Persia, the Greeks and Alexander

Rome Parthia China Parthia founded by the Parni federation Relatives of the Achaemenids. Defeated Seleucid governor of the Parthia province 109 BCE Mithridates II declared himself king-of-kings Parthia engaged two major world empires

Han China and Rome. Han sent envoys in 115 BCE, proposed an alliance against Turkic nomads. Parthia and China opened up trade Silk Road trade included horses to China. Contact with Rome began in 103 BCE in Cilicia, Anatolia. Roman envoy angered Parthians.

Turkic People Rome Rome The Roman story . . .

Founded by the Trojan Aeneas or Romulus and Remus

Born to Rhea Silvia, a Vestal Virgin Conceived with Mars (or Hercules) Thrown in the Tiber River by their uncle

Fed by a she-wolf and a woodpecker Eventually learn their heritage Argue over where to establish a city Romulus kills Remus and calls the city Rome Founded c. 1000 BCE part of an Etruscan kingdom

c. 500 BCE Romans overthrew Etruscans and creates a republic Assembly elected two consuls executive officers of state Senate and council of commoners advised the consuls 450 BCE adopted Twelve Tablets of Law

SPQR - Sentus Populusque Rmnus The Senate and People of Rome" Leges Duodecim Tabularum Twelve Tablets of Law (Twelve Tables of Law)

Influenced by the Greeks Original tablets destroyed in 390 BCE Where anyone commits a theft by night, and having been caught in the act is killed, he is legally killed.

If anyone commits a theft during the day, and is caught in the act, he shall be scourged, and given up as a slave to the person against whom the theft was committed. A father shall have the right of life and death over his son born in lawful marriage, and shall

also have the power to render him independent, after he has been sold three times. A father shall immediately put to death a son recently born, who is a monster, or has a form different from that of members of the human race.

Where a woman, who has not been united to a man in marriage, lives with him for an entire year without the usucaption of her being interrupted for three nights, she shall pass into his power as his legal wife. If a husband desires to divorce his wife, and dissolve his marriage, he must give a reason for

doing so. pater familias the father of the family Responsible for the entire family Familia was everyone living in the household

Familia distinct from the domus Included power of life and death

Power to be used in consultation Distinct power, but not the same power as held by magistrates Rome solidified control of Italy with citizen army of heavy infantry

Punic Wars, 264 BCE - 146 BC First Punic War Rome seizes Sicily Navy dominates the Mediterranean Second Punic War Hannibal invades Italy from the north

Romans defeat the Carthaginians in Spain Third Punic War Siege and destruction of Carthage Hannibal

Romans 50,000 Lost: 8,000 86,400 Lost: 60,000+

With control of central Mediterranean, Rome turned east to Antigonid Greece. Greece controlled by Rome after 146 BCE First-century BCE Rome (100 0) Plagued by unrest due to wealth disparity.

Wealthy landowners built large estates called latifundia. Poor classes discharged legionaries dispossessed farmers slaves. Marian Reforms allowed landless men into the army.

Led to creation of a professional army paid in land in conquered lands. Encouraged generals to manipulate army for power. Generals competed with one another for power, including Julius Caesar. Roman Civil Wars Julius Caesar vs. Pompey, Brutus, et al. Caesar assassinated for trying to become dictator

for life (15 March 44 BCE). Octavian vs. Mark Anthony Octavian wins in 31 BCE Octavian given title of Augustus revered one. Octavian

Augustus Caesar Rhine Danube Rome

An Engineered Empire The Emperors Roman naming system

Three parts (not always) Given name - clan/family name cognomen agnomen Giaus Julius Caesar Gaius

Octavius Publius Cornelius

Scipio Africanus Julio-Claudians

Augustus 27 BCE 14 CE Tiberius 14 37 Caligula 37 41

Claudius 41 54 Nero 54 68 The histories of Tiberius, Caius, Claudius, and Nero, while they were in power, were falsified through terror, and after their death were written under the irritation of a recent hatred. Tacitus

Year of the Four Emperors & and Flavians

Galba June 68 January 69 Otho January 69 April 69 Vitellius

April 69 December 69 Vaspasian 69 79 Titus 79 81 Domitian 81 96


Nerva 96 98 Trajan 98 117

Hadrian 117 138 Antoninus Pius 138 161 Lucius Verus 161 169 Marcus Aurelius 161 180 Commodus

177 192 The Five Good Emperors End of the Pax Romana

If a man were called to fix the period in the history of the world during which the condition of the human race was most happy and prosperous, he would, without hesitation, name that which elapsed from the death of Domitian to the accession of Commodus. Edward Gibbon

The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire 6 vols. 1776-1789

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