Dr. Terence Love Dr Paul Cozens Design Out Crime Research Group Curtin University of Technology and Edith Cowan University Pedestrian Access Ways in Western Australia Examples of PAWs Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 Pedestrian Access Ways (PAWs) PAWs are: physical elements of urban, suburban and peri-urban space Narrow footpath PAWs Laneway PAWs
Elements of the walking network Different from road footpaths Often pseudo-public space Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 PAW Management Issues Essential elements of transport system Important for: Health Access to shops Self directed exercise
Diverse in: Type User groups Purposes Functioning Dynamics Environment Location
Complex ownership, management and vesting Complex anti-social behaviour and crime Complex for crime prevention Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 Historical PAW types Early settlement PAWs; PAWs in post-war convoluted carcentric suburbs 3. PAWs in rectilinear developments echoing early settlement planning; 4. PAWs in recent pedestrian-friendly suburbs 5. Informal regional and per-urban PAWs. 1. 2. Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008
Road hierarchy (SOR) Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 Road Hierarchy (NOR) Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 PAW Morphology 6 types Coastal PAWs PAWs in convoluted suburbs PAWs providing occasional access for major events 4. PAWs connected to retail services 5. Residential laneway PAWs 6. Industrial laneway PAWs. 1. 2.
3. Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 Coastal PAWs Coastal PAWs provide: Access to the beach from nearby streets Improved use of backstreet parking for beach visitors from other suburbs Access to beaches as elements of longerdistance pedestrian and cycle routes from inland suburbs. Different seasonal uses and user groups vary by time of day, day of week, and season. Designing Out Crime strategies target specific seasons, times of day, specific
user groups and specific behaviours. Crowes 3-D (Designation, Definition, Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 PAWs in post-war convoluted suburbs PAWs in convoluted suburbs are essential as these suburbs are car-centric and pedestrian-unfriendly with very low ped-shed ratios (~ 0.25 instead of >=0.6). PAW management context: Improving walkability and access (ped-shed index ~ 0.25 rather
than >=0.6) this suggests create additional PAWs High importance in access and health terms Important to non-local walkers and cyclists High use PAWs have proportionally higher crime and anti-social behaviour poor DOC design of PAWs and residential properties high levels of inappropriate territoriality of residents abutting PAWs Different patterns of PAW use at different times of day Different PAW crime risks and vulnerability at different times of day. Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 PAWs providing occasional
access for major events Some PAWs, often laneway PAWs, have a sporadic role providing pedestrian access to large public events. Double life in crime prevention terms. In public events, are taken over by visiting public with increased crime and anti-social behaviour) Other times, they typically provide access and exercise for much lower numbers of users (local and longer distance). Important that interventions for public events do
not impact adversely on PAW normal use. Requires two independent strategies for Designing Out Crime interventions. Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 PAWs that are a pedestrian connection to a retail services area Pedestrian networks often centre on retail services as a turning point for walking routines as well as being of practical purpose for shopping. Near to retail PAWs have a variety of roles: nodes carrying foot and cycle traffic from multiple routes pedestrian access between parts of shopping complexes pedestrian access from car parks, bus stops and rail
stations. PAWs that centre on retail are typically high use, high importance, high risk for antisocial behaviour and crime. Have a patchwork of ownerships and management responsibilities because most retail land is privately owned pseudo-public space. Retail centred PAW management involves: multiple stakeholders, constituencies and user groups with different interests and spheres of action
multiple security organisations with different Terencepriorities Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 Residential laneway PAWs Typically secondary use of rear shared-service access roads: often road only and without footpaths. Legitimate use may extend from early morning to the late evening.
