Planetary Exploration - |LASP|CU-Boulder

Planetary Exploration - |LASP|CU-Boulder

PLANETARY EXPLORATION!!! Logan Dougherty Quick Overview Mariner 2 First successful Venus flyby (USA) Mariner 4 First successful Mars flyby (USA) Venera 3 First Venus impact. Contact lost. (USSR) Venera 4 Venus atmospheric probe Claimed to reach the surface intact, but disproven shortly after by USA Mariner 5.

Pioneer 10 & 11 Jupiter and Saturn flyby Mariner 10 Mercury flyby Voyager 1 & 2 Outer solar system Pathfinder Mars rover Cassini Huygens Saturn lander New Horizons Pluto and Kuiper belt Curiosity Rover Mars Rover Above: To the left is the Mariner 2 and to the right is the Voyager 1. Right: The New Horizons spacecraft. Original Reasons for Planetary Exploration The Space Race Main memorable part of the Space Race is the Apollo mission Large competition in planetary exploration as well Between USA and USSR

As shown above, until the end of the Cold War, USA and USSR competed largely in their attempts to study the moon and the planets. Post Cold War, the USSR involvement declined heavily, leaving the USA to dominate the field NASA Space Science and Planetary Science Budget, 1959-2010 ($M, adj. to 2010) $7,000.000 $6,000.000 $5,000.000 $4,000.000 $3,000.000 $2,000.000 $1,000.000 $0.000 59 961 963 965 967 969 971 973 975 977 979 981 983 985 987 989 991 993 995 997 999 001 003 005 007 009

19 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2


21% decrease from FY12 level Amazing Accomplishments Existence of bodies of water on Mars in the past. Atmospheric probes to help determine composition of other planets. Missions that help deduce the early evolution of planets and help to explain why our solar system formed how it did. Valuable samples of surfaces that offer insight into the formation of that planet. What inspires Planetary Exploration? Search for Life near Home Mars Signs of water, as discovered by rovers like Curiosity Venus People used to envision life existing there, but the harsh atmosphere makes it difficult to support life Titan Liquid lakes of ethane and methane

Colder than earth Atmosphere that consists of more than trace gases Where else should we search? Exoplanet Detection Kepler mission Uses transit method to detect dip in light curves Doppler Shift measurements Binary Movements Hundreds of planets have been discovered Planetary Detection is part of the Astrophysics sector of NASA as opposed to the Planetary Science, but offers useful information in the theory of how solar systems evolve. Exoplanets are popular The idea inspires people and the public is interested in the

possibility of finding planets with life What is the biggest difficulty in directly observing a planet? New Worlds Blocks out the stars light to gain a direct view of the planet. Can then study the spectra of the planet and gain knowledge of its atmosphere. Offers the possibility of finding planets capable of hosting life Reasons that policy makers may consider investing: While Kepler has produced results, the public keeps hearing about planets and it doesnt peak their interest. This would offer a more definitive statement on the possibility of life, and to see more detailed pictures of the planets, garnering more public support. Offers useful knowledge about planets in the habitable zone of stars. Space: the final frontier. Works Cited

http:// y-story-2-wallpaper.jpg http:// pe.jpg FQaCDdht2S8/TEybVhkHILI/AAAAAAAABDc/wi6q8fMoElo/s1600/newhorizo ns.gif http:// http:// ad=1 NASAs Planetary Science Division James L. Green Director, Planetary Science Division NASA Headquarters

February 21, 2013 Recent Accomplishments 2010 * September 16 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in PSD * November 4 - EPOXI encounters Comet Hartley 2 * Completed * November 19 - Launch of O/OREOS 2011 * February 14 - Stardust NExT encounters comet Tempel 1 * March 7 Planetary Science Decadal Survey released * March 17 - MESSENGER orbit insertion at Mercury * May 5 Selection of 3 Discovery-class missions for study * May Selection of the next New Frontier mission for flight, OSIRIS-REx * July 16 - Dawn orbit insertion at asteroid Vesta * August 5 - Juno launch to Jupiter * August 9 - Mars Opportunity Rover arrives at Endeavour Crater * September 10 - GRAIL (A and B) launch to the Earths Moon * November 26 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) launch to Mars * December 31 GRAIL A orbit insertion at Earths Moon 2012 * January 1 GRAIL B orbit insertion at Earths Moon * June 6 Venus transits Sun (last time this Century) * August 5 MSL/Curiosity successfully lands on Mars

* August 20 Selection of Discovery 12 Mission * September 5 - Dawn leaves Vesta and starts on its journey to Ceres The Revolution in Planetary Science Planetary Decadal Reports from the National Academy of Science 20 Planetary Science Objectives NASAs goal in Planetary Science is to Ascertain the content, origin, and evolution of the solar system, and the potential for life elsewhere. Planetary Program seeks to answer fundamental science questions: 1. What is the inventory of solar system objects and what processes are active in and among them? 2. How did the Suns family of planets, satellites, and minor bodies originate and evolve? 3. What are the characteristics of the solar system that lead to habitable environments? 4. How and where could life begin and evolve in the solar system? 5. What are characteristics of small bodies and planetary environments that pose hazards and/or provide resources?

Planetary Science accomplishes these goals through a series of strategic-large, medium, small mission and supporting research 21 Planetary Decadal Recommendations Large Missions (Flagship-scale) Recommended Program Cost Constrained Program (budget increase for JEO new start) (based on FY11 Request) 1) Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher descoped 2) Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) descoped

3) Uranus Orbiter & Probe (UOP) Less favorable budget picture than assumed (e.g., outyears in FY12 request) 1) 2) Mars Astrobiology ExplorerCacher descoped Uranus Orbiter & Probe (UOP) Descope or delay Flagship mission 4/5) Enceladus Orbiter & Venus Climate Mission Discovery $500M (FY15) cap per mission (exclusive of launch vehicle) and 24 month cadence for selection

New Frontiers $1B (FY15) cap per mission (exclusive of launch vehicle) with two selections during 2013-22 Research & Analysis (5% above final FY11 amount then ~1.5%/yr) Technology Development (6-8%) Current Commitments (ie: Operating Missions) 22 Presidents FY13 In-Guide Budget For FY13 Congress has passed a Continuing Resolution Under the CR PSDs FY13 budget is $1.19B 21% decrease from FY12 level Planetary & Presidents FY13 Budgets $1,600.00 $1,400.00 $1,200.00

$1,000.00 $800.00 $600.00 $400.00 $200.00 $0.00 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14

FY15 FY16 FY17 Presidents FY13 Budget - Missions MAVEN Mars 2020 Mars R&A Discovery InSight New Frontiers OSIRIS-REx LADEE Technology

Outer Planets Discovery and New Frontiers Address high-priority science objectives in solar system exploration Frequent opportunities for science community to propose full investigations Fixed-price cost cap full and open competition missions Principal Investigator-led project Established in 1992 $425M cap per mission excluding launch vehicle (FY10) Open science competition for all solar system objects, except for the Earth and Sun Established in 2003 $1000M cap per mission excluding launch vehicle (FY10)

Addresses high-priority investigations identified by the National Academy of Sciences Discovery Program Lunar formation: Lunar Prospector (1998-1999) Solar wind sampling: Genesis (2001-2004) Comet diversity: CONTOUR NEO characteristics: NEAR (1996-1999) Nature of dust/coma: Stardust (1999-2011 ) 2 st 00 Lo 5 2 1

ug A Completed Completed Mars evolution: Mars Pathfinder (1996-1997) Mercury environment: MESSENGER (2004-2013) Main-belt asteroids: Dawn (2007-2015) Lunar Internal Structure GRAIL (2011-2012 ) In Flight Comet internal structure: Deep Impact (2005-2012)

27 InSight: Interior Structure from Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport 28 New Frontiers Program 1st NF mission New Horizons: 2nd NF mission JUNO: Pluto-Kuiper Belt Jupiter Polar Orbiter Launched January 2006 Arrives July 2015 Launched August 2011 Arrives July 2016

PI: Alan Stern (SwRI-CO) PI: Scott Bolton (SwRI-TX) 3rd NF mission OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Sept. 2016 LRD PI: Dante Lauretta (UA) NF-4 AO in FY15-16 Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource IdentificationSecurity-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx ) Science Objectives: Return and analyze a sample of pristine carbonaceous asteroid Map the global properties, chemistry, and mineralogy Document in situ the properties of the regolith at the sampling site Characterize the integrated global properties to allow comparison with ground-based telescopic data of entire asteroid population

Measure the Yarkovsky effect Mission Overview: RQ36 - Apollo r ~ 280 m P ~ 436 days Launch in September 2016 Encounter asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36 in October 2019 Study RQ36 for up to 505 days, globally mapping the surface Obtain at least 60 g of pristine regolith/surface material Return sample to Earth in September 2023 in a Stardust-heritage capsule Deliver samples to JSC curation facility for world-wide distribution 30 Discovery and New Frontiers Missions Timeline - Current Missions Calendar Year 2000

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 MESSENGER 2008 2009 2010 2011

2012 2013 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2022 Discovery Missions

Extended Mission 8-year Phase E Dawn 2014 8-year Phase E GRAIL ASPERA-3 6-year Phase E Extended Mission Hibernation EPOXI Strofio 12 month Phase E (+6 month extension) InSight

New Frontiers Missions 10-year Phase E New Horizons Juno 10-year Phase E OSIRIS-REx 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Now Phases Pre-A,A,B,C,D Phase E Extended Mission 7-year Phase E 2015

2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 Mars Exploration Program 2000-2010 Follow the Water 32 Mars Budget Analysis FY00 through FY17

800 700 $M MSL Landing 600 500 MSL Delay 400 Mars Operating Budget FY00 FY12 300 200 Mars Presidents Budget FY13 FY17 100

0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2000 Mars Op Budget FY'00-FY'11 Mars Pres Budget FY'12-FY'17 2001 2004 2005 2006 2007 2002

2003 2004 2005 2008 2006 2009 2007 2010 2008 2011 2009 2012 2010

2013 2011 2014 2012 2015 2013 2016 2014 2017 2015 2016 2017

271 451 454 497 553 532 593 607 695 362 438 547

587 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 361 228 189 267 503

NASAs Future Mars Missions Operational 2001-2012 Odyssey Odyssey 2013 2016 2018 2020 MRO MRO MAVEN MAVEN Aeronomy Aeronomy Orbiter Orbiter

Mars Mars Express Express Collaboration Collaboration ESA ESA Trace Trace Gas Gas Orbiter Orbiter (Electra) (Electra) Seeking Signs of Life Curiosity Curiosity Mars Mars Science Science Laboratory Laboratory

Opportunity Opportunity Spirit Spirit (completed (completed )) 2022 Future Planning 2020 2020 ESA ESA ExoMars ExoMars Science Rover Science Rover Rover

(MOMA) Rover (MOMA) Phoenix Phoenix (completed (completed )) InSight InSight 34 34 Developing Missions Upcoming Launches MAVEN and LADEE in final phases of development for 2013 launch dates The JUpiter ICy moons Orbiter Mission

On May 2, 2012, the ESA formally selected JUICE as the first Large-class mission in ESAs Cosmic Vision Program The JUICE mission will investigate the emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants, characterizing Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto as planetary objects and potential habitats JUICE will first orbit Jupiter for ~2.5 years, providing 13 flybys of Callisto and 2 of Europa, and then will orbit Ganymede for 9 months Launch is scheduled for 2022 with Jupiter arrival in 2030 and Ganymede orbit insertion in 2032 NASA will contribute ~$100M in

instruments and other support 38 Planetary Technologies ASRG and Pu-238 Production Advanced Stirling Radioistope Generator (ASRG) After Discovery 12 selection, working to identify next ASRG mission Expectation is that Discovery 13 will provide similar opportunities to test mission enabling technologies (ie: ASRG, NEXT) Two ASRG flight units (F1 and F2) will be completed in 2016 The completed flight units will go into bonded storage, unfueled, pending a mission decision for flight use Plutonium-238 Technology demonstration activities include: A qualified Neptunium-237 target for irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (First Np-237 targets irradiated) A qualified process for post-irradiation target processing A qualified Pu-238 product A project plan for scale-up to full-scale production at 1.5-2.0 kg/year Project baseline and confirmation by December 2013 Planetary Supporting Research

and Analysis Program Supporting Research & Analysis (R&A) Program Elements Planetary Science Research PGG, Cosmochem, PAST, PATM, PME, PIDDP, Origins, PP, LPI, ASTEP, ASTID, NAI, Exobiology Near Earth Objects Observation (NEOO) Planetary Data Systems (PDS) Astromaterial Curation Mars Research & Analysis Mars Data Analysis Program (MDAP) Mars Fundamental Research Program (MFRP) Discovery Research SRLI DAP/LARS (Lab Analysis of Returned Samples) PMDAP (Planetary Missions DAP) MESSENGER/Dawn PSP GRAIL PSP Outer Planets Research OPRP, Cassini DAP/PSP Lunar Science Research NLSI, LASER, MMAMA, PGG/Cosmo Lunar, LRO PSP Call for Proposal to these PSD Program Elements comes out in ROSES

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