Phonetics & Phonology

Phonetics & Phonology

Phonetics & Phonology John Corbett: USP-CAPES International Fellow Session 5: Syllable structure and stress Todays session This session: Syllable structure Word stress Morphologically simple and complex words Rules governing word stress Think about the word above. We can say a number of things about it: How many syllables and where are the divisions? It has FIVE orthographical letters: , , , ,

It contains FOUR phonemes: /bv/ There are TWO syllables: // and /bv/ or A#BOVE The first syllable is pronounced with less force than the second (it is unstressed) The second syllable is pronounced with more force than the first (it is stressed): /'bv/ How many syllables and where are the divisions? Discuss in pairs/threes: How many syllables do the following words have? Where are the divisions? AGAINST ENTER EQUIP SAINT ANDREWS

How many syllables and where are the divisions? Discuss in pairs/threes: How many syllables do the following words have? Where are the divisions? Possible answers (accents vary!): A#GAINST EN#TER ENT#ER / kwp/ /k wp/ (note that spelling doesnt help much here) SAINT#AN#DREWS SAIN# TAN#DREWS SAIN#TAND#REWS Syllable Onset Syllable structure: 3 main parts

Rhyme Nucleus CC pl Coda V i: CC zd Onset, nucleus and rhyme Identify the syllable boundaries, and then the onset, nucleus and rhyme (for you) in each syllable of the following words and phrases: INTERNATIONAL THE STRAIN THIS TRAIN

Some English accents prefer the onset of a syllable to be a consonant where possible, so: IN # TER # NA # TIO # NAL Issues to think about Do you? Do THE STRAIN and THIS TRAIN have the same syllable boundary for you? THE#STRAIN and THI#STRAIN All languages make use of differences in pitch, loudness and speed (tempo). Together, pitch loudness & tempo contribute to the rhythm of speech. Languages differ in the way they make rhythmical contrasts. Syllable and stressed timing Syllable length (long versus short) is a crucial feature of syllable-timed languages, based on Latin (=Romance languages, like Portuguese). Stress (stressed versus unstressed) is a crucial

feature of stress-timed languages (=Germanic languages, like English). Pitch (high and low tones) is a crucial feature of many tonal languages (=Asian languages, like Putonghua and Cantonese). English speech makes use of stressed syllables, produced at roughly regular periods of time, and separated by an irregular number of unstressed syllables. Word stress Pairwork/In threes Spoken in isolation, some syllables in English words have greater stress than others. Identify the syllables that have the most stress in the following 3-4 syllable words: /ptet/ /p:tmnt/ /rlenp/ Word stress Pairwork/In threes Spoken in isolation, some syllables in

English words have greater stress than others. Identify the syllables that have the most stress in the following 3-4 syllable words: /ptet/ /p:tmnt/ /rlenp/ Note that here I have placed the stress mark before the consonant, on the assumption that the syllable boundary is there. What needs to be taken into consideration when we place the stress in English? Rules for stress placement Is the word morphologically simple or complex (eg are there affixes; is the word a compound or not)? What grammatical category does the word belong to? How many syllables are in the word? What is the phonological structure of the syllables (onset, nucleus and coda)? Morphologically simple words: can you deduce any

rules? 2-syllable verbs & adjectives: A sample of stressplacement rules apply pla attract trkt arrive rav enter open envy nt pn nve or nvi assist equal i:kwl total

even ttl i:vn sst divine dvan alive lav correct krkt Morphologically simple words: can you deduce any rules? 2-syllable verbs & adjectives: Some stressplacement rules (1) apply attract

arrive assist pla trkt rav sst divine dvan alive lav correct krkt enter open envy equal nt pn nve or nvi i:kwl total even

ttl i:vn Stress the first syllable when: The second syllable contains a short vowel and only one (or no) final consonant. Stress the second syllable when: the second syllable contains a long vowel, a diphthong or ends with a consonant cluster Morphologically simple 3-syllable words. Figure out the rules? (Theyre different for verbs and for nouns...) Some stressplacement rules (2) Verbs encounter kant entertain ntten determine dt:mn resurrect rzrkt Nouns mimosa

mmz disaster potato ptet synopsis dz:st snpss quantity kwntte emperor cinema snm custody mpr kstde Morphologically simple 3-syllable words. Figure out the rules? (Theyre different for verbs and for nouns...)