Many part of a longer distance network of paths and carry through-traffic (pedestrian and cycle traffic). Important to discourage territoriality and sense of ownership of nearby residents to avoid social tensions between residents and users legitimately using the laneway as part of a walking or cycling route. Designing Out Crime approaches apply. Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 Industrial and commercial laneway PAWs Laneways in industrial and commercial areas providing:
service access Pedestrian paths for service and customer access. Most legitimate usage is in working hours. Other pedestrian networks can flow through commercial areas via laneway PAWs. Design Out Crime applies typically strong targethardening, electronic surveillance and motionsensitive or continuous night lighting, provide alternative pedestrian and cyclist routes where public paths have direct routes through. Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 Understanding PAW functioning User groups and activities and times PAW purposes (What a PAW is used
for) PAW functions (What a PAW offers) Uses at different times of day / days of week / times of year Long and short distance user groups PAW environment PAW location Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 Information needed For a PAW: Which user groups use the PAW? At which times of day? For which purposes? At which times of year? Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008
Some findings Planning and crime prevention decisions manufacturing crime and anti-social behaviour Planning processes manufacturing pressure and consent for PAW closure Lack of consultation with full range of PAW users and user groups Lack of consultation with government departments and NGOs with an interest Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 Government Processes Ped-shed analyses Pedestrian Access and
Mobility Plans (PCAPS) Planning Bulletin 57 Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 Ped-Sheds Two sorts of ped-shed analysis: Ped-shed access ratios assessing an areas walkability and access (preferred by government agencies involved
in encouraging activity, health, economic development, sustainability, reducing obesity and reducing car use) Ped-sheds ratios for routes to a specific point (preferred by those wishing to advocate PAW closure). Important : walkability of a suburb is different to good access to the bus stop. Areas with good walkability have a ped-shed access ratio of >= 0.6. Post-war convoluted suburbs have ped-shed ratios as low as 0.2. Hence, PAWs essential in convoluted suburbs. Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 PCAPs
Problematic WA variant on Pedestrian Access and Mobility Plans (PAMPs )and Pedestrian Access Plans (PAPs). Not formally defined in WA. WAPC has an internal definition of a PCAP: at odds with international best practice confuses the two Ped-shed approaches adds intention to establish a PAW hierarchy that conflicts badly with the multi-role network situation found in PAWs. Proposed PCAP assessment conflicts with other government agencies agendas for encouraging
activity, health, economic development, sustainability, reducing obesity and reducing car use. WAPC proposals manufacture consent for closure of PAWs Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 Planning Bulletin 57 Procedures for closing a PAW based on the WAPC proposal for PCAPs and ped-shed analysis. Has all problems/errors of PCAPS and Pedsheds. Acts against other government agencies agendas Problems of ownership and control (complex in PAWs). PB57 apply only to PAWs under jurisdiction of State government institution. Significant number of PAWs outside PB57.
Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 Crime Prevention in PAWs Understand via PAW types Indentify important characteristics Identify Identify Identify information to be collected necessary consultation appropriate DOC opportunities and strategies Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 Pedestrian path PAWs
Most PAW users live at a distance to the PAW. Activities are primarily travel-based (walking, cycling, skating etc). Typically part of a longer route of PAWs, roads, streets, public open space and pseudo-public space. Complex routine of legitimate activity Purposes: health (exercise); recreational (walking and cycling for pleasure); functional (walking to catch a bus, taking children to school, shopping etc); and social .
Activities differ at different at times of day, days of week, time of year, involve differing groups of PAW users Dominated by public space/public equity considerations.. PAW management and crime prevention strategies must take into account whole of government issues. Primarily include ALL PAW user groups in any community participation for crime prevention. DOC opportunities are best tightly targeted . Avoid encouraging inappropriate territoriality and sense of ownership Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 Laneway PAWs Laneway PAWs different and simpler. Primary users are abutting owners. Activities include children playing, dog walking, gardening, socialising, home / car repair, cycling or walking or little/no activity. Community participation in developing
DOC strategies is straightforward Important to include ALL users (including long distance) of the laneway as a travel route. Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 DOC strategies 1 Improved local government maintenance. Reduce impression of poor care. Graffiti management has been
implemented effectively. 3-D approach as guide to Designing Out Crime interventions. Crowes 3-D addresses complexities to support achieving whole of government benefits. Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 DOC strategies 2 Designing Out Crime strategies targeting specific problem behaviours/ times of day/ days of week and user groups. Rethink ped-sheds, PCAPS and PB57 Fulfil government agendas in health,
access, walkability, and the establishment of a network of longerdistance cross-suburb walking and cycling routes. Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 DOC strategies 3 Undertaking improvements to PAWs based on collaboration with PAW USERS (rather than residents near PAWs). Avoid encouraging territoriality as this results in manufacturing of crime and
social tensions. Avoid encouraging local residents to feel they own a PAW or nearby areas. Make PAW closure more difficult. Increase number of PAWs in convoluted suburbs Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 Conclusions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Individual PAWs are different in design, use, functionality, contexts, problems and dynamics Solutions require identifying user groups, roles,
purposes, functions, user groups and distribution of different uses and user-groups during the day, week and year. Management of PAWs requires whole of government approach aligned with agendas of all government agencies and public interests. Contrary to previous policy direction, this is likely to require deliberate retention of PAWs and increase in number of PAWs in convoluted suburbs. Designing Out Crime (CPTED) approaches well suited to management of PAWs and can support State, Federal, local government and NGOrelated agendas. Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008 Questions? Comments? Thank You! Terence Love & Paul Cozens (c)2008
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