, IN to Stryker, Ohio), 1966 High Speed Rail in the U.S. Recent exciting federal and state initiatives

Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act, 2008 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, 2009 Probably better to think of HSR in the U.S. to be Higher Speed Rail US DOT Federal Railroad Administration

www.fra.dot.gov several high speed rail corridors studied Californias Future High Speed Rail System Web Sites U.S. High Speed Rail Association

www.ushsr.com US DOT Federal Railroad Administration www.fra.dot.gov Maglev (Magnetic Levitation) cruising speeds of 300+ mph

development and research in several countries Germany, Japan, and others system in Shanghai, China (Transrapid from Germany)

COMMUTER RAIL a passenger railroad service that operates in metropolitan areas on tracks that are usually part of a railroad network for intercity passenger or freight trains service is primarily for daily commuters traveling between the suburbs and downtown

also called Regional Rail or Suburban Rail Commuter Rail Typically multiple unit trains Passenger cars/coaches can be single-level or double-level (or bi-level) Motive power options: Train pulled or pushed by a diesel-electric

locomotive Diesel multiple units (DMU) Electric multiple units (EMU) Commuter Rail Trains operate on a schedule with more trains in the morning and afternoon peak periods

frequency 3 to 6 trains per hour in peak periods average speed 30 mph (max. speed of 5080 mph) In North America, commuter rail is typically operated by a government department or quasi-government agency/authority

Commuter Rail Typically one station in city center (often it is the old railroad terminal) and several outlying suburban stations The suburban stations will have automobile parking (park and ride), drop off/pick up areas (kiss and ride), and connections to local transit service (for transfers to/from

buses) Fares based on distance traveled Chicago Metra A Typical Commuter Rail Station (Metra)

New Minneapolis Northstar (Commuter Rail Line) Commuter Rail Systems in North America U.S. - Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and many others

Canada Montreal, Toronto (GO Transit), Vancouver Largest systems (ridership) New York (Long Island, Metro North, and NJ Transit), Chicago (Metra) HEAVY RAIL RAPID TRANSIT An electric railway operating in an urban

area with the capabilities to handle a heavy volume of passenger traffic High speed and rapid acceleration multi-car trains operating on exclusive rights-of-way underground, elevated, at-grade Sophisticated signaling Variety of other names Metro, Subway,

Underground, Rapid Transit, L, T, Tube Rail Rapid Transit First rail rapid transit system London (1863) Today, there are more than 160 cities in the

world that have a rail rapid transit system Several cities in North America with systems New York is the largest system in the U.S. Rail Rapid Transit Systems

in North America U.S. Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco (BART), Washington Canada Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver Mexico Mexico City Largest systems (ridership) New York,

Chicago, Washington Rail Rapid Transit Trains consist of 6-10 cars, each with its own motor and drawing electric power from a third rail 800-2,000 passengers per train average speed: 20-25 mph; maximum speed: 60+ mph

Operate on short headways (some at 2 minutes or less) Capacity: 40,000 pphpd Steel wheels, steel rails (exception: Paris and Montreal rubber tires) Standard railroad gauge

Rail Rapid Transit Stations are typically a mile (or more) apart Passengers will purchase tickets/tokens/passes and enter/exit the system through turnstiles Flat fares or fares by distance If flat fare cash, passes, tickets, tokens If fare by distance sophisticated fare collection

system needed fare cards Station Entrance Boarding a Train Boarding at Peak Times

Rail Rapid Transit system will usually consist of one or more lines or routes often focused to/from the city center routes and lines are distinguished by

numbers, names, or colors Example: Washington Metro Chicago CTA Rail System LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT (LRT) a new name for the streetcar

Electrically powered vehicles, but may link two or more vehicles to form a train Power is drawn from an overhead wire (trolley or pantograph) a variety of operating strategies share street, transit only street, or on separate right-of-way

Streetcars first demonstrated at expositions in Chicago and Toronto late 1800s several developers/inventors (including Thomas Edison) also called Tram, Trolley, Street Railway Streetcars were common in cities throughout

North America and the world in early 1900s Streetcars were used to link small communities called Interurbans Toronto Streetcars Streetcars Become LRT

in the 1970s and 1980s U.S. cities started to search for new transit alternatives looked to Europe began a new era for LRT several old streetcar

systems were refurblished and new LRT systems were built Light Rail Transit (LRT) A blend of design and operating practices A mix of right-of-way

types Stations may be simple on-street platforms to elaborate underground stations Passengers will use honor fare collection or passes

LRT Systems in North America U.S. Boston, Buffalo, Charlotte, Dallas, Denver, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, Portland, Pittsburgh, Sacramento, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Diego, San Francisco, and many others Canada Calgary, Edmonton, Ottawa,

Toronto Largest systems (ridership) San Francisco, Boston, San Diego, Portland San Diego Trolley LRT Phoenix Valley Metro (LRT) Rail

Minneapolis Hiawatha Line Heritage/Vintage Trolleys Light rail systems that use vehicles built before 1960 or modern replicas downtown circulator or tourist

service Can restore old trolleys or companies can build replica vehicles www.heritagetrolley.com U.S. Transit Passengers

U.S. Transit Passengers Last year, over 10 billion transit trips (53% on buses, 34% on heavy rail rapid transit, 5% on commuter rail, 4% on LRT) Information on transit ridership, transit systems and characteristics, and other good stuff Public Transportation Fact Book

Published by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA) www.apta.com OTHERS A variety of other special or unique passenger systems that use many of the principles of railroad

engineering Cable Systems Monorails Automated Guideway (Guided) Transit others Systems are often found at major activity centers airports, amusement parks, universities, and similar locations

Cable Systems (funiculars, aerial/gondolas, ropeways, and others) Monorails Several types and performance characteristics

www.monorails.org Automated Guideway (Guided) Transit - AGT unmanned, automated vehicles operating on fixed, exclusive guideways several manufacturers/suppliers

major activity centers, like airports, have become an important application for AGT APM Automated People Mover DPM Downtown People Mover PRT Personal Rapid Transit Automated People Mover (APM)

Downtown People Mover (DPM) AGT system operating in the downtown area several research initiatives in the 1980s three systems built Detroit Jacksonville

Miami Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) Small vehicles that would provide service between an origin and destination station without immediate

stops Concept has been discussed and explored for many years A PRT system recently opened at Heathrow

Reference Books AREMA Manual for Railway Engineering, AREMA Practical Guide to Railway Engineering, AREMA, 2003 Urban Transit Operations, Planning and Economics, Vukan Vuchic, Wiley: New Jersey, 2005

Urban Transit Systems and Technology, Vukan Vuchic, Wiley: New Jersey, 2007 Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition, TCRP Report 165, TRB, 2013 Resources Web Sites: US DOT Federal Transit Administration

www.fta.dot.gov American Public Transportation Association www.apta.com Tips: use YouTube videos use slides from transit systems in your city or

state An Interesting Opportunity One may discover opportunities for publishing books and papers on early railroads and streetcars

Images of Rail series by Arcadia Publishing Copyright Restrictions and Disclaimer Presentation Author Bill Sproule Professor Dillman 301C

Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering Michigan Tech University Phone: 906-487-2568 E-mail: [email protected] It is the authors intention that the information contained in this file be used for non-commercial, educational purposes, with as few restrictions as possible. However, there are some necessary constraints and warnings regarding its use as described below.

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