Some stressplacement rules (2) Verbs encounter kant entertain ntten determine dt:mn resurrect rzrkt The final syllable is stressed when it contains a long vowel or diphthong or ends with more than one consonant; The penultimate syllable is stressed when the last syllable ends with a short vowel and not more than one consonant Morphologically simple 3-syllable words. Figure out the rules? (Theyre different for verbs and for nouns...) Nouns Some stressplacement rules (2) mimosa mmz disaster

potato ptet synopsis dz:st snpss quantity kwntte emperor mpr cinema snm kstde custody If the final syllable contains a short vowel or // it is unstressed. If the penultimate syllable contains a long vowel or a diphthong, or if it ends with more than one consonant, then it will be stressed. If the final and penultimate syllables both contain a short vowel and the penultimate syllable ends with not more than one

consonant then the first syllable will be stressed. PHEW! If you study the previous rules, you will see that stress generally tends to be placed on syllables containing: Tendencies and exceptions a long vowel a diphthong more than one final consonant But if you have a 3-syllable morphologically simple noun ending in a diphthong or long vowel or more than one consonant...the stress goes on the first syllable: intellect alkali paradise ntlkt lkla prdaz Rules for

stress placement: recap What needs to be taken into consideration when we place the stress in English? Is the word morphologically simple or complex (eg are there affixes; is the word a compound or not)? What grammatical category does the word belong to? How many syllables are in the word? What is the phonological structure of the syllables (onset, nucleus and coda)? Morphologically complex words are polysyllabic because they: Stress placement in morphologic ally complex words combine a stem with affixes, ie prefixes and sufixes, e.g. per-, sub-, -ion, -ate, etc. (Because some of these affixes are inherited from other languages, like Latin, the distinction between simple and complex is not

always easy to draw.) Examples include un+pleasant, de+stress, magnet+ic, person+ality. Combine two stems (plus any affixes) into a compound word, like ice cream or bad temper+ed. Pairwork/In threes The impact of affixes on word stress What effect might the addition of affixes have on word stress? Say the following words out loud and consider the impact (or lack of it) of the addition of an affix on the word stress: person p:sn personality p:snlte pleasant plznt unpleasant nplznt magnet mgnt magnetic mgntk Pairwork/In threes

What effect might the addition of affixes have on word stress? The impact of affixes on word stress Say the following words out loud and consider the impact of the addition of an affix on the word stress: (1) the affix takes the primary stress: person p:sn personality p:snlte (2) the primary stress remains where it originally was: pleasant plznt unpleasant nplznt (3) the presence of the affix moves the stress to a different syllable: magnet mgnt magnetic mgntk How good are your ears?

What happens when you add a suffix to this word? Japan pn Japanese pni:z Complicatio ns The general rules on the previous slide can have some complicated variations. For example, the stem Japan carries primary stress on the second syllable. But when you add the suffix -ese, the primary stress moves to the suffix (rule 1) and secondary stress moves from the second syllable to the first syllable of the stem (rule 3), which changes the quality of the vowels in the stem: Japan pn Japanese pni:z

You dont have to learn these by heart, obviously, but it is interesting to note some of those suffixes that generally (1) carry primary stress (2) dont affect stress placement and (3) change stress placement in the stem. Listen out for them. For your interest and amusement Carrying primary stress No change in stress Change in stress -ain (verbs only): entertain -able: comfortable -eous: courageous

-ee: refugee -al: refusal -graphy: photography -eer: mountaineer -en: widen -ial: proverbial -ese: Portuguese - ful: wonderful -ic: climatic -ette: cigarette -ing: amazing -ion: perfection -esque: picturesque

- ish: devilish -ity: tranquillity etc etc etc For your interest and amusement You dont have to learn these by heart, obviously, but it is interesting to note some of those suffixes that generally (1) carry primary stress (2) dont affect stress placement and (3) change stress placement in the stem. Listen out for them. Carrying primary No change in Change in stress stress stress -ain (verbs only): entertain

-able: comfortable -eous: courageous -ee: refugee -al: refusal -graphy: photography -eer: mountaineer -en: widen -ial: proverbial -ese: Portuguese - ful: wonderful -ic: climatic -ette: cigarette -ing: amazing

-ion: perfection -esque: picturesque - ish: devilish -ity: tranquillity etc etc etc Warning: these suffixes dont always have the effects shown above. Part of speech and phonological structure also impact. And people differ. The purpose of this slide is really to make you more aware. A quick word about prefixes Prefixes dont behave with the same regularity as suffixes. No prefix of 1 or 2 syllables carries primary stress in natural conversation (though in context you might put primary stress on the prefix for contrastive

purposes). So we can say that prefixes generally dont affect stress placement (rule 2), unless... DICK: That was a very unpleasant party. plznt n JANE: Did you say pleasant? DICK: No, I said it was unpleasant. nplznt And (almost) finally... compound words Compound words are made up of two stems and associated affixes, like loudspeaker and badtempered. The question is whether the primary stress should go on the first or second element of the compound. General rules for stress

placement on compounds In pairs or threes (if we have time) Can you figure out when the first stem or the second stem gets primary stress? loudspeaker ladspi:k typewriter taprat bad-temperedbd tmpd sunrise snraz second-class sk kl:s suitcase sju:tkes three-wheeler ri: wi:lri: wi:l tea-cup ti:kp

Generally...when the initial word is adjectival or numeric, the primary stress goes on the second word. When the initial word is a noun, the stress goes on the first word. General rules for stress placement on compounds loudspeaker ladspi:k typewriter taprat bad-temperedbd tmpd sunrise snraz second-class sk kl:s sju:tkes

suitcase three-wheeler ri: wi:lri: wi:l tea-cup ti:kp BUT there are many exceptions, often words that are now thought of as individual units and not compounds, eg greenhouse gentleman gri:nhas adj+noun patterns ntlmn There are a number of 2-syllable words in English that have the same spelling as noun/adjective and verb, but the stress placement differs. And finally... word-class pairs How do you pronounce the following words as N/A or V?

Noun or Adjective Verb abstract abstract conduct conduct contract contract desert desert export export insult

insult record record There are a number of 2-syllable words in English that have the same spelling as noun/adjective and verb, but the stress placement differs. And finally... word-class pairs Note the change from a full to an unstressed vowel in certain words as a consequence of the shift in stress placement. Noun or Adjective Verb abstract bstrkt

abstract bstrkt conduct kndkt conduct kndkt contract kntrkt contract kntrkt desert dzt desert

dz:t export ksp:t export ksp:t insult nslt insult nslt record rk:d record rk:d

Individual English words are made up of stressed and relatively unstressed syllables (we can suggest a 3-part distinction: primary and secondary stress, and unstressed syllables, in polysyllabic words) Summing up Unlike Portuguese, English utterances are stress-timed: there is a regular beat of stressed syllables separated by an irregular number of relatively unstressed syllables. (Portuguese speakers pay more attention to length, and so syllables get relatively equal weighting in stress). The placement of stress depends on a number of factors (morphological complexity, part of speech, phonological structure of the syllable) and there is some individual variation... As a rough rule, primary stress is placed on syllables where the nucleus is a long vowel or diphthong, or where the coda is made up of two or more consonants. But part of speech and morphological structure can counteract this rule. The moral...? Individual English words are made up of stressed and relatively unstressed syllables (we can suggest a 3-part

distinction: primary and secondary stress, and unstressed syllables, in polysyllabic words) Summing up Unlike Portuguese, English utterances are stress-timed: there is a regular beat of stressed syllables separated by an irregular number of relatively unstressed syllables. (Portuguese speakers pay more attention to length, and so syllables get relatively equal weighting in stress). The placement of stress depends on a number of factors (morphological complexity, part of speech, phonological structure of the syllable) and there is some individual variation... As a rough rule, primary stress is placed on syllables where the nucleus is a long vowel or diphthong, or where the coda is made up of two or more consonants. But part of speech and morphological structure can counteract this rule. The moral...? Listen!!! See you next week when we will do the second class transcription test and well review the course content so far before turning our attention to (a) Portuguese-English differences and

Preview (b) how to teach/learn English pronunciation as an adult. Have a good week!

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