# Periodic Trends - Mrs. Sebastian's Science Webpage

Periodic Trends Periodic Trends Overview For each of the four trends (atomic radius, ionization energy, reactivity, electronegativity) You need to know: Definitions of each trend Pattern of the trend (where on the periodic table is this trend the highest? The

lowest?) Compare elements using trends (of these two elements, which has the larger etc.) Atomic Radius Atomic Radius: The size of the atom Atomic Radius As we move across (left to right) the periodic table, atomic radius decreases

Atom starts out the same size but increase the number of protons and electrons With more protons and electrons they attract and pull together more, making the atom smaller

Atomic Radius As we move down the periodic table, atomic radius increases Each time we move down a row the atom grows one

energy level Atomic Radius Atom with smallest Atomic Radius: Helium Atom with largest Atomic Radius: Francium

Atomic Radius Practice Which element has a bigger atomic radius: Magnesium or Sulfur? Fluorine or Iodine? Ionization Energy Ionization Energy: The amount of energy required to lose one electron

Ionization Energy As we move across (left to right) the periodic table, ionization energy increases As you move across the periodic table the number of valence

electrons increases As the number of valence electrons gets closer to 8, the harder it is to remove an electron Ionization Energy As we move down the periodic table, ionization energy decreases

Each time we move down a row the atom gets bigger, creating more space between the protons and electrons With more space between the protons and electrons it is

easier to remove an electron Ionization Energy Atom with smallest Ionization Energy: Francium Atom with largest Ionization

Energy: Helium Ionization Energy Practice Which element has a bigger ionization energy: Magnesium or Sulfur? Fluorine or Iodine? Periodic Trends Overview

For each of the four trends (atomic radius, ionization energy, reactivity, electronegativity) You need to know: Definitions of each trend Pattern of the trend (where on the periodic table is this trend the highest? The lowest?) Compare elements using trends (of these two elements, which has the larger etc.) Reactivity

Reactivity: How likely it is that the element will undergo a chemical reaction Reactivity As we move across (left to right) the periodic table, reactivity decreases, then increases As

you move across the periodic table the number of valence electrons increases, making it less reactive, then more reactive The last column is not reactive at all Reactivity As

we move down the periodic table, reactivity generally increases Each time we move down a row the atom gets bigger, creating more space between the protons and electrons

With more space between the protons and electrons it is easier to gain or lose electrons, undergoing reactions Reactivity Practice Which element has more

reactivity: Sodium or Titanium? Fluorine or Iodine? Electronegativity Electronegativity: The ability for an atom to gain an electron Electronegativity

As we move across (left to right) the periodic table, electronegativity increases As you move across the periodic table the number of valence electrons increases As the number of

valence electrons gets closer to 8, the easier it is to gain an electron Electronegativity As we move down the periodic table, electronegativity decreases Each

time we move down a row the atom gets bigger, creating more space between the protons and electrons With more space between the protons and electrons it harder for an electron to become attracted to

the protons Electronegativity Atom with smallest Electronegativity: Francium Atom with largest Electronegativity: Fluorine Electronegativity Practice

Which element has more electronegativity : Magnesium or Sulfur? Fluorine or Iodine? Notice Ionization Energy and Electronegativity have the same trends

Atoms that need more energy to remove an electron are also more likely to gain an electron Big Ionization Energy = Big Electronegativity

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