Plant Reproduction

Plant Reproduction

Plant Life Cycles CHAPTER 30 Flowering Plant Reproduction Angiosperms (flowering plants) Plants that protect their seeds within the body of a fruit.

Make up s of all plants, including: Trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses, water plants Male Reproductive Structure The stamen consists of two parts: Anther and Filament

The anther is where meiosis occurs to produce haploid pollen The filament is a stalk that supports the anther Female Reproductive Structure

The pistil consists of the stigma, style and ovary The sticky stigma receives the pollen from the anther The pollen grows a

tube down through the style Meiosis occurs in the ovary to produce haploid ovules Reproductive Structures Petals: colourful

structures that attract pollinators. Sepals: surround and protect the flower bud. Pollination Wind, insects or other

animals transfer pollen from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another Flowers vary depending on pollination mechanism

Pollination Vectors Wind Pollination: Dull, scentless flowers with reduced petals Bees/Butterfly Pollination: Bright color, nectaries, scent. They sip nectar, get pollen on coats, transfer pollen from flower to flower Bird Pollination: Nectaries, bright

colors, tube-like flowers Moth Pollination: White petals, open at night Fly Pollination:Rank odor, flesh colored petals How Do Flowers Make Seeds and Fruits?

Ovary the bottom part of the pistil in which seeds form Ovule - the inner part of an ovary

that contains an egg embryo tiny part of a seed that can grow into a new plant How Fertilization Occurs

When a pollen grain reaches a pistil, it grows a thin tube to the ovary. Sperm from the pollen grain combines with an egg, and a seed forms. What is the Life Cycle of a Flowering Plant Dormant Seed

Takes in water and the seed coat gets soft. If the seed has enough oxygen and the right temperature, it will begin to germinate. dormant the resting stage of a

seed Geminating Seed First a root pushes through the seed coat and grows downward. The top part of the root grows upward and becomes the stem. The stem carries the seed coat

and the seed leaves with it. The seed coat falls off. The seed leaves provide food for the plant. Two small leaves begin to grow from between the seed leaves. Seedling When the stored food within the original seed

leaves is used up, they dry up and drop off. More leaves grow from buds on the stem as the plant grows taller. The new leaves can trap energy from sunlight and make sugar. Plants use the energy in the sugar to grow.

Seed and Fruit Development After fertilization, the petals and sepals fall off flower Ovary ripens into a fruit The ovule

develops into a seed Seed Dispersal MechanismsAllow plants to colonize new areas and avoid shade of parent plant Wind Dispersal - Flight mechanisms, like parachutes, wings, etc. Ex. Dandelion, maples, birch

Animal Dispersal - Fleshy fruits which animals eat, drop undigested seeds in feces or burrs which stick to animals coats Gravity Dispersal Heavy nuts fall to ground and roll

ex. acorns Water Dispersal - Plants near water create floating fruits ex. coconuts Plant Responses

CHAPTER 31 How plants move and communicate Plant Hormones Plant Hormones Plant hormones can be divided into two

classes: Growth promoters: Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins Growth inhibitors: Ethylene gas, Abscisic acid Growth promoters Hormones can promote plant growth in two ways:

Stimulating cell division in meristems to produce new cells. Stimulating elongation in cells. Auxin activity Auxins stimulate genes in cells associated with plant growth. Auxin roles

Auxins carry out multiple roles having to do with plant growth including: Tropisms

Apical dominance Growth of adventitious roots Fruit growth Tropisms Tropisms are the growth of a plant toward or away from a stimulus, including: Phototropism: in response to light

Gravitropism: in response to gravity Thigmotropism: in response to touch Nastic Movements Nastic movement in the sensitive

plant (Mimosa pudica) Hinge control in Venus Fly Trap - Nastic movement Plant Communication Plants communicate chemically. Injured plants send out chemical signals

that may signal other plants to prepare for an attack. attract other insects that eat the insects that are attacking the plant.

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