Phys/ENVS 105: Energy Daniel W. Koon Bewkes 221, x5494 Fall 2013 Lecture #1: Wed., 8/28/13 Course Overview Energy: past, present & future http://images.betterworldbooks.com/111/Energy-Hinrichs-Roger-A-9781111990831.jpg.
Accessed 8/28/12. Overview/Announcements Syllabus -- Sakai site: https://sakai.stlawu.edu/ New material: Energy overview Friday: Exponential growth and decay
Announcements & Assignments Handouts: Syllabus, TPS sheets (ABCD) READ SYLLABUS: Quiz Friday? HW #1: due Monday Chapter 1: 1, 12*, 24** Camera: take class picture
Energy as a field of Physics, Science Physics= The Users Guide to the universe Quantitative Observation-based Observation disagrees with theory? Throw out the theory.
Physicists focus first on the essentials (blowing off the details for now). Physicists focus on context, the big picture. The Importance of Context Proper units help keep things in context. 2010 BP oil spill: Up to 4.9 million barrels of oil. Is that a lot? 0.03 Quads vs 100Quads/yr US use. (Quad = quadrillion BTUs =1015 BTU =
1,000,000,000,000,000 BTU) equivalent to 2.5hr of total US energy use Image: http://www.burdr.com/2010/05/deepwater-horizon-oil-spill-on-60-minutes/. Accessed 8/22/11. Energy: past, present and future Wind farm near Chateaugay, NY, 2009. Human population through the ages
Miller, G. T., Living in the Environment, 7th ed., Wadsworth: Belmont, CA (1992), p. 4. Taube, M., Materie, Energie und die Zukunft des Menschen, 1 st ed., S. Hirzel, Wissentschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft: Stuttgart (1988), p. 310. As cited in Gross, K. J., Thesis, University of Fribourg (Switzerland), 1998. Per capita energy use through the ages NOTE: 20W = 400 food calories / day International Energy Annual, Energy Information Administration, US Dept. of Energy
(1997). Miller, G. T., Living in the Environment, 7th ed., Wadsworth: Belmont, CA (1992), p. 32. Taube, M., Materie, Energie und die Zukunft des Menschen, 1 st ed., S. Hirzel, Wissentschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft: Stuttgart (1988), p. 216. Gates, D. M., Energy and Ecology, 1st ed. Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA (1985). As cited in Gross, K. J., Thesis, University of Fribourg (Switzerland), 1998. Fuel energy content
15 Hydrogen 40 Uranium fission 2107 Hydrogen fusion 15107 Solar, wind infinite U.S. fuel preference history
Fig. 1-6, p. 11 History of US energy use by fuel Text: Fig. 1-2, p. 7 World Energy consumption US: 4.5% of world population;
20% of world energy use (wikipedia from 2008-2010 data) MAIN MAP: Unknown year. http://cartogram.w3ec.com/. Accessed 8/11/2010. INSET: Population, unknown year: http://www.ribbonfarm.com/2007/07/17/visualizing-the2d-world-with-cartograms/. Accessed 8/17/2010. Global Oil consumption, 2009 Sources: BP Statistical Review of World Energy; The Guardian . http://blogs.edf.org/restorationandresilience/category/deepwater-horizon/ -- Accessed 8/11/2010.
Origin of US Oil Imports, 2009 Lugar Energy Initiative, http://lugar.senate.gov/energy/graphs/crude.html. Accessed 8/11/2010. Origin of US Oil Imports, 2009 http://www.ngoilgas.com/media/media-news/infographics/090911-OGUS-USOilImports.png. Accessed 8/28/2013.
Energy consumption by country Unknown year and source. http://sites.google.com/site/thepoliticsofsacrifice/. Accessed 8/11/2010. Energy use vs Per capita GDP David Roland-Holst's chart,... based on World Bank and International Energy Agency data, the vertical axis plots per capita energy use in terajoules/year; the horizontal is per capita income as measured by the GDP. Bubble sizes represent population. Accessed 8/11/2010.
Total U.S. energy flow, 2011 http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=9170, accessed 8/20/13. Energy in Quadrillions of BTUs, or Quads Study question Which of the following statements is true? a) Residential/Commercial, Industrial, and Transportation sectors in the US use
approximately the same amount of energy per year. b) Most fossil fuel consumed in the US is imported. c) Most fuel consumed in the US is imported. d) The chief US energy export is natural gas. How long will it last? Proven World Reserves
World Consumption "Lifetime" rate (ZJ=1021J) (TW=1012J/s) (yr)
Oil 8.1 5.74 45 Natural
gas 8.1 3.61 70 Coal
19.8 4.27 150 2010, BP estimates 2006, US EIA
DWK's calculations Update to Table 1.1, p. 15 But demand is increasing... http://www.kids.esdb.bg/usesectors.html. Accessed 8/11/2010. History of US petroleum supply, by origin
Fig. 1-7, p. 11 US oil & natural gas production (Hubbert curve in dashes) Fig. 1-12, p. 19 Fig. 1-13, p. 20
Impact of industrialization on the environment: Miller, G. T., Living in the Environment, 7th ed., Wadsworth: Belmont, CA (1992), p. 285. As cited in Gross, K. J., Thesis, University of Fribourg (Switzerland), 1998. Impact of industrialization on the environment: Greenhouse gases -- origins
World Resources Institute. http://cait.wri.org/figures.php?page=/World-FlowChart. Accessed 8/11/2010. Study questions A study of carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere and global temperatures shows a) A modest correlation between the two. b) A very strong correlation going back to about
1000AD. c) A very strong correlation going back about 160,000 years. d) A very strong correlation that breaks down over the last hundred years or so. Study questions An increase in CO2 in the atmosphere since the Industrial Revolution a) Has not been observed yet.
b) Has been claimed by some but the evidence for an actual increase is controversial. c) Has been definitively observed to be smaller than increases between the Ice Ages. d) Has pushed CO2 level in the atmosphere above its previous values during or between the Ice Ages. Study questions How many of the following statements about
atmospheric methane levels are true? I. Methane is not a greenhouse gas. II. Changes in methane levels over the last 100 years are correlated to changes in CO2 levels. III. The data shows that methane levels have already contributed to global warming. a) II only b) II and III only c) I and III only d) All of the above.
What have we learned? US 5% of the worlds population; 20% of energy use. US = 100Q, stable. World: 500Q & increasing. Cow toots (methane) and doots are evil. Canada & Mexico are our main energy suppliers. Hubbert curve predicts future history
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