Patterns of Chromosome Inheritance

Patterns of Chromosome Inheritance

Patterns of Chromosome Inheritance Chapter 24 Karyotyping Karyotype

Size-ordered chart of the metaphase chromosomes of an individual cell Chromosomal aberration A mutation that is large enough to see under a light microscope

Amniocentesis Chorionic villi sampling Normal male karyotype

Down syndrome karyotype Changes in Chromosome Number Nondisjunction Result after fertilization:

Trisomy Monosomy Nondisjunction in Meiosis I Nondisjunction in Meiosis II

Down Syndrome Changes in Sex Chromosome Number Y chromosome-determines maleness. SRY gene produces a testis-determining

factor Caused by non-disjunction Non-disjunction in Sex Chromosomes Y chromosome-determines maleness. Results of non-disjunction?:

XXX Survivable with problems XXY

Survivable with problems XYY Survivable with problems

X0 Survivable with problems 0Y

Lethal

Non-disjunction in Sex Chromosomes Turner Syndrome --XO Klinefelter SyndromeXXY Poly-X Females---XXX

Jacobs Syndrome---XYY Changes in Chromosome Structure Mutation a permanent genetic change. Chromosome mutation--change in

chromosome structure. Types: Inversion Translocation Deletion Duplication

Deletion Duplication Translocation

Inversion WHATS HAPPENING?? Sex-Linked Traits

Traits controlled by genes on the X or Y chromosomes are sex-linked although most are unrelated to gender. An allele on the X chromosome that is in the region where the Y chromosome has no alleles will express even if recessive; it

is termed X-linked. A female would have to have two recessive genes to express the trait; a male would only need one. X-Linked Alleles

The key for an X-linked problem shows the allele attached to the X as in: XB = normal vision Xb = color blindness. Females with the genotype XBXb are carriers because they appear to be normal

but each son has a 50% chance of being color blind depending on which allele the son receives. XbXb and XbY are both colorblind. Cross involving an X-linked allele

X-linked recessive pedigree chart X-Linked Disorders Red-green color blindness Muscular dystrophy.

Hemophilia. http://perth.uwlax.edu/faculty/howard/BIO101/DNA&translation/sld002.htm Diana

http://brie.medlabscience.med.ualberta.ca/de/genetics/70gen-hemophil.html Chapter Summary Humans - 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes Abnormalities of chromosome number or

composition. Males - XY Females -XX. Chromosomal mutations Sex-linked traits

